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pupils, is borne by the State. As to the board of the pupils, it is paid for by far the greatest proportion of them, and provided for all by the State. There is only a small part of the pupils for whom the magistrates of the places of their nativity and residence, or their relatives, make a small annual payment to the treasurer of the seminary.

Those pupils which receive their education and support wholly from the State are legally bound to fill, during a certain number of years, the situations of schoolmasters to which they are elected, receiving always the annual salary attached to each of these situations. The length of time during which they have to fill, in this way, some place of schoolmaster offered to them, is three years. Should they not choose to accept such an appointment when offered to them, they have to pay to the treasurer of the seminary where they were educated, for each year of instruction, $14 and the whole amount of their board.

Of the forty-two seminaries existing first of January, 1833, twenty-eight were large, with 25 to 100 pupils. The law, which from unavoidable circumstances, has not always been observed, prescribed never to have more than sixty or sev enty pupils in a seminary. These seminaries were entirely supported by the State or from their own funds. The remaining fourteen seminaries, which may be called branch seminaries, count each of them six to eighteen pupils, sometimes under the superintendence of an experienced clergyman or rector, and in these the State contributes only a part of their income.

In some of the larger seminaries the State gives, besides board, a small gratuity to some of the best and most informed pupils, who act as assistant teachers of their younger fellow students.

The number of pupils in these forty-two institutions amounted, at the abovementioned period, to more than two thousand, the number of situations for schoolmasters to about twenty-two thousand, and the number of pupils formed for these situations, annually leaving the seminaries, to about eight or nine hundred. The annual vacancies in the situations of'schoolmasters amount to about three or four per cent., so that, with due allowance for pupils selecting other situations, or retained by bodily infirmities there, there still remains a sufficient number of candidates for such appointments, and the possibility of making their examinations as rigorous as they ought to be.

The expenditure of the State for the seminaries amounts annually to a little more than $80,000.

3. What is the term or duration of the course in the Seminaries?

The usual length of the course of education in the seminaries is three years, each year having two terms. In the smaller or branch seminaries forming schoolmasters for the poorest and most thinly inhabited villages, the course is limited to two years.

The schoolmasters which have an appointment are sometimes (perhaps every year) assembled at the nearest seminary for the purpose of receiving there, during three or four weeks, a term of instruction on methods newly invented in the progress of the art of teaching.

Besides this, the most distinguished or most active schoolmasters receive from the consistory of the province small premiums in money, or books. The schoolmasters of the circles (nearly equal to one or two townships) have, under the protection of the government, weekly conferences, where they discuss the different methods of instruction, comment on new works on education, keep exact minutes of these transactions, and read their own observations or papers on these subjects.

4. What are the subjects of study in the Seminaries?

The age of entering into the seminaries is between sixteen or eighteen years, and the pupils are free from any service in the army or in the militia during times of peace.

The seminaries wherein no pupil can be received who has not gone through the elementary instruction, or whose morality is subjected to the least doubt, are destined to form teachers for the elementary or primary schools as well as for the middle or citizens' schools, where no instruction in the classical languages is given.

The parts which constitute the course of instruction for such teachers are-

1. Religion. Biblical history, introductory and commentatory lessons on the Bible, systematical instruction on the religious and moral duties of man.

2. The German language in an etymological and grammatical point of view. Exercises in expressing thoughts and reasoning orally and by writing.

3. Mathematics. Arithmetic as well from memory or intellectual as by putting down the numbers, geometry, stereometry, and trigonometry.

4. A knowledge of the world, consisting in an acquaintance with the most important events or objects in history, natural history, natural philosophy, geography and cosmology or physical geography.

5. Musical instruction, consisting in the theory and practice of singing, theory of music, instruction in playing on the violin and the organ.

6. Drawing according to the system of Peter Schmid, and penmanship.

7. The theory of education, the theory and practice of teaching and their connection with religious service, the liturgy.

8. Gymnastic exercises of all kinds.

9. Where it is practicable, theoretical and practical instruction in horticulture, in the cultivation of fruit-trees and in husbandry. In the country the dwellinghouse of the schoolmaster has a garden, serving as a nursery and an orchard, for the benefit of the schoolmaster who lives there, without paying any rent or local taxes, and for the instruction of the village. In latter years the rearing of silk-worms and the production of silk has been frequently tried by the schoolmasters in the country, the government furnishing mulberry-trees, and other materials.

What is still more important than this complete course of instruction is the spirit of religious and moral industry and self-denial which pervades the seminaries, continually supported and inculcated by the directors, all highly distinguished men of piety and learning, and by the strict discipline under which the pupils live, without feeling themselves fettered by it.

5. How far is instruction in each subject of study carried? For instance, where does the course of Mathematics terminate, and to what extent is Geography taught? The answer to this question may be found already in the preceding one. On the whole the schoolmaster is so trained, that he may form, in connection with the rector, even of the remotest village, where the last-mentioned is always president ex-officio of the school committee elected by the inhabitants, a central point of religious, moral and intellectual information, sending its beneficent and cheerful beams through the whole extent of the little community.

