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daily habit of work, of directing action to an end. It is said of mathematics that they discipline the reason; the schools, simply for their requiring attendance at fixed hours and with a determined object, become a means of discipline to the passions in the germ and in their unfolding. The children can not shout here when they please, nor laugh, nor run, nor fight, nor eat. Such social life leaves its traces upon the mind and upon the future customs of him who is to be a man. The statistics of every country have proved this fact without its being recognized. To know how to read even Jbadly, without having made use of reading as a means of instmc tion, has been found to be a preservative against crime, the number of crimes among this class of men being relatively less than among the mass, who are altogether destitute of the first rudiments of knowledge. What influence could tHis sterile beginning of instruction have on the morality of the individual} None! It is the school. Reading is usually only learned in school, and it is the school that brings the appetites under control, educates the mind, subordinates the passions, and domesticates the man. The school brings into contact men in the germ, and compels them to associate day after day without anger. The instinct of a boy leads him to seek a quarrel with another boy of his own age and strength whom he meets in the street; but the daily habit of seeing one hundred boys in the school under the same conditions, takes away this hostile feeling, and the quarrelsome spirit of the natural man, which at a later day would be translated into stabbing and homicide, is suffocated or softened at its source. On the other hand, the soul makes use of material organs for its functions, and is enabled by practice to strengthen and perfect itself. The weak yearling is converted into the strong and powerful ox by means of the exercise of its muscles. The memory, the judgment, and the power of perceiving analogies and contrasts, become refined and expand with the smallest exercise of the mind. Learning to read, solely as an exercise of the mental faculties, without its application to the ends of reading, causes a revolution in the mind of the child, improves him, expands him. Hundreds of men have begun a study and spontaneously abandoned it, and lost what they had learned; have gone through a course of studies and afterwards forgotten all or nearly all that they had read;—or have studied Latin alone, and that badly, (and for the purposes of life, for the acquirement of any other than professional knowledge, an acquaintance with Latin is like knowing the Guichua dialect for the purposes of commerce,) and nevertheless it is an established fact that these men who have abandoned study, these Latin students, have a clearer mind than those who have studied nothing. Being once in a gathering of men who wished to learn to read, our attention was attracted by the appearance of a young man, wrapped up, as the others, in his poncho. "But you know how to read and write perfectly," I said to him. Had he answered me that he did not, I should have felt the unpleasant sensations which are experienced when we see opposite signs to those which are natural, as when a man laughs without moving the muscles of his face. He in fact knew how to read and write with a considerable degree of perfection. We afterwards saw two brothers, identical in features, tone of voice, height, and complexion. Feature by feature they were as identical as twins; but comparing the expression of their features, they were two distinct beings; the one appeared as if he might be the steward of the other's house. One had received a complete education by contact with high society, while the other had remained confined to the occupations of the country. The employment of the understanding transforms the features of the human face, lightens it up, and gives it dignity and grace even when in repose.

Should the school, therefore, produce no other results than to exercise at an early age the faculties of the mind, somewhat subordinating the passions, it would be the means of changing in a single generation the industrial capacity of the mass, as well as its morality and habits. It is proved beyond doubt that iu workshops to know how to read is the cause of producing more and better work. It may be a matter of conjecture how this result is produced; but the manufacturer does not deceive himself; the women who do not know how to read earn, for instance, ten cents per day; those who know how to read, thirty; and she who has taught to read, forty— employed in the same kind of labor.

But the modern school, such as it may be in Chili, does not confine itself in its possible results to those mysterious and imperceptible first rudiments of civilization. Let us undertake this work with a feeling of the certainty of success, and with the means already tested, and the mighty effects will very soon be felt. We already have the teacher; bring him, then, the scholars. Reading is no longer a punishment for the child, nor a torment of years of apprenticeship. The Spanish, next to the Italian, is the most easily read on account of the simplicity of its orthography. The most severe logic governs its writing. It is written the same as it is pronounced; it is pronounced as it is written. The elementary book descends to the limited capacity of the child, to lead him by degrees and insensibly to the books of men. There is no struggling with routine; routine has given way before experience.

We want, however, the school-house, the spacious, commodious, and well-ventilated building. What structure is that to be seen yonder with white and raised front and elegant outline? It is the town school-house, under the roof of which the present generation has spent three or four Tears. When this generation shall have become full men nnd women, the rancho will have disappeared, one by one, and the cheerful fireside will shine instead. The most pleasant recollections of our infancy are associated with this pretty and spacious building, with the cheerful and comfortable fireplace. How can such associations be broken?

