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engaged in making an inspection of the road, unless he should be prevented by snow from performing the duty assigned him. 47. Road from Canton to Zanesville :-and 48–Road westwardly from Zanesville, in Ohio.—The report of operations on these roads, up to the 30th of September, not having been received, no exact statement can here be made of the work done; but it is known that travelling
has been admitted on the road, as far as Zanesville, and ||
that the construction of 26 miles westwardly from that lace, extending to the crossing of the Ohio canal, has en contracted for, and is in progress. 49. Road through Indiana—Under a literal construction of the law for opening this part of the national road, two commissioners were appointed to superintend it, and contracts were made, agreeably to their instructions, for cutting off and removing the timber, and cutting down the banks, so as to form as good a road as circumstances would admit of . Subsequently, however, "...i that the expense of this work would absorb but a small part of the funds appropriated, the superintendents were authorized to provide for grubbing the trees from the central part of the road, which will be accordingly done. Contracts were made for opening the road entirely across the State of Indiana, and will probably be completed this Winter. 50. Roads from Detroit to Chicago, Michigan Territory. The contracts made on this road, together with the poortion finished previously to this year, will effect, by the close of this year, the completion of 64 miles of the road commencing at Detroit. 51. Road from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, Michigan Territory—Of this road, seventeen miles have been put under contract, a considerable portion of it completed, and the remainder in a state of forwardness. 52. Road from Detroit to Saganaw, Michigan Territory. The construction of fifteen miles and a quarter of this road has been contracted for, and is in progress. 53. Road from Detroit to Maumee.—On the 1st of Qetober, this road was finished, except a few sections, which ...” be completed by the 15th of the present month.
IIL-SURVEYS UNDER SPECIAL ACTS AND RESOLUTIONS OF CONGRESS.
Of the surveys enumerated under this head, as in progress at the time of my last Annual Report, all have been completed, and were reported to Congress last year, except the survey of the Wabash river, and the examination of sites for an armory on the Western waters, on which a report will be made this Winter. hose ordered at the last session of Congress, are– 1. Survey of the ship channel of Penobscot river, Maine, from Whitehead to Bangor, and ascertaining the cost of improving the navigation of the same, and proper sites for spindles and buoys. 2. Survey of the Cochico branch of Piscataqua river, New Hampshire, from Dover Falls to its confluence with the Piscataqua, for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of removing obstructions to navigation, and the cost. 8. Survey of North river, between Scituate and Marshfield, Massachusetts, to ascertain the expediency of removing obstructions at the mouth of the same, and to make an estimate of cost. 4. Survey of the piers erected at Sandy Bay, Massachusetts, to report the condition of the same, and what works are necessary to make a good and safe harbor, at that place, together with an estimate of the cost. 5. Survey of the harbor of Bass river, between Yar. mouth and Dennis, Massachusetts, to ascertain the practicability and expense of improving the said harbor. 6. Survey of the river Thames, Connecticut, with a
view to improve the navigation of the same, and estimating the cost of such improvement. 7. Survey of the harbor of West Brook, near the mouth of Connecticut river, Connecticut, with a view to the improvement of said harbor, and for ascertaining the cost of such improvement. 8. Survey of the harbor of Norwalk, Connecticut, with a view to its improvement. 9. Survey of the harbor of Stamford, Connecticut, with a view to its improvement. 10. Survey of the bars at the mouth of Sag Harbor, New York, to ascertain the best method of preventing the harbor being filled up with sand, and the cost of the 8ame. 11. Survey of Flat Beach, alias Tucker's Island, New Jersey, with a view to preserve the anchorage of the port, and to report an estimate of the cost of such improvements as may be necessary to effect those objects. 12. Survey of Deep Creek, a branch of the South branch of Elizabeth river, Virginia, for the purpose of improving the navigation of the same, and an estimate of the cost. 13. Survey of Pascotank river, North Carolina, for removing bars and obstructions in the same, and an estimate of cost. 14. Survey of the harbor of St. Augustine, and the bar at or near the entrance of the same, with a view to remove the latter, and to render the access to the harbor safe at all times, and to make an estimate of the cost of accomplishing that object. 