This whole system of instruction tends to a religious and moral end, and rests on the sacred basis of Christian love. As the most affecting and indeed sublime example of this spirit, I mention the little, or branch seminaries for training poor schoolmasters in such habits and with such feelings as shall fit them to be useful and contented teachers of the poorest villages. Here is poverty, to which that of the poorest laborers in this country is affluence; and it is hopeless, for to this class of schoolmasters no idea is held out of advancement or change. Yet if ever poverty on earth appeared serene, contented, lofty, beneficent, it is here. "Here we see," as the well-informed English translator of Cousin's Report on the state of public instruction in Prussia says, "Here we see men in the very spring-time of life, so far from being made, as we are told men must be made, restless and envious and discontented by instruction, taking indigence and obscurity to their hearts for life; raised above their poor neighbors in edu cation, only that they may become the servants of all, and may train the lowliest children in a sense of the dignity of man, and the beauty of creation, in the love of God and virtue."

6. What apparatus is required in the Seminaries? For instance, what in Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, and other branches?

The first thing requisite for the larger seminaries is a house, with ground for gymnastic exercises, for horticulture, and an orchard with fruit-trees, to teach pomology, &c., attached to it.

Besides this, a library composed principally of works on theology, moral philosophy, the art of teaching and systems of education, historical and geographi cal compendiums, books on natural history, natural philosophy, husbandry, cultivation of fruits and vegetables, rearing of bees and silk-worms, the German

able memorial to the Legislature prepared by a committee consisting of Messrs. J. S. Wright, Secretary of the Convention, Rev. Mr. Pinckney, and H. M. Wead. The proposed bill was explained and sustained by J. S. Wright before the legislative committees. The result was a general revision of the School Laws, and the passage of an Act making the Secretary of State ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, authorizing special taxation for school purposes, and introducing other decided improvements upon the former system. Committees were also appointed by the Convention to make arrangements for a "Teachers' Convention" at Jacksonville, June 26th, 1845, and to there report a series of text-books for common schools and academies. A call was afterwards issued for a Common School Convention of teachers and others, to meet at Springfield on the 9th of January, 1845, "for the purpose of organizing a State Education Society, and for adopting such other measures as may seem best calculated to increase the interest in common schools and give efficiency to the laws respecting them." Both of these meetings were held, but we have no report of their proceedings.

In accordance with an appointment made by the Convention which met at Jacksonville in June, 1845, a committee, consisting of Messrs. G. M. Meeker, William Jones, and W. H. Brown, issued a circular calling a General Common School Convention, to meet at Chicago, Oct. 8th, 1846. The invitation was extended to the friends of education generally throughout the West, and the programme of exercises included addresses from Henry Barnard, and other educators from the East, and essays from J. M. Sturtevant, W. H. Williams, Francis Springer, Prof. J. B. Turner, A. W. Henderson, Rev. C. E. Blood, J. S. Wright, William Brown, and T. M. Post. One of the most important results was the formation of the "North-Western Educational Society" contemplating a union in the efforts of the friends of education in all the Western States for mutual benefit and improvement, and which subsequently held annual meetings at Milwaukee and Detroit. At the close of the Convention, a "Teachers' Institute," the first in the State, was organized and continued in session several days.

The earliest Teachers' Association of which we find mention was the "Franklin Association of Common School Teachers," for the counties of Greene, Jersey, Macoupin, and Madison, organized Oct. 2d, 1845, with the following officers:-Rev. L. S. Williams, Pres. Rev. H. Loomis, William Tryon, L. S. Norton, and Rev. O. Cooley, Vice-Pres.; and C. L. Bacon, Treas. The Kane County Educational Association was formed in January, 1847,-the Du Page

MEMORIAL

OF THE

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION TO THE LEGISLATURE OF
MASSACHUSETTS ON NORMAL SCHOOLS.

(Submitted January, 1887.)

TO THE HONORABLE THE LEGISLATURE

OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS.

The Memorial of the Directors of the American Institute of Instruction, praying that provision may be made for the better preparation of the teachers of the schools of the Commonwealth, respectfully showeth :

THAT there is, throughout the Commonwealth, a great want of well-qualified teachers:

That this is felt in all the schools, of all classes, but especially in the most important and numerous class, the district schools:

That wherever, in any town, exertion has been made to improve these schools, it has been met and baffled by the want of good teachers; that they have been sought for in vain; the highest salaries have been offered, to no purpose; that they are not to be found in sufficient numbers to supply the demand:

That their place is supplied by persons exceedingly incompetent, in many respects; by young men, in the course of their studies, teaching from necessity, and often with a strong dislike for the pursuit; by mechanics and others wanting present employment; and by persons who, having failed in other callings, take to teaching as a last resort, with no qualifications for it, and no desire of continuing in it longer than they are obliged by an absolute necessity:

