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about, and the length thereof ninety cubits” (ver. 12). To this building are assigned no openings or entrances of any kind, its purpose being perhaps merely to fill up a space, which, if left unoccupied, might withdraw worshippers from the regular route from one gate to the other, between the eastern gates. But the chambers round the temple have one door (of entrance) toward the north, and another door toward the south” (xli, 11), which I have put in the seventh chamber from either end of the temple; in which chamber I have also made the common staircase to the upper stories, and the place of access to all the thirty chambers, the doors of which communicate throughout.

Thus have I brought to an end the short notice of the several portions of the plan which it was necessary to make for the elucidation and justification thereof; to which it will be perceived that the mere comparison and arrangement of the different texts which have reference to the same subject, has, in many instances, sufficed, so full of the most exact information is the description of the prophet. I have been careful to mention where, in the minor parts of the edifice, I have introduced any thing not in express terms commanded; in the generality of which interpolations, if not in all of them, I believe it will be found that the nature of the plan indispensably required them. But that, should any incorrectness in these comparatively unimportant details be found, it does not extend to the general arrangements of the plan, will, I think, be evident to whosoever will compare it with the following concluding admeasurements.

I. FROM NORTH TO SOUTH.
References.
Description.

Cubits.
Chap. xl. 47
The inner court

100 29 and 36 north and south gates

50 23 and 27 From each of these gates to its opposite outer gates, 100

200 21 and 25 The outer north and south gates

50

25

Total 400
II. FROM EAST TO West.
References.
Description.

Cubits. Chap. xl. 7 and 11 The outer east gate 15. Thence to the porch of the inner gate

50 9 com. 33-4 The porch thereof

10 33 The inner gate

25 47

The inner court, minus the projection of the
temple therein

96 xli. 13. The temple :

100 13. The separate place and building, 100 cubits, minus the outer wall, 6 cubits

94

.

.

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Total.

400 Now as it is apparent from the text that the outermost court is a square of five hundred cubits (xlii. 20), separated by a

suburb of fifty cubits on every side from the outer court (xlv. 2), it will be equally evident that the latter will become a square of four hundred cubits, for the introduction of the various buildings of the temple : and, as is demonstrated by the above comparative calculation, they are on the plan all comprised therein.

Many other considerations might, in a more elaborate examination of this “vision,” be adduced, confirmatory of the correctness of the accompanying ground-plan of the temple of Jerusalem, which, for the sake of brevity, are here omitted. There will, however, I feel bold to conclude, appear evidences thereof sufficient to entitle me to the patronage and support of all Christian men; while, in the work above announced, 'I proceed, first, to elucidate for their edification this hitherto obscure passage of Holy Scripture; and, secondly, to present unto all the churches one other record concerning the things which are to come ; when, the “fulness of the Gentiles” having come in, it shall please the “God of the families of Israel” to “set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people that shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea” (Isai. xi. 11); and “bring them again to their own land, and plant them,

“ to be plucked up” (Jer. xxiv. 6) or “thrown down again for ever ;

and to “make them an eternal excellency, a joy of many generations” (Isai. lx. 15); and over that much-abused land to utter the depth of His awful voice, saying, Thus saith the Lord, I am returned to Jerusalem with mercies, and my house shall be built in her, saith the Lord of hosts” (Zech. i. 16), “and they shall call thee, The City of the LORD, The Zion of the Holy One of Israel” (Is. Ix. 14). Upon these high and holy purposes I rest, as upon sure and most profitable ground, while soliciting all the brethren out of their abundance to aid me in presenting, in this my intended publication unto all the churches, one other palpable notice of the things that are hastening to their fulfilment upon this changeful earth. And may God, without whose blessing no increase, whether of the fruits of the ground or of the words of men, doth come, speed and commend my words of application to you all, and give me favour in your sight; even as of yore, when the first temple was to be built, he sped the words of King David in the ears of the princes and the people of his kingdom, causing them willingly to contribute to the service of the house of God.

'The form of the work will be a quarto, containing seven plates -three maps, a plan, two elevations, and a bird's-eye viewengraved by Sidney Hall, Porter, and John Le Keux; and such

never more

a proportion of letter-press as shall be found necessary to explain the architectural portion of the text, and to elucidate the various questions which more immediately connect themselves therewith, respecting the restoration of the Jews, their King, their feasts, their sacrifices &c. The price of the book to be a guinea. The time of its publication I find it necessary, more especially on account of the expense of the engravings, which are all by the first hands in their several departments, to make dependent on the success and rapidity with which I can collect subscribers' names, to further which collection I have opened books at Mr. Nisbet's, Berners Street, Oxford Street; Messrs. Hatchard's, Piccadilly; and Messrs. Seeley's, Fleet Street ; and when the number of subscriptions shall have amounted to two hundred I shall feel justified, and do hereby pledge myself, to proceed to press with what quickness I shall find attainable : at which time I shall be careful to acquaint those who may give me their aid in furtherance of this publication, so necessary for the information of the existing and the consolation of the coming church, at what time they may expect their copies.

I am, sir, your obedient servant, August 1830.

JOHN SANDERS.