15. Survey of the water tract between Lake Pontchartrain and Mobile Bay, with a view to the erection of lighthouses, and placing buoys. 16. Survey of the passes at the mouth of the Mississippi river, with a view to the improvement of the navigation, and building light-houses and buoys. 17. Survey of the entrance of the river Teche, with a view to improve and shorten the navigation of the same, and an estimate of the cost of such improvement. 18. Survey of certain sites on the Ohio river, to ascertain the practicability of erecting bridges over said river. These surveys have been made; and the reports, some of which have been already received, will be presented as soon as practicable, 19. The surveys for continuing the location of the national road to the seat of Government of Missouri, have been diligently prosecuted this season. At the date of my last Annual Report, the location had been effected as far as Vandalia: since that time, experimental surveys have been made from Vandalia, through St. Louis, along the South Side of the Missouri, to Jefferson; thence, in returning along the North side of the Missouri, back to Vandalia, which place the commissioners expected to reach about the 25th of October. In the course of this Winter, therefore, such a report may be expected, as will afford the means of deciding on the most advantageous route for the road, beyond Wandalia.
IV.-SURVEYS UNDER THE ACT OF THE 80TII APRIL, 1824.
The operations under this head, during the year past, in addition to those reported to Congress at its last session, have been as follows:
1. Preparing copies of various maps required by the Commissioners for settling the Northeast Boundary of the United States. Maine.
2. Surveys, with a view to connect the Waters of Lake Champlain with those of the Connecticut river, by the valleys of Onion and Wills' rivers. Vermont.
3 Survey, with a view to unite the Connecticut and Pemigewasset by the valley of the Oliverian. New Hampshire,
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4. Survey of a canal route from Taunton to Weymouth. Massachusetts. 5. Survey of a route for a rail road from Catskill to Ithaca. New York. 6. Survey to connect the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal by the valleys of the Big Beaver and Mahoning. Pennsylvania and Ohio. 7, Survey of the Alleghany river from French Creek to
8. Surveys for the location of a canal round the Muscle and Colbert Shoals, in the Tennessee river. Alabama. 9. Surveys for the location of a rail road from Charleston to Hamburg. South Carolina. 10. Preparation of a Map of Pensacola Bay. Florida. 11. Survey of the country between the Tennessee and Altamaha rivers, and preparation of a report on the same. Georgia and Tennessee. 12. Surveys of Licking and Green rivers, in Kentucky, with a view to improve their navigation. Kentucky. 13. Surveys, with a view to connect the waters of Lakes Erie and Michigan with those of the Ohio and Illinois rivers. Indiana. 14. Survey of a canal route to connect the waters of Lake Michigan with those of the Illinois river. Illinois. 15. Surveys of the Des Moines and Rock River Rapids, in the Mississippi river. Illinois. 16. Survey and examination of the concerns of the Louisville and Portland Canal, made at the request of the Seer-tary of the Treasury. Kentucky. 17. The aid previously afforded by the Department to the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company has been continued during the year. Maryland. The necessity of withdrawing some of the officers from the duties in which they were engaged, for the purpose 9f making the surveys enumerated in the preceding class, has prevented the completion of some of the reports on those of this class, which would otherwise have been rendered. Pursuant to your instructions, the sum appropriated for surveys at the last session of Congress has been applied exclusively to the expenses under that head for the current year; and it therefore becomes necessary to present a special estimate for the payment of arrearages due for services performed in 1828, principally on surveys in Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia, and for the rent of .." topographical office in Georgetown, in 1826, ’27, and '28.
V.--THE BOARD OF INTRENAL IMPROVEMENT.
Has been occupied this year in completing the report on , the Florida Canal, with was presented to Congress at its last session; in preparing a project for a Canal be. tween Buzzard's and Barnstable Bays, which is finished ; and in drawing up instructions for some of the beforementioned surveys. One member has been also engaged, in connexion with commissioners appointed by the President, in completing the project for a Breakwater at the entrance of Delaware bay, and, as a member of the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, in preparing plans for the defence of Pensacola bay.
