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MAY 7, 1830.)

The Tariff

(H. OF R.

tion to the same amount. If some few foreign articles in The word local, as to our markets, will soon be almost some stage are used, the demand for them is created by without meaning. It is not to me “too lofty a maganithe mapufacturer, and they are in general paid for by some mity, too expensive & patriotism,” even “for practical use," article that we can export ; and in this way a market is to consider the Louisville canal, or the improvements at created for that article also. And thus our whole manu- the Muscle shoals, improvements for the inhabitants of facturing system is but one vast national machine, not Connecticut or of Maine. * manufacturing the staple, or raw material only of which the They may cheapen the price of a barrel of flour, in the article is composed, but converting into it all and every New York or Hartford market, to the amount of conveproduction of the earth which the producer chooses to nience yielded to the seller there. They may facilitate the briug into market.

Those, therefore, who supply the transportation of a bale of domestic nianufacturer, going to stock and provisions for manufacturing labor, are alike market there, as much as the like improvements at the connected with, and interested in, manufactures, with manufactory, or anywhere else where it may pass. When those who supply the labor and capital. The southern, the American system shall fully prevail, internal improvewestern, and middle States, as far as each may supply, have ments and manufactories together, and we shall be bound a joint stock interest, and to all beneficial purposes are together by their mutual interest, assistance, and dependcopartners in the whole manufacturing business of the ence, we may with assurance and significance say, with our eastern States; one supplying the labor and capital for the motto, “ We are one." agricultural product, the other supplying an equal quantity The present is a new era in the world in all manufacof labor and capital in consuming it.

turing business. Some nations are pressing on each other, Yet it is objected that the markets created by the east- not merely from pational policy, or individual gain, but ern manufactories are local. They will, of course, be with the violence and frenzy of starvation and desperation; local, so far as means and convenience make them so. and some withdrawing, as far as may be, within their own The expense of transportation will, of course, come into vative resources. the account

It might be otherwise in other times; but, in the present But the present facilities for transportation, and the state of the world, our laws are our protection. The nericher soils of other sections of the country, overcome it. cessity we have seen for the present bill, the immense The town of Providence only, calculating from years past, sacrifices of foreign goods in our markets, the distress of and the progress of things observable, will, no doubt, draw our rival, the precautionary protecting policy adopted by from the southern, middle

, and western States, during most other nations, all show a desperate state of things, than one hundred and twenty-five thousand barrels of flour, barrier is removed. But

, suppose the friends of the antimore than balf a million of bushels of corn, and pork and tariff policy shall prevail; the barriers to the introduction grain, and other necessaries of life, in equal or greater of foreign goods be removed; the business of New England proportions, principally for the supply of the surrounding be prostrated; the manufactures of the middle States, with manufacturers, and other business connected with them. the agriculture dependent on them, be paralyzed; the marYes, sir, this one town is a greater market for the grain- kets of the western

States

, to half their amount, be destroy growing States than Great Britain—buys double the quan- ed; and we begin to import from abroad for the purpose tity of their flour, and, including corn, pork, and beef, re- of sustaining the market of rice, cotton, and tobacco, in ceives three times the amount of their agricultural pro- England, according to the demands which have been pressduce, notwithstanding the millious of her manufactures we ed upon us ; half the ability of the nation to import and conannually import from her.

sume, by the process, bas been taken away. Nay, more, The demand for consumption this year, created by our for consumption cannot long exceed exports ; and we have eastern manufactories, and drawn from other parts of the been told in the protest, and we know by the stubborn Union, will probably exceed one million barrels of four

, fact itself, tbat two-thirds of the Union supply but onetwo million five hundred thousand bushels of corn, with third of its exports. The very efforts, therefore, which the nearly an equal proportion of pork and beef ; something South are making, will, by destroying the ability

of the beside Sir, all the grain and provisions that England will taken in exchange

for their staples, prove their own ruin, take of us, will hardly pay for the hose and

gloves she to the same extent they may succeed. manufactures for us.