VAUGHAN ON THE PAPAL APOSTASY. The Nature and Duration of the Papal Apostasy: a Discourse

delivered at Hanover Chapel, Peckham, before the Monthly Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches, and

published at their request. Robert Vaughan. Like most other writers among the Dissenters, Mr. Vaughan, besides his professed, has certain covert objects of attack. It is not singular, in Mr. Vaughan's case, that the latter are to the former in the proportion of two to one. With the professed subject of his reasoning we have no quarrel. May God speed all his labours to the exposure and overthrow of all Popish doctripes and principles ! But we have selected his discourse for the subject of our review, first, on account of his unfair attack upon the Church of England ; and, secondly, for his equally unfair treatment of the students of prophecy. These are the peculiar features of his book, though there is not a word about them in the title-page.

There is scarcely a single book published by the Dis-senters that does not contain some attack upon the Church of England. Whether they intend it or not (and in many cases we believe there is no preconceived intention), there it is.

То Dissenting minds the future is brightened with the prospect of

the downfall of our venerable ecclesiastical institutions. In their view, the Church of England presses like an incubus upon the rising liberties of the natural, and the kindling hopes of the spiritual man: and, victims of a false theory, we have no doubt that many of them pray most devoutly, night and morning, that the time may speedily come when the whole establishment shall be, like the temple of Jerusalem, “thrown down, and not one stone left

upon

another.” Do we blame the Dissenters that this favourite subject should find a place in all their treatises ? We do not, if they are honest ; but we would draw their attention to the factespecially those who are neither ministers nor authors—as shewing that between the principles of Dissent and those of the Established Church there can be no communion and no compromise. I am a Dissenter from principle, yet I should be sorry to see the Church of England subverted,” is frequently in the mouths of such as are not ministers or authors. But we can assure every one who thus delivers himself, that his love gets the better of his logic. He is not a Dissenter from principle who can make such a declaration : and if, beginning with such an affirmation, he will proceed to argue in favour of Dissent with any supporter of the Established Church, he will soon find himself' brought, in the prosecution of his argument, to the inevitable conclusion, from his own principles, that the whole Establishment ought to be blown to atoms. And we say this with the more confidence, because we have tried the plan ourselves, and observed it more than once. The last time occured just before entering upon the present observations; when, arguing with a Dissenting friend, a man of sincere piety and full of Christian love-one of whose most frequent expressions, relative to the subject of Church and Dissent, is, that "he wishes no harm to the Church; that he would not turn a straw to hurt the church, or induce any of his friends to leave it”—a quarter of an hour's argument brought our worthy friend to the following very inconsistent declaration, most energetically pronounced, “The Church of England is an apostate prostitute, and eldest daughter of the whore of Babylon.'

To go through the whole of the discourse before us is not our purpose.

Time and space forbid. But it shall be our endeavour to put the inquiring reader in possession of certain principles of sound truth, by which he may answer for himself every syllable of objection that the author's pages contain.

Our general remarks, in reply to Mr. Vaughan, will be comprized under three heads : first, that of episcopacy and churchgovernment; secondly, that of the right of private judgment, and what it involves; thirdly, that of the interpretation of the

twelve hundred and sixty days of the Revelation. We will then, if we have time, comment upon a few of Mr. Vaughan's erroneous observations, not already noticed under those heads.

At page 28 Mr. Vaughan thus speaks : 'But while we • look in vain to the New Testament, or to the earliest eccle• siastical writers, for the proofs of hierarchical powerto be perpetuated in the church; while, indeed, the proofs that do occur are of an opposite class; it is nevertheless unquestion*able, that before the close of the second century a nominal precedence, which was occasionally conceded to some one presbyter by his brother presbyters, began to acquire an Official and a permanent character. It is, moreover, true, that as the necessary appointment of a chairman in the smaller * meetings of presbyters served thus to create the new order of

ecclesiastics, afterwards known exclusively by the name of . bishops ; so the appointment of a moderator in the synods or 'councils, which began to be convened in certain districts about 'the same period, produced the first of those dignitaries who are subsequently honoured under the name of metropolitans, primates, or archbishops. Nothing was now wanting to give existence to the entire platform which was ere long completed, * but the introduction of the patriarchal power, to extend itself in its turn over that of the arcb bishops; and that among these exalted personages, vying as they did with the authorities nearest to the purple, there should be some one possessing the means and the inclination to attempt a division of the world's government with its chief ruler.' In these remarks two distinct questions are involved ; one between our Independent Dissenters and the Church of England, the other between the Churches of England and Rome. We have only time to notice the first of these, the question of Episcopacy. Metropolitans, patriarchs, and popes, are three steps of the ladder that it is only waste of time to descant upon, with a writer like Mr. Vaughan, who stumbles at those three lower steps, of bishop, presbyter, and deacon. We will abandon the former to the tender mercy of our author, making only this one observation, That while we assert the inexpediency of making the government of the church to consist in one supreme head, we believe that the Roman church will not be judged for having a pope, but for giving way to that pope's usurpations.

How many worthy and intelligent, but uninformed, Dissenters will be satisfied with Mr. Vaughan's bare assertion in this matter, and inquire no further! No Papist ever more thoroughly gave up his mind to the ipse dirit of his priest, than the middling and lower classes of Dissenters, engaged in business and having little time to read, do to their ministers. But such writers as Mr. Vaughan, who ought, from the opportunities they have

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