VI-THE MILITARY ACADEMY.
The report of the Board of Visitors, a copy of which is herewith presented, and my personal inspections, combine to give perfect satisfaction as to the management of this valuable institution, and its gradual amelioration. In consequence of the representations of the Superintendent, and the suggestions of the Boards of Visitors, in 1828 and 1829, I have added to the usual estimates, an item to cover the expenses of constructing a building for military and other exercises in bad weather and during the Winter; for constructing a military laboratory neces. sary for the course of artillery instruction, o also a
small additional sum for completing the hospital; which will, I hope, meet with your approbation.
VII.-OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER.
Under an order of the Senate, a contract has been made by this Department, for engraving the map which accompanied the report of the Florida Canal. A part of the impression ordered will be ready for distribution by the 1st of December."
In consequence of the great increase of the business of this Department, which an inspection of the annual reports for several years past exhibits, two additional Clerks are necessary for the prompt and efficient discharge of the duties of this office. An estimate for their salary is therefore submitted. From the same considerations have also resulted the frequent representations that have been made by the Chief ineer, of the necessity of increasing the number of officers, by whom the operations entrusted to this Department are conducted. On this subject, I shall have the honor to present to you a special report
All of which is respectfully submitted by,
Sir, your most obedient servant,
REPORT OF THE NAVY COMMISSIONERS.
Copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the Board of Commissioners of the Navy, dated
NAvy DEPARTMENT, Novem. 13, 1829.
From the reflection I have been able to bestow upon the present organization of the Navy Department, I incline to the opinion that it is susceptible of improvement, particularly in its fiscal branch, its forms of administration, and the distribution of its duties.
Should further inquiry confirm this opinion, it will be proper for me to submit an improved system, for the consideration of the President, and, with this view, I wish to avail myself of your information and experience.
I request, therefore, that you will lay before me your opinion whether, the present organization of the Department may, not be improved, and, if so, how with such observations as may appear to you to belong to the ocCaSiOn.
NAvy CoMMIssionERs' OFFICE, 22d Novem. 1829.
Sin: The Navy Commissioners have had the honor of receiving your setter of the 13th instant, requiring of them to lay before you, their opinion of the present organization of the Navy Department—“whether it may not be improved, and, if so, how with such observations as may appear to them to belong to the occasion.”
The duties of the Navy Department are various and complicated: so much so, indeed, that no one individual, however gifted, would be competent even to their general superintendence. -
We may be assisted, in forming judicious conclusions, by classing these duties under general heads, and considering them in their separate distinct nature; and by referring to the practices which have obtained in the administration of them, since the first organization of the Department. - -
The general heads by which these duties are distinguished, and under which they may be classed, are:
1st. Administrative or Executive.