But, suppose, again, that the free trade system sball I bave spoken of things in general terms ; but statistical prevail

, and the whole world become one family, we must accounts will bear me out with sufficient accuracy for this cast about over the whole to see how we may then stand McDuffie) what interest has the West in manufactures i drain of specie, our whole supply of coarse cottons came Is the market I have mentioned for more than half their from the Indies; and we have seen this market, by the insurplus produce, nothing? Is it not one source of their prevention and introduction of labor-saving machinery, wholly

This machinery is now lately introduced country and their cities, their canal boats and their steam. there : and the myriads who feed on pulse,

and work for

life boats , one continued scene

of life
, and bustle

, and business merely, may again be brought into competition with EngLet our friends there look back to their

situation eight land

and ourselves, in our own market. With this machinbut the business for them, that makes this change

. Osir

, and machinery, which raised and sustained that trade. And, South contradicts the idea that our markets are local.st the it wholly swept away, and with a change far less extraorfacilities which nature has furnished us ; the efforts of ge dinary or uncalculated, we may again see the same thing bardmaid of prosperity and union, are bringing all parte chinery there,

or build it, than it was to invent, improve, of pur country together into familiar intercourse

, in to one and build up this whole system, and with an opportunity do the price of provisions in Hartford or Boston til hele

in prospect have changed the face of many nations. New Orleans or Cincinnati, as soun as the mail can reach there. What is passing on the Obio canals to day, may be speelmore internal improvements, repolling the idea of the nationain our New England packets to-morrow.

Expressions made use of by the Hon. P. P. Barbour, in his late lity of canals, &c.

e

or ten years ago.

H. OF R.1

The Tariff

[May 7, 1830.

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Again, sir, if the protecting system is to be abandoned, | price of manufactured productions, compared with agricul

. it will be no more than fair that the duty on cotton should tural productions, and the effect of domestic manufactures be repealed, and our mauufacturers have an opportunity to reduce the price in their own markets, compared with in our markets for the staples of Pernambuco and Suri- those of other nations, it may be necessary to inquire more nam, or the fiver and

cheaper growth of some of the inte particularly whether the price of manufactures generally rior provinces, which enterprise and internal improve has, during this general depression under which we all ment may some time bring ioto the markets of the world. labor, fallen more than that of agricultural products; and Great changes may produce great changes which we whether our domestic manufactures bave fallen in price bemay not think of. Many of the great revolutions in trade low the common level of the manufactures of other nations. and commerce which we have witnessed have been wholly As to the first proposition, a bare inspection of the uncalculated and unexpected. And, sir, there is, in this prices each species of product has sustained, from year to state of the world, danger of changes for the South as year, for some time past, and their present prices, must well as the North to consider. One depends on bis mapu- be sufficient. And though the propositiou, particularly factures, and the other on his staples ; and these, if we with respect to the extraordinary fall of coarse cotton could but see it so, are mutually dependent on each other. goods, (wbich I have chosen for my illustration,) is coThe western and middle States bave a middle and mixed Derally admitted, its force is attempted to be evaded, by interest, can manufacture and supply the material mostly alleging that the effect in this case bas arisen frodo pecuwithin themselves, and are in these affairs more indepen- liar causes, not generally applicable, viz., the great imdent. If there is any one cardioal imperative policy, never provements, of late, in cotton machinery. There is, sir, to be lost sight of by those States whicb either depend on 80 far as I understand it, a great mistake in this suggestion. supplying the agricultural products for the raw material, Since the tariff of 1823 or 1824, sir, and for some time or support of labor, it is to create, retain, and establish, before that, while cotton goods of soine kinds bave fallen somewhere, a dense population of consumers, giving com- from forty to fifty per cent., the improvements in mapetition and stability to their market, balancing foreigo cbinery in England have not amounted to one per cent fluctuation and control, secure in peace and war, joining on the manufacturer, nor has their skill in operation im: convenience of intercourse and mutual exchange. Sir, this proved much in that time. The manufacturers used contest between the South and the North is most unfortu- machines constructed on the same principles, the same date, most uppatural; pot suicidal merely, but, like two draughts and proportious of the parts, and the same compafond lovers, sacrificing each other for fancied blisses they rative speed between the several motions, and, for the most know not where or what.

part, the same general movement, except some increase I come now to my last position. The time bas now ar- of speed in coarse work, and that not general. Weaving rived when we may in a great measure lay aside theory was perfected in the introduction of the power-loom, and on the subject; what has been but foretold by the friends perfect roving, which was for a long time a desideratum in of domestic industry, has become reality:

the manufacture, was supplied in the cone-speeder, cohIt may now be laid down, as a proposition established by ceived and attempted by Sir Richard Arkwright, and long our own experience, and demonstrated by existing palpa- since perfected by others. ble facts, and liable to fewer exceptions than most others Ad improved machine for cleansing and batting cotton in political economy, that those articles of domestic manu- bas more lately been

introduced, but used but little, exfacture which are fairly protected, and have bad time for cept for the fiver and nicer fabrics, and of no account in experiment and maturity, now are, and can be, supplied the present calculation. Some evident improvements

