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E, is a pair of parallel bars, both horizontal and slanting. The exercises upon this machine widen the shoulders, open the chest, and strengthen that and the
shoulders. They are somewhat difficult, but exceedingly strengthening. The bars are large enough to grasp, say two and a half inches in thickness by three and a half deep, set upon strong uprights, so framed that the uprights at their insertion do not extend beyond the bars. About five feet is a proper height for the upper side of the bars.
F, is a pair of inclined ropes, with their sliding-boxes. The windlass at Y, with a stout ratchet, is used to keep the ropes strained tight. This machine is not
very useful; the principal operation to be performed upon it being to put the sliding-boxes under the arms, and progress up the ropes by swinging the body.
The machines marked G, H, I, K, O, c, d, and e, are fixed between timbers and cross-pieces, whose places are shown by dotted lines, and the ground. G, G, are the weights. They run in wooden tubes, and are suspended upon ropes, at the other end of which are rings for handles, seen hanging down in the cut. These are used to exercise the arms; and the exercisers upon them are capable of rapidly developing the muscles of the fore arm, upper arm, shoulder and chest. They are performed by drawing or pushing out the weights with the fingers, hands, or feet, in various positions. H, is a slanting ladder, such as was above described 1, is a double running rope, running over two sheaves set in a cross-piece upon
the timbers overhead, and with a stout wooden handle, hung by the middle, at each end; so that these handles hang loose, perhaps six feet apart, and five or six feet from the ground. Two persons, of nearly equal weight, are best fitted to use this machine. One jumps up a few inches, while the other weighs down upon his end of the rope so as to keep it strained tight; and as the first comes down again, the second jumps in his turn; the motion being increased, if desired, until the jumps carry the hands up to the timber overhead, and the lower of the two pupils crouches down to the ground. K, is a single and double vaulting bar. The bars are movable in slips in the uprights, and are set at any desired height by iron pegs running in holes in the uprights and through the bars. The bars, either alone or together, are used for performing jumps from the ground, with the hands on the bar, and for various other exercises with the feet off the ground. The vaulting exercises strengthen the lower limbs and give elasticity; the remaining ones are chiefly calculated, as indeed are the majority of the apparatus exercises, to strengthen the body above the waist, and the arms. O, is a trapezium or bar-swing; a hard-wood cross-bar, hung by two ropes, and which should be about five and a half or six feet from the ground. The trapezium exercises are numerous, and consist of jumping, swinging, and turning, in many ways.
They are not very difficult, and quite pleasant to perform. e, e, aro two upright ropes for climbing, and d is a perpendicular pole for the same purpose. These should be as high as the building arrangements will allow. C, C, are upright poles, with pegs in them fitting loosely into holes. These poles are to be climbed by taking a peg in each hand and setting them one after another into the holes. At b, in the large cut, are two upright poles at about the width of the shoulders apart. These may be used for climbing, and for exercising the chest, by holding the poles, one in each hand, nearly shoulder high, and pushing the head and shoulders through between them. P, is a wide spring-board for jumping forward. R, is a rope swing. S, is a pair of iron rings, hung upon single ropes from a bar overhead, about as high as the trapezium; and the exercises upon them are of the same character, though more varied, difficult, and pleasant. They demand and develope great quickness, and strength of arm and chest, and, if practiced with care, are among the most useful of the gymnastic exercises.
T, is a spring-beam set firmly into the wall, and resting upon a fulcrum a short distance from it, so as to furnish considerable elastic force. It is used for perpendicular jumping.
U, is a flying-machine or rotary-swing, which is described on page 86.
V, is a movable leaping-stand, for standing or running jumps. It consists of two light uprights, set in heavy bases, so as to stand firmly, and with a row of holes, an inch or two apart, at corresponding heights in each. Pegs fit into these, over which, at any desired height, may be hung a string with a weight of about five pounds at each end. By this means all danger of catching the feet in jumping is avoided, as a light touch throws the string off the pegs.