Those of an administrative character consist, essentially, in dispensing the various offices created by law, issuing orders and instructions to officers for service; employing the national marine; convening courts martial;
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and generally in seeing that the laws in relation to the Navy are duly and faithfully executed. In discharging these high functions, consultations with the President of the United States become necessary; the officer vested with these responsible trusts is the medium through which the President makes known his will to the Navy. Those of a ministerial character: such as the construction, building, and equipment of vessels of war; their armament; their classification; the procurement of naval stores and materials; the preservation of ships in ordinary; the construction of docks, arsenals, shiphouses, store houses, timber sheds, sheers, shops, &c.; the victualling and clothing of the Navy; and which in volve the necessity of having experieuced professional men to perform them. Those of a fiscal character, which embrace the expenditures of the service, in all its numerous branches, and under all its various heads of appropriation. This branch of the Department requires, in the performance of its ordinary duties, a thorough knowledge of accounts, and of all the laws and regulations of the service in any way affecting its expenditures; and it would be greatly improved by a practical knowledge as to all the various stores, munitions, and materials, essential in the different departments of the service. The duties which relate to the execution of the laws; in reference to sick and disabled seamen, discharged from the service; the apportionment of pensions; the ne: cessary regulations for the government and support of Hospitals; the Naval Asylum, &c.; have been assigned by law to special Boards, consisting of the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of War. The office of Secretary of the Navy was established in the year 1798. He was charged with the multifarious duties, here classed under the administrative and ministerial heads; and an Accountant of the Navy was charged with the fiscal duties, subject to the revision of the Treasury. Under this arrangement, although the Navy, at that time, had not attained one-fourth of its present magnitude, it was found that these duties were burthensome in the extreme; and although it was very generally admitted that the Secretary of the Navy was remarkable for his capacity and industry, and that the office of Accountant was well filled, yet, it is known that the duties were very imperfectly performed—unavoidably so; and that the public interest greatly suffered. This rose from a multitude of mixed duties, pressing upon each other, each requiring to be done at one and the same time. hile the Department continued thus organized, great losses of treasure and of time were not unfrequently oc. casioned by a single order; among other instances, one might be cited, in which it became absolutely necessary to expend upwards of $60,000, to correct an error in the structure and internal arrangements of a shi error arising, solely, from the absence of o: Cases of this kind, with other considerations, contributed, no doubt, to the existing modification, which as: signs all the ministerial duties to a Board of Navy Commissioners, leaving a general superintending direction to the Secretary of the Navy. By a subsequent law, Congress abolished the office of Accountant of the Navy, and created that of Fourth Auditor, as a substitute, attaching it to the Treasury, and ors its statements to the strict revision of a Comptroller. Prior to the act of Congress, of 3d March, 1809, (An act further to amend the several acts for the establishment and regulation of the Treasury, War, and Navy Departments,) it was the practice in the office of Accountant of the Navy so to keep the accounts of the Navy, as
stance—but that law declares that money warrants shall be charged to the specific appropriation under which the money is to be disbursed. This produced a change in the form of keeping the accounts; objects are lost sight of, and specific appropriations seem to claim exclusive attention. The act of 1809 declares that all money warrants “shall specify the particular appropriation or appropriations to which the same shall be charged," and that the moneys, paid in virtue of such warrants shall “be charged to such appropriation or appropriations;” that “the sums appro. priated by law, for each branch of expenditure, shall be solely applied to the objects for which they are respectively appropriated, and to no other.” But it authorized the President, on the application of the Secretary, to direct “that a portion of the moneys appropriated for a particular branch of expenditure, be applied to another branch of expenditure in the same Department." Thus, under the law of 1809, the President might transfer from any one appropriation to another; but this authority of the President was, by act of 1st May, 1820, confined to three appropriations, viz.: “Provisions, Medicines and Hospital Stores;” repairs of vessels; so that o: none of the other appropriations, can a transfer be made. Is the existing organization susceptible of any improvement; and, if any, what? The administrative or executive branch of the Department, of which the Secretary of the Navy is the immediate chief, needs not, it is presumed, the interposition of law, to render it more efficient. It is not improbable, however, that improvements might be introduced in the arrangement of its detail duties, which would have a tendency to secure more prompt information upon various subjects, that would greatly aid the Secretary in the discharge of his duties. The books of his office should show the extent of the