, by our own manufacturers at a lower price than those of particularly applicable to coarse work, bave been intro any nation of Europe do, or can, or will supply them for duced in this country, but bave been seldom and doubt118 ; leaving the great advantage of mutual exchange of ingly admitted into English manufactories. And though products to be superadded.

occasional attempts have been made there at improve I am sensible, it will be said, that woollen manufactures, ments, during the general depression, they have generally which have so long been struggling with the many and been abandoned for the operations and calculations used various embarrassments which have haunted them, do not six or eight years ago. The great reduction in price

, come wholly within this rule. Yet it is known that many therefore, is not attributable but in a small degree to the parts of most articles in this manufacture, and many entire late improvements. Competition is the wand that has articles, are manufactured cheaper in this country than in brought it low. England or Germany, where, in some respects, as well as I will next inquire whether the American manufacturer in France, there is now a superiority in this business, even can supply the same articles at as low or at a lower price over England.

than the English manufacturer. An idea is very prevaBut it will be recollected that these embarrassments lent, that the comparative price of labor in this country were the principal cause of introducmgthe bill now be and in England must be conclusive against my position. fore the committee, and the principal object of the bill is The difference is conceived to be much greater than it to remove them; and that the principal effect of the ameod. really is. We know there is some difference in price be ment will be to increase them, and prevent this most im- tween their and our sailors, soldiers, fishermen or farmers, portant manufacture from gaining that stand which those or ordinary mechanics; but it is also known that their more fortuvate have already attained. The great struggle foremen, overseers, and scientific mechanics, who constibetween England and America, at this time, is for the tute a large portion of the expense in manufacturing, command of our market-not so much for present gain. command much better wages in England than in this England will not thank us for a market under the full ope country; and it is well known, too, that a much greater ration of our own competition. Her present principal ob- proportion of women's and children's labor is introduced ject is to worry out our manufacturers, and thus avoid our into our manufactories; so that, on the whole, there is competition, and thus command our market, and thus con probably no great advantage on either side, in this respect trol the price. Were it not for this state of things, which Another objection commonly urged is, that our maputheir immense capital enables them, and their state of star. factories and machinery are inferior to those of the Engvation urges them, to press at all points upon us, as long lish. On this subject, I believe a great mistake prevails. as there is life or hope, the necessity for protecting duties I mean to confine myself to such manufactures as have had on those articles might cease. The better to illustrate the time to be perfected. It is well known, sir, by those who general positions I would establisb, that the effect of the are conversant with the business, that the manufactories establishment of manufactures generally is to reduce the and machinery of this country, for beauty, convenience,

May 7, 1830.)

The Tariff.

(H. or R

practical calculation, and perfection, are fully equal, if pot have been commod, and some new manufactories of porcesuperior, to any in the world. Many English manufac- lain are now lately promising success, But the common turers acknowledge it; and, as satisfactory proof on this Liverpool ware, as it is often called, bas at all times occupoint, I may allude to the fact, that the agents of the Prus- pied, commanded, and controlled our market, and regusian Government, after travelling over Europe and the lated its prices. And wbat has been the result? Much United States to obtain the most perfect models and the same as in the other instance, except as this article bas machinery for the establishment of cotton and woollen hud no rival in this country, the effect is more perceptible. manufactories in their country, selected mostly American While one bas hardly fallen fifteen per cento

, the other models and machinery of American workmanebip. bas, in many branches of it, fallen seventy-five per cent.