X, (which does not appear on the large cut) is a horizontal beam ; a stout square stick of hard wood about twenty feet long, with tenons at each end, running in slits in the uprights. Iron pins pass through the uprights, and through holes in the tenons, and hold the beam at any height desired. The uprights may stand about four feet above the surface of the ground, and the holes in them may be three inches apart. The beam should be not less than four inches square. This machine is used for various leg exercises, which are of considerable value.
Exercises in marching, military drill, walking, and running, should be combined with the apparatus exercises, as these latter generally serve as to strengthen and develope the body and arms more than the legs. Mr. Russell has found a most healthy and valuable disciplinary influence in the military drill constantly practiced by his pupils. It giv them promptness, an upright and graceful carriage, and habits of regularity and quick obedience. They exercise with cadet muskets, which are stored in a small loft in one end of the gymnasium, and are organized into a very neat uniform company.
All gymnastic apparatus should be made of the best materials and put together in the best manner, in order to withstand the great strain to which it is subject, and to prevent accidents from breaking. Most or all of the uprights should be strongly framed, and braced into mud-sills at least two feet under ground. No exercises should be ordinarily allowed in the gymnasium, except in the presence and under the directions of a competent and reliable teacher. The exercises should be reduced to a regular and progressive system, and should be performed with as much regularity and care as those of the school recitations; according to the instructor's directions, and by no means according to the caprice of the pupils. This precaution will almost certainly prevent the accidents whose occurrence is so often used as an argument against gymnastics, and ill-directed efforts to perform the harder exercises before the easier are mastered ; it will likewise insure a proper amount of drilling thorough acquisition, and the utmost pleasure and advantage to the pupils.
Every school-house should be provided with a room, where the pupils can resort, before and after school and during recess, in unpleasant weather; with a shed, or other suitable place for fuel, which should be supplied of the best quality, in due season, and in the right condition for use; with a well, or other mode of furnishing pure water; and with a bell, large enough to be heard over the district from which the school is gathered.
No department of school architecture among us requires such immediate and careful attention as the arrangement and construction of privies. In none is there now such niggardly economy, or outrageous disregard to health, modesty, and morals, practiced. Over this portion of the school premises the most perfect neatness, seclusion, order, and propriety should be enforced, and every thing calculated to defile the mind, or wound the delicacy or modesty of the most sensitive should be immediatly removed, and any vulgarity in respect to it, on the part of the pupils, should receive attention in private, and be made a matter of parental advice and co-orporation. Neglect in this particular, on the part of the community, in providing suitable buildings and premises, or of the teacher, in enforcing proper regulations, has been followed with the most disastrous results to the health and happiness of thousands of pupils.
There should be one provided for each sex, widely separated from each other-inclosed from the general play ground, -and accessible by a covered walk, and, if practicable, from the basement, or clothes-room appropriated to each sex, and kept locked, except during school-hours. They should be ventilated, and frequently and thoroughly cleansed. Where water closets can be introduced, it will be a wise economy to adopt them. The following plan is copied from “ Richson's SchoolBuilder's Guide."
A-Cross sections, without the end wall and entance. .
_The seat, with water channel to the level of the floor. At the back and front of a, dipping 1 inch into the water, is a Valentia slate, 1 inch thick. The channel, although here drawn angular, would be better of an oval form.
6-The level of floor.
C-Cistern, supplied by ball tap, with sliding valve to lift and flush the channel G.
E-(With line above) a sloping Valentia slate, 11 feet high, to form urinal, dipping 1 inch into the water.
n-A sliding valve to lift and let off water.
m-An inclined trough or drain to carry off water when the channel is flushed by opening valves c and n.
An escape pipe, bent to form a trap at d, fixed at the level of the flour, behind the girt in the corner of E, to carry off superfluous water.
The valves, at c, and n, being opened every evening, or more frequently, will thoroughly cleanse the channel ; and the valve at n being first shut, the channel G may be filled before c is closed.