means at his disposal, and the state and condition of every branch of the service; that he may be prepared not only to act upon all subjects claiming his personal attention, but to answer any call from the President, or from Congress, without delay. The duties assigned to the Board of Navy Commissioners are far too extensive to be committed to the management of any one individual; yet one individual, acting without consultation, and trusting entirely to his own resources, could certainly perform more of any particular business than two or three could perform; for instance, a special report, of importance to the interests of the Navy, is called for; an individual, having no one to consult in making such report, might probably prepare it in a few hours; but when associated with two other individuals, each possessing the same rights, each charged with the same duty, each equally responsible, consultation becomes indispensable; disagreement in opinion may exist; argument on both sides is adduced; and finally, the decision is made; but not, possibly, till one, two, or more o shall have elapsed. The decision, when thus made, will probably be more correct, than if it had been made by one member; yet, it is very obvious, that the cousumption of time would be much greater in the one case than the other. But there are many, very many, cases of too much importance to the national interest to be committed to any one person, however eminent in his profession, however extensive his experience. These cases involve principles, essentially bearing upon the vital interests of the Navy; where an erroneous decision might seriously affect the efficiency of our vessels of war, or occasion great and unnecessary expenditures of money; numerous cases might be eited, in which it would be certainly unwise to trust the decision to any one person. The decision of a fundamental principle is one thing;
to show the cost of objects—the building of a ship for in
the carrying that principle into effect is another; the lat
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ter duty may be safely trusted, where it would be highly dangerous to confide the former. The function of designing the dimensions and form of a ship, her armament, her out-board and in-board works, her masting, sparring, &c. &c. requires, in its performance, the exertion of the highest professional attainments; and when the designs shall be matured, and distinctly indicated by drawings, models, and instructions, their execution, involving the minutest details, i. vigilant and laborious attention, to see them faithfully executed in all their parts. From these premises, we are led to infer, that, in the present organization of the Board of Navy Commissioners, defects exist; that they consist, essentially, in grouping toÉ. too great a variety of duties to be ... the st manner by the Board itself, collectively, acting upon each case; but which might be subdivided, so that each member, giving particular attention to the branch confided to him, might perform his own part in the most satisfactory manner. We have seen, that, as now organized, the Board of Commissioners is charged, to speak in general terms, 1st. With the building, repair, and equipment of our vessels of war. 2d. With the construction of docks, arsenals, store-houses, wharves, &c. 3d. With the victualling and clothing of the Navy." Under these three general heads, the duties of the Board may be classed; but it may be useful to present a brief view of the detailed duties arising under each head. 1st. The building, repair,and equipment of vessels of war. involve, 1st. The designs as to their forms; their length, breadth of beam, depth of hold: their internal arrangements; the sizes and position of their masts, and the manner of making them; the dimensions of their spars; the quantity and dimensions of their rigging; their sails: their armament, including the form, size, weights, and calibre of their guns; their small arms of every description, powder, ball, &c.; their gun carriages; the sizes of their timbers, with the length and thicknesses of their planks; their boats; their chain cables, &c. &c. and such a classification of the whole, that every article of equip. ment, belonging to any vessel of a particular class, shall answer for every other vessel of the same class. , 2dly. The procurement, by contract or otherwise, of all the va. rious materials and munitions, necessary to build and equip them, agreeably to the designs. 8dly. The operative part, which combines all these materials, and renders the ships complete in their construction; their numerous internal arrangements, and their equipment generally. In the repairing of ships, whilst it involves most of the duties to be performed in building them, imposes other duties, not included in building. The state of the ship to be repaired, is one, and this can only be done by a thorough examination of all her parts; inspecting all her stores, remedying deficiencies that may be found in her structure, introducing improvements that may have been suggested by experience, &c. are other duties. The numerous estimates, and the voluminous correspond. ence, indispensable in discharging the duties arising under this head, with the mass of other business connected with them, would give full employment to any one individual, however competent. We mean for the superintendence of any one individual : for no man living could, in his own person, go through the drudgery of all its details. He would require several subordinates, which we will presently consider. 2dly. The construction of docks,arsenals, store houses, and general attention to Navy Yards. Under this head, numerous and important duties arise; the planning of all the various improvements; the procurement, by contract or otherwise, of all the materials required in makin them; the regulation of labor appertaining to this bran