Again, it is said the British manufacturer bas more skill, and the opposers of this system, who complained so much and can perform mcre in a given time and opportunity of its injustice and oppression, are now actually saving Sir, on this point the American manufacturer claims an twenty-five per cent., or more, on their glass wares, in conadvantage in vigor, activity, versatility, and perseverance. sequence of this protection, and losing the same amount on

The moral and mental stay drawn from our institutions ; | their earthern wares, for the want of such protection. & the liberality of thought and action; the free choice of I will illustrate the effect of protection on ourselves,

expedients ; the unrestrained exertions of genius : the spirit and the consequence of the command of the market by of enterprise and ambition, which a land of freedom and others, in another way. It has been considered a paradox independence inspires—all unite to render his exertions in trade, that the American manufacturer should be able more effective and successful, than the dependent, mo to compete in foreign markets, in South America and the notonous, hireling labor of any despotic Government on Iodies, with the British manufacturer, and yet need proearth.

tection against him at home. That we have done it, is In all things, in this country, aside from manufacturing, evident from the fact that our trade in domestics in those by sea and by, land, in peace and in war, & general com countries at one time was prosecuted extensively, and the placent consciousness of superiority seems to prevail. Io effect of it is evident from the fact that, immediately on the region now embracing our southwestern States, the knowledge of this, a duty of twenty-five per cent. where, under the dominion of kings and despots, popula- was laid on our domestica, to exclude them from these tion and cultivation for centuries almost were confined to markets, and even this has not wholly effected the object.

contracted, isolated settlements, with little intercourse, in- In the South American markets, too, the same dread of #crease, or extension. But when the banner of our con our competition is manifested in the unceasing exertions

stitution was spread over it, and the spirit of freedom and intrigue there, by English agents and English capibrenthed upon it, population, cultivation, activity, and talists, to procure discriminating duties and embarrassing improvements, and all the blessings of civilization, spread regulations against our trade; iu which it is known they around it like enchantment. The spirit of liberty, sir, is have too well succeeded, and we are, in a great measure, as visible and prevalent in our youthful manufactories as outmanaged by them in this business, in most of the Amein our youthful settlements. Add to these considerations, ricao markets except our own; and if this amendment that the price of provisions, especially, and many other of suoceeds, they will bave accomplished their object here. the vecessaries of life, is at about one half the price in Sir, the per centum and ad valorem worth of the passage this country that it is in England ; that the Englisbinan, for and rejection of this bill has been already calculated from the expenses of the Government, in tithes, taxes, imposts, your gallery, certified and countersigned in New York, excise and exactions, pays about seven dollars to the Ame- and stuck up in significant handbills in every magnanimous rican's one-amounting, for a family of common size to stall in Liverpool, when they vend political economy about seven dollars per month. To this add freight and and mavufactured patriotism (as well as flimsy wares) for ground rent, and all their other great expenses and em- importation and consumption here. But, sir, the great barrassments, and we may, I think, readily conceive that mystery of our competition, in foreign markets, is that we can manufacture cheaper than England or any other the English manufacturer cauinot, and, if he could, he will pation of Europe. My next object will be to show this not, (where he can avoid it,) sell bis goods at our present from existing facts.

reduced prices, where he can command the market. I proceed, therefore, to give the committee, in proof, The American manufacturer asks no better business the palpable facts I alluded to in the fore part of my ob- than to sell his goods at the English market price, where servations,

the Eoglish manufacturer and merchant have the trade, We know that coarse cotton cloths, below about No. 25, One more instance, and I bave done, have been fairly and fully protected; from that to about The English manufacturer, it is well known, has, for a No. 45 or 50, partially protected; above that, very slightly, long time, enjoyed a great and important trade in cotton including what are termed in our tariff, cambrics, muslins yarn with the nations in the North of Europe. This is do. And what has been the result? Why, sir, while the there manufactured into cloth. Ady stuffing, imperfecfine cottons, which include a greater proportion of labor, tion, or deception, which might go off well enough io and should have fallen lower, have only fallen from fifteen cloths sold, here or there, must be avoided to retain this to twenty-five per cent. (not so much as your agricultural market. It is, therefore, policy for the manufacturer to produce in the same time,) coarse cotton goods have fallen make this an honest, fair article, and of course it is a fair from fifty to seventy-five per cent. This case I have put article to compare prices upon; a fair criterion, and probafor the double purpose of exemplifying the effects of our bly the only exact one in the whole range of our rival cotprotection and competition in those articles we manufac ton and woollen manufactures. The English manufacturer, ture, and to show the use the foreigner makes of our it is well known, is in the babit of putting the American market, as far as be supplies and controls it. I will give stamp and mark on his own fabrics, from a consciousness another instance, exemplifying the same effects, more of the difference in the value in goods of the same appalpablo and decisive probably : I mean common crockery pearance. ware, and comnion glass ware; both imported and sold by How then stands the comparison ? I bave known for some the same class of merchants generally,

time the general fact, that we were underselling the Eog. Glasg and glass wares, we know, have received such lish manufacturer in this article. I have now a statement protection as to excite powerful competition.

of the market prices of cotton goods generally in ManWhile the manufacture of commod, enamelled, and chester and Philadelphia, and the price of yarns, collated priuted wares bas as yet scarcely been attempted in this and compared, from No. 12 to 30 inclusive, which any country, some brown Wares and imitation Delphian wares gentleman may examine if he please, and have evidence

H. OF R.)

Navigation and Imposts.The Tariff.