That those among this number who have a natural fitness for the work, now gain the experience, without which no one, whatever his gifts, can become a good teacher, by the sacrifice, winter after winter, of the time and advancement of the children of the schools of the Commonwealth:

That every school is now liable to have a winter's session wasted by the unskillful attempts of an instructor, making his first experiments in teaching: By the close of the season, he may have gained some insight into the mystery, may have hit upon some tolerable method of discipline, may have grown somewhat familiar with the books used and with the character of the children; and, if he could go on in the same school for successive years, might become a profitable teacher: but whatever he may have gained himself, from his experiments, he will have failed too entirely of meeting the just expectations of the district, to leave him any hope of being engaged for a second term: He accordingly looks elsewhere for the next season, and the district receives another master, to have the existing regulations set aside, and to undergo another series of experiments: We do not state the fact too strongly, when we say, that the time, capacities, and opportunities of thousands of the children are now sacrificed, winter after winter, to the preparation of teachers, who, after this enormous sacrifice, are, notwithstanding, often very wretchedly prepared:

That many times, no preparation is even aimed at: that such is the known demand for teachers of every kind, with or without qualifications, that candidates present themselves for the employment, and committees, in despair of finding better, employ them, who have no degree of fitness for the work: that committees are obliged to employ, to take charge of their children, men to whose incompetency they would reluctantly commit their farms or their workshops:

That the reaction of this deplorable incompetency of the teachers, upon the minds of the committees, is hardly less to be deplored, hardly less alarming, as it threatens to continue the evil and render it perpetual: Finding they cannot get suitable teachers at any price, they naturally apportion the salary to the value of the service rendered, and the consequence is, that, in many places, the wages of a teacher are below those given in the humblest of the mechanic arts;

and instances are known, of persons of tolerable qualifications as teachers, declining to quit, for a season, some of the least gainful of the trades, on the ground of the lowness of the teachers' pay.

We merely state these facts, without enlarging upon them, as they have already too great and melancholy a notoriety. We but add our voice to the deep tone of grief and complaint which sounds from every part of the State.

We are not surprised at this condition of the teachers. We should be surprised if it were much otherwise.

Most of the winter schools are taught for about three months in the year; the summer not far beyond four. They are, therefore, of necessity, taught, and must continue to be taught, by persons who, for two-thirds or three-fourths of the year, have other pursuits, in qualifying themselves for which they have spent the usual period, and which, of course, they look upon as the main business of their lives. They cannot be expected to make great exertions and expensive preparation for the work of teaching, in which the standard is so low, and for which they are so poorly paid.

Whatever desire they might have, it would be almost in vain. There are now no places suited to give them the instruction they need.

For every other profession requiring a knowledge of the principles of science and the conclusions of experience, there are special schools and colleges, with learned and able professors, and ample apparatus. For the preparation of the teachers, there is almost none. In every other art ministering to the wants and conveniences of men, masters may be found ready to impart whatsoever of skill they have to the willing apprentice; and the usage of society justly requires that years should be spent under the eye of an adept, to gain the requisite ability. An apprentice to a schoolmaster is known only in tradition.

We respectfully maintain that it ought not so to be: so much of the intelligence and character, the welfare and inmediate and future happiness of all the citizens, now and hereafter, depends on the condition of the common schools, that it is of necessity a matter of the dearest interest to all of the present generation; that the common education is to such a degree the palladium of our liberties, and the good condition of the common schools, in which that education is chiefly obtained, so vitally important to the stability of our State, to our very existence as a free State, that it is the most proper subject for legislation, and calls loudly for legislative provision and protection. The common schools ought to be raised to their proper place; and this can only be done by the better education of the teachers.

We maintain that provision ought to be made by the State for the education of teachers; because, while their education is so important to the State, their condition generally is such as to put a suitable education entirely beyond their reach; because, by no other means is it likely that a system shall be introduced, which shall prevent the immense annual loss of time to the schools, from a change of teachers; and because, the qualifications of a first-rate teacher are such as cannot be gained but by giving a considerable time wholly to the work of preparation.

In his calling, there is a peculiar difficulty in the fact, that whereas, in other callings and professions, duties and difficulties come on gradually, and one by one, giving ample time, in the intervals, for special preparation, in his they all come at once. On the first day on which he enters the school, his difficulties meet him with a single, unbroken, serried front, as numerously as they ever will; and they refuse to be separated. He cannot divide and overcome them singly, putting off the more formidable to wrestle with at a future time; he could only have met them with complete success, by long forecast, by months and years of preparation.

The qualifications requisite in a good teacher, of which many have so low and inadequate an idea, as to think them almost the instinctive attributes of every man and every woman, we maintain to be excellent qualities, rarely united in a high degree in the same individual, and to obtain which one must give, and may well give, much time and study.

We begin with the lowest. He must have a thorough knowledge of whatever he undertakes to teach. If it were not so common, how absurd would it seem, that one should undertake to communicate to another fluency and grace in the

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