and the preservation of stores; supervising the various factories of anchors, chain cables, blocks, cambooses; the procurement, preservation, and distribution of books, maps, charts, chronometers, and other nautical instruments; stationery, fuel, and candles, &c. are among these duties. Any one individual, to give them that vigilant, careful attention, which the faithful performance of them would require, would find constant employment: several subordinates would be essentially necessary in discharging these duties. 3dly. The victualling and clothing of the Navy. Under this head, the duties are numerous; the quantity of the various articles forming the rations, the quantity of slop clothing, medicines, and Hospital stores, required for the several ships and squadrons in service, and the several stations on shore, must be ascertained and procured, by contract or otherwise, and transported to the ships and stations needing them; the ordering of surveys when necessary, upon any of the articles belonging to his department: the receiving of surveys ordered by the commanding officers of squadrons; the regulation of labor appertaining to this particular branch; the preservation of its stores, and issuing the necessary instructions, will form a mass of business, abundantly sufficient to occupy the time of any individual. Subordinates in this, as in the other branches, would be indispensably necessary. Under these three general heads, the present duties of the Board might be classed; each member taking the superintendence of one; each carrying into effect the designs and decisions of the whole; each responsible for the execution of such designs and decisions. As now organized, each member of the Board has to give his attention to all the duties arising under the previously recited heads; and it is out of the question to suppose that any one can give that careful attention which the public interests at all times require. The mind of man is not so constituted as to be able to embrace, digest, and thoroughly understand, such an infinite variety of subjects; many of them pressing for decision at one and the same moment; many of them being complex in their nature, and requiring great research, calculation, and consideration, to enable even the most experienced and intelligent to comprehend them so far as to be able to pronounce a satisfactory opinion upon them. To general principles, and to new principles and improvements, each member might give such attention, as would, with his professional experience, enable him to meet others in discussion, and assist in forming the best possible conclusions. The Board, .j by the observations of each of its members, thus prepared for the examination of any question arising, might reasonably be expected to decide judiciously; while each member would proceed to execute the particular part assigned to him, with all the 3dvantages afforded by a general consultation. A spirit of emulation would naturally arise among all the members; each would be ambitious to exeel in the discharge of his appropriate duties; and the happiest results might be confidently anticipated, and felt, in the precision, despatch, intelligence, and economy, which, it is to be i. would distinguish each branch. The necessity, 1st. Of a Board to decide upon general principles, and upon all new principles and improvements: 2d. Of a subdivision of duties, to be executed in conformity with the decisions of the Board, is deemed to have been sufficiently illustrated and established by the preceding remarks. We will now, sir, attempt an arrangement of the duties of the Board, and of its branches, upon the most efficient and economical basis. The Board, to perform the general duties reserved to it, as a Board, will require a Secretary and a Copying Clerk; a Secretary to keep a journal of all its proceedings; stating the times of meeting; the objects; the
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decisions, whether they relate to the introduction of a new principle, improvement in the mode of building, equipping, or repairing of ships, improvement or altera. tion in any of the buildings, docks, wharves, sheers, fac. tories, &c. in the Navy Yards, changes in manner of putting up, procuring, or preserving provisions, and other supplies, with the reasons, at large, for such decisions, and the results of all the experiments in all the various branches of service: Also, to draw up, under the direction of the Navy Commissioners, when convened as a Board, all reports of a general nature, relating to the duties of this branch of the Navy Department; to give to each member of the Board a copy of any of the decisions of the Board, affecting his branch of duties, and to aid, as far as may be in his power, the chief of each branch in the execution of his duties. He would have the special charge of all papers and communications, suggesting im. provement in any branch of the service, or relating to any discoveries at sea, having a tendency to improve the science of navigation. He would, also, be charged with the safe-keeping of all journals describing coasts and harbors, and of all reports showing the properties of our ships, their best trim of sailing, &c. To assist in the performance of these various services a copying clerk would be required. henever required by the Secretary of the Navy, or by either of the members, the Board would convene, and proceed to decide upon the question presented for consideration. It would also have stated meetings, as the public service might render necessary. In particular, it would convene, at some stated time, to receive, from the Secretary of the Navy, the determination of the Executive, as to the number and classes of ships intended to be kept in service