[MAY 8, 1830,

of its accuracy, and he will find that the difference is Mr. EVERETT, of Massachusetts, resumed, and adnearer six than five per cent. in our favor. One thing dressed the committee two hours in continuation and conmore will appear from the examination, viz. that you clusion of the speech which he commenced yesterday. can purchase one pound of good cotton cloth, of American Mr. E. said, that, being compelled to give a vote on the manufacture, at about the same price that you can a pound question now before the committee, be felt it his doty to of yarn in the English market. Sir, strange as it may seem, submit the reasons wbich would govern him in giving that the American manufacturer, if he were permitted, could vote. And, in the first place, said Mr. E.) I shall make make a good business in sending cotton yarn and cotton one or two remarks in reply to the observations of the gen goods to a British market, to Manchester itself.

tleman from New York, [Mr. CAMBRELENG] who has just In the other examples I have given, a general idea of the taken his seat. I cannot but acknowledge that there is a comparative difference of prices was intended only. This better foundation in truth, than I could wish, for å por permits of accuracy, and may serve as a sample of the ge- tion of his remarks, and most assuredly to the extent in neral and comparative state of the whole business, so far which they are so founded in truth, they show that the as our policy has extended.

amendment ought not to prevail

. The gentleman from Need any thing more, sir, be said to prove or demon- New York admits that the manufacturers of New England strate what I have proposed or asserted on this subject, (and of course among others, of my constituents) are in a viz. that the protection of domestic manufactures has had depressed state. I thank the gentleman for the admission. the effect to reduce the price of them in our own markets In general, they are thus depressed; too many of them to below the average of the prices of the same tnanufactures the point of annihilation. What then becomes of the of other nations, and that American manufacturers do, and pictures which have been so freely drawn of our manufae can furnish their fellow-citizens with all those articles, turers in this debate, representing them as bungry monopo where the manufacturer is fairly protected, at lower prices lists, fattening on the distresses of the country, as purse than any other nation does, or can, or will furnish them proud aristocrats, who have filled their pockets with money for us.

wrung by iniquitous laws from the hard earnings of the If these things are so, it must settle this whole question, people ! The manufacturers are many of them extremely both in principle and practice ; for, however extensive or depressed. Much of this capital has ceased to be produeconfined our reasoning, theory, or speculation on this sub- tive. Some establishments, conducted with seeming project may be, if the country obtains its manufactures at a dence and care, have been broken dowo. Prodigions reduced price, in consequence of their protection, injus- losses have been encountered, and large fortunes shaken. tice, violence, and oppression, so much talked of, bave I beg the committee to give full faith, to this extent, to ceased.

the description of the gentleman from New York, and conI had, sir, intended to bave taken apother and more ge- trast it with the view taken of our manufacturing interests neral view of the relative claims and present attitude of by almost every other gentleman who bas spoken in this the opposite parties in this question ; but having already, debate on the same side of the question. as I find, extended my remarks to a greater length than I Another reflection forces itself on my mind, in conse had proposed, at this late stage of the debate and the des. quence of the statement which the gentleman from Ner sion, I shall close here, satisfied that if the intimate and York bas given of the condition of our manufacturers. Is friendly connexion between our manufactures and the this period of great and acknowledged depression a well ngriculture of the South, Middle, and West, is, by some, chosen time for throwing down the whole system of legis. yet upappreciated—if the assistance of our manufactures lation, on the faith of which these investments of capital in producing the present extraordinary reduction in their have been made? If the manufacturers are so depressed, prices throughout the whole country, beyond all former that they can scarce hold their heads above water, is it a precedent and calculation, is, by some here, treated with moment, either kindly or wisely chosen, to strike in upon indifference, the system is, by its own effects, fast establish- them, with a sweeping repeal, not only of the law of 1828, ing a character for itself.