during the ensuing year, and their stations, that they might proceed and prepare the estimates for the service, with a full understanding of the will of the Executive upon the subject. The building, repairing, and equipping department would require, besides its chief, a Naval architect and a draftsman, an ordnance officer, three able clerks, and one copying clerk. A naval architect would be required in supervising the building and repairing of ships, and in devising drafts, models, moulds, &c. and a draftsman would have, as at present, full employment in making the various drafts, which are very numerous, extending, as they do, to all parts of a ship, their armament, gun carriages, &c. &c. An ordnance officer is essential to the inspection and proving of all guns, arms, and ammunition, and making returns, showing their state and condition. A first clerk, to assist the correspondence, examine all money requisitions, keeping accurate accounts thereof; to assist in o the annual estimates; to have the charge of all papers connected with money requisitions, or relating to experiments made in this branch of service. A second clerk and assistant, to keep an account of all the stores coming under the cognizance of their chief; of all labor employed in his department; to receive all re. turns and pay rolls, showing the cost of new ships, the repairs of old o the state of contracts, &c. keeping accurate accounts thereof; to file all offers for contracts; prepare scales, showing the various bids; to draw up, under the direction of their chief, all, contracts and agreements; to file all letters relating to the duties with which they are charged, and o so arranged, that reference may, at any time, had to them, without delay, and to do such other business as may be required of them. A fourth clerk, to keep the letter books, and do such copying and other business as may be required of him. Other officers would act under the directions of the chief of this branch. Officers to attend particularly to
the preservation of ships in ordinary, and carry into effect instructions upon that important subject. Timber mas. ters, to inspect, measure, and receive, all timber, keeping special accounts thereof, showing when it was received, when cut, when immersed in water, when placed under cover, when and for what vessel used, &c. always taking care that the best seasoned timber shall be first used. Surveyors (to be selected from the officers of the yard)
to take special accounts of all the stores of a vessel about 4
to be received in ordinary; to have all their stores, their rigging, their sails, boats, &c. minutely examined, and their state and condition accurately reported, that such disposition may be made of them as the public interest may require. The Department of Docks, Navy Yards, &c. would require, besides its chief, a civil engineer, two able clerks, and one copying clerk. A civil engineer, in the construction of docks, wharves, arsenals, &c. is obviously required. A first clerk, to assist in the correspondence, examine all money requisitions, keeping accounts thereof: to as: sist in preparing the general estimates; to prepare all signal books for distribution, keeping precise accounts, showing to whom signals were issued, charging such persons with them, and holding them specially accountable therefor, on their return from a cruise, or on leaving the ship they may have commanded; and to have the charge of all papers relating to experiments in this branch of the service. The second clerk to keep account of all stores; all returns, as to the cost of docks, arsenals, sheers, &c.; the employment of labor attached to this branch; the state of contracts, keeping accounts thereof; to file all offers for supplies, and to prepare scales as to the bids to furnish them; to draw up, under the direction of his chief, all contracts and agreements, to file all letters and papers, not specially assigned to any other clerk, and keep them so arranged that reference may, at any time, be had to them without delay; and to do such other business as his chief may require of him. . A copying clerk to keep the letter books, and do such copying and other business as may be required of him. Other officers would act under the special direction of the chief of this branch. He would, for instance, require a special officer to take charge of all the nautical instruments, books, and charts, not on board of ship, to keep them in order, for use, when required. Among other duties, he would be required to attend particularly to the time pieces or chronometers, to ascertain precisely their charaeter, such as their rate of deviation from true time, whether they are affected by changes of weather, &c. &c. for the information of those who may have to use them at sea. The character of each chronometer, thus ascertained, should be delivered to the officer receiving the chronometer itself. The victualling and clothing department would require, besides its chief, a surgeon, as j assistant; two able clerks, and one copying clerk. The surgeon would be required to assist in procuring medicine and hospital stores and surgical instruments, and in distributing them as the service may require. It would be his duty to examine all accounts for medicines, &c. and all requisitions for money to pay such accounts. A first clerk to assist in the correspondence; examine all money requisitions (other than those assigned to the surgeon) keeping accounts thereof to assist in preparing the general estimates; to draw up all contracts and charter parties, under the direction of his chief; and to keep all papers connected with experiments in this branch of the service. A second clerk, to keep an account of all provisions and slop clothing procured for the service; where deposited; from whom obtained; the prices of each *i.