but of that of 1824, and, in addition to the pressure of the Mr. CAMBRELENG followed, in a speech of the same times, to withdraw from them the legislative protection length, in an examination of the bill, to show that it was in under which, as you yourselves say, they have been forced adequate to the object proposed ; also, in reply to some of into being ! Surely not. By whatever arguments a gradual the views expressed by Mr. McDUFFIE on the one hand, reduction of duties could be defended, the sweeping ruin and Mr. Davis on the other.

of what is left of this branch of the national industry, by an Mr. BATES, of Massachusetts, spoke a short time in re- act of legislation unheard of for comprehensive violence, ply to some of the remarks of Mr. CAMBRELENG.

would be wholly indefensible. Mr. EVERETT, of Massachusetts, next rose, and ad The gentleman from New York said that the laws of dressed the committee more than an hour, in reply to Mr. 1824 and 1828, imposing duties on imports, were the reMcDUFFIE and Mr. CAMBRELENG, and in a general argu- sult of political speculation, the contrivance of ambitions ment on the subject of debate. At four o'clock be gave men, and intended to effect the election of a New England Vay for a motion for the committee to rise, wbich pre- President. If this is the case, it must be admitted that the vailed.

New England delegation pursued a singular course. A

| large majority of its members voted against the lawe. SATURDAY, MAY 8, 1830.

(Mr. CAMBRELENG explained, that he did not apply NAVIGATION AND IMPOSTS.

that remark to the law of 1824, but to that of 1828 ; that The House resumed the consideration of the bill re-after the passage of the law of 1824, the manufacturers of ported by Mr. CAMBRELENG, respecting navigation and wool complained that they suffered by the duty on the

raw imposts.

material, and that this duty was increased by the law of Mr. STRONG rose, and addressed the House against the 1828, which therefore must have been supported from po

litical calculation.] bill, until the expiration of the hour, without having finished his remarks.

Sir, [continued Mr. EVERETT] it needs no political cal

culation to lead men to take measures to preserve them. THE TARIFF.

selves from ruin. The manufacturers of wool found themThe House again resolved itself into the Committee of selves in a state of great depression, after the passage of the Whole House on the state of the Union, Mr. Polk in the law of 1824. What they had foreseen before its pasthe chair, on the bill to amend the act in alteration of the sage, had come to pass. The benefit they might bave deseveral acts imposing duties on imports.

rived from the increase of the duty on cloth had been, in

1

May 8, 1830.)

The Tarif

(H. OF R.

various ways, rendered unavailing; and, among others, by the basis of this House. If each member of this House the enhanced duty on wool. It was not their fault that it was does bis duty, with intelligence and firmness, to the peolaid on. They sought a revision of the tariff, in which this ple who send him, I believe the interests of the couutry evil would be remedied. The law wbich was passed in are much more likely to be consulted, than by striving al1828, was not such a one as they desired. A majority of ter projects which shall at once comprehend the whole. those most interested in the woollen maoufacture, (a very But it would pot, from these remarks, have it thought large majority of the Massachussetts delegation,) voted that I felt it my duty to have an exclusive eye to the maagainst the law. Some of the representatives who voted nufacturing interest, on the principle of representing my for it, voted for it not as a good law, but as the best law constituents. The district which I represent, extends to they could hope for. They knew that the interest of the the seaboard. Many of its inbabitants are directly confarmers must be consulted, and that no law could be passed cerned in commerce, and the industry of still more is closewhich did not reconcile that interest with that of the manu ly dependent on the prosperity of the neighboring commerfacturer.

cial capital. Sbipbuilding is a very important branch of If the law of 1828 was passed from political calculations, the industry of those I represent; and some of the first let those who effected its passage from such motives be vessels in our commercial marine are constructed by them. We responsible. Those calculations are unknown to me, as with all this, however, the mass of the people who send di forming any part of the motives of myself or those with me here are farmers--the yeomapry of the country, who

whom I acted. On its passage through the House I voted get their living from the soil, by the labor of their own against it. In the Senate it received some important mo- hands. I ought to be led, and I hope I am led, in this

difications. On each of these, when the bill with its way, to take a large view of all the great branches of nari amendments came back to the House, I voted according to tional industry, and of their connexion with each other. It

my opinion of its separato merits. How I should have is true that some of the largest and most important manuy voted bad there been a question on the passage of the facturing establishments in the United States are also in or whole bill as amended, I will not undertake to say. my district ; but, important as they are, I should put feel

The gentleman speaks of consistency; of taking up a justified in sacrificing all other interests to them. I will s principle one day, and laying it down the next, and this endeavor to pursue a course consistent with their common av from motives of political calculation. I ask no other prin- prosperity.

ciple to justify me, in every vote I have given on this sub But I do not find such a course in the proposition which ject, than that which is laid down in the report lately the gentleman from South Carolina. [Mr. MoDUFFIE) has

made by the gentleman himself, as chairman of the Com- brought forward, by way of amendment to the bill before $t mittee on Commerce. 'In adjusting," says the gentle the committee. His proposed measure I regard as threatin man in that report, "a maximum and permanent rate of eping immediate and entire ruin to the manufacturers, and in duty on foreign merchandise, to suit the political plan of consequential disaster to every other branch of the indus

a confederacy, and to regulate our intercourse with fo- try of the country. I consider it my duty, therfore, to

reign nations, the committee are sepsible of the necessity go, at some length, into the examination of it. In doing di of having a just regard to the prosperity of our manufac- this, bowever, much that I migbt bave attempted to say i tures. The question is not now, whether we will or not has been anticipated. The argument against the amend

establish protecting duties; that must of necessity be ment of the gentleman from South Carolina, and the exwaived: the duties and the manufactures already exist." amination of liis course of reasoning, have been so ably

That is the principle on wbich I act. It is a sound one. pursued by my colleagues, [Messrs. Davis and GORHAM] It is not for us, who, proceeding op this principle, sup- that it will require do little caution, op my part, not to port laws necessary to save the mapufactures from ruin, tread again over ground which has been so ably pre-occuto defend our consistency. That must be done by gentle- pied. men who, holding the priociple, are for repealing the Did I agree with the gentleman from South Carolina, laws. The abstract question of free trade is not before either as to the principles on which he proceeded, or the us. The system of commercial intercourse most advan- facts wbich he assumed, I should, in conscience, be obliged tageous to be pursued by all nations, if all would agree, to go with him, and lend my aid to break down, as rapidly in good faith, to unite in it, is not under consideration. as possible, the protecting system of the country. The arguments which may be adduced on the expediency T'he gentleman stated, that a "reference to the treå of embarking, for the first time, in the protecting policy, sury statements of the commerce of the United States will are not pertinent to the occasion. The duties have been show that the whole amount of the domestic productions laid; the manufactures have been brought into being. Capi- of the United States, annually exported to foreign countal has been in many parts of the country, forced into this tries, taking an average of years, is something less than channel, against the known current of public sentiment. fifty-eight millions of dollars. It may be estimated that And now the question is, shall we consent to a sweeping those portions of the southern and southwestern States, repeal of these laws, and especially at a period which may which are engaged in the production of the great agricul. be looked upon ns a crisis in the fate of the manufactures ? tural staples of cotton, tobacco, and rice, (constitutiog less Shall we break down the feeble barrier left against foreign than one-third part of the Union,) export io the amount of competition, and the fluctuation of foreign markets? Such thirty-seven millions of dollars, and those portions of the is not the view which I take of my duty to the interests States just mentioned, which are engaged in the produccommitted to my charge.

tion of cotton and rice, (constituting less than one-fifth of It is the duty of every member of this House, who sees the Union,) export to the amount of thirty millions of dolthe lawful industry of his constituents in peril, especially lars ;" and the gentlemno went on to argue that the amount if that industry has received its direction immediately from of imports in these parts of the Union must be equal to the legislation of the country, to take care that, under an this amount of exports, and consequently that a proporadverse influence of the same legislation, it be pot crushed. tionate amount of the duties on imports (equal to twoI know we are to pass laws for the whole people; and thirds of the whole amount paid into the treasury from the authorities of high note are quoted to us, from Great Bri- duties on imports) is levied on the States growing rice, tain, to show that we are to legislate for general and not cotton, or tobacco. for sectional interests. The case, however, of the British I have looked at the treasury statements for the last Parliament is widely different from that of the American eleven years, being as far back as I have the means at Congress. Parliament is constituted with very little regard hand of pusbing the inquiry, and I find that the average to geographical representation, the principle which lies at annual export of the three staples of cotton, rice, and

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