But where is the book that shall be used after the child has learned to read, the book to lead him through life? This book will not be long in coming. Agriculture needs books; the art of war needs books; cattle-raising requires books; the school requires books; and our religion needs books, that we may not depend on oral tradition alone for the preservation of our faith. Let us teach reading in all its branches and under all possible' forms, to make it fruitful;—geography, arithmetic, linear drawing, for all are but reading, or a form of reading—and in this way we may change the whole face and future of our country, and substitute, instead of the Promancanian Spanish and Araucanian Indian, unfitted for progress, a people able to follow all modern industrial pursuits on its onward rapid march. The steamers, beating the waters of our rivers and coasts, are a foreign production; the stuifs in which we are clothed are no work of ours; the railroad, advancing to the very foot of our Cordilleras, is not the product of our brains. The auxiliary agencies adopted for the propagation of common schools are accusing our impotency and nothingness, because they are all foreign importations. These are but the simple overflowing of the overfull channels of other lands, that begins to invade slowly our own homes, our streets, and fields. Let us then teach reading, so that our people may read the wonders of the railroad, of the telegraph, and of those steamers that are proclaiming, like Nature itself, the glory of God. Like God's creation, those marvelous inventions of men go on proclaiming, throughout the world, the power and glory of those nations who have been elevated above the rest by mental culture, and by endowing their children with the means of enjoying the benefit of the accumulated knowledge and experience of mankind.

Such is the schoolmaster's work. An humble but lofty task— humble enough not to be forgotten by those who perform so beneficent ministryship. They are the unpretending instrument of wondrous transformations!

IV. DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF NORMAL SCHOOLS.

PREFACE.

The first distinct suggestion of a School having for one of its objects the special preparation of schoolmasters, which we have met in our researches into the educational history of the country, occurs in the Massachusetts Magazine for 1789—in which the writer (supposed to have been Elisha Ticknor) proposes "to abolish the system of Town Grammar Schools, and to establish a public Grammar School in each county of the State, in which should be taught English Grammar, Latin, Greek, rhetoric, geography, mathematics, &c, in order to fit young gentlemen for college and school-keeping. At the head of this county school I would place an able preceptor who should superintend the whole instruction of the youth committed to his care, and who, together with a board of overseers, should annually examine young gentlemen designed for schoolmasters in reading, writing, arithmetic, and English grammar, and if they are found qualified for the office of school-keeping, and able to teach these branches with ease and propriety, to recommend them for this purpose. No man ought to be suffered to superintend ever so small a school, except he has been first examined by a body of men of this character and authorized for this purpose."

The first School or Seminary established avowedly for the instruction of those who desired to become teachers, and organized and conducted in reference to this end, was in the town of Concord, Vermont. In that town, Rev. Samuel Read Hall, in March, 1823, opened a School or Seminary especially for this class of persons, prepared and read before them every year for seven years a course of Lectures ou School Keeping, and another on School Government, and to illustrate how children should be governed and instructed, admitted into his Seminary a class of young pupils, who constituted a sort of Model School. A portion of the Lectures prepared for this Seminary were printed in 1829, and a few years later, an edition of over ten thousand copies were printed at the expense of James Wadsworth of Gencseo, and distributed to the several SchoolDistricts of the State of New York under the sanction of the Legislature, by the Superintendent of Common Schools. This pioneer of American Normal Schools,—this early and one of the earliest contributors to the Pedagogical Literature of the country, continued to labor in this special field until May, 1840—a teacher of teachers —first at Concord, Vt., from March, 1828, to July, 1830; at Andover, Mass., as Principal of the Teachers' Seminary from September, 1830, to June, 1835, and at Plymouth, N. H., from June, 1837, to May, 1840*

The first formal effort to establish a Seminary for Teachers in Massachusetts was made by James 6. Carter in Lancaster in 1827, to realize the plan of such an institution which he had presented in his " Essays on Popular Education," first published in the Boston Patriot in the winter of 1824-5, and afterwards issued in pamphlet form in 1826. The town of Lancaster appropriated a portion of land and the use of an academy building to aid him in carrying out the enterprise. His Memorial to the Legislature—asking "for a moderate amount of public patronage," for a seminary "for the particular instruction in the science of education or in the best means of developing the physical, moral, aud intellectual powers of the young," "as no such seminary for this purpose had to his knowledge been established in this country"—was commended by the Governor in his Message, and favorably reported on by the Select Committee on so much of the Governor's Message as related to a Seminary for the Instruction of School Teachers." But the movement was in advance of public opinion as represented in the Legislature. Mr. Carter, however, opened a school in 1827, and for several years prepared private pupils who became successful teachers in different parts of the country, while he himself by public lecture, and as a member of the Legislature, continued to advocate measures for the professional training of teachers, and the improvement of the system of public schools—and finally, in 1837, drafted the act creating the State Board of Education.*

The first Normal School, or Seminary for the Instruction and Training of Teachers, in Massachusetts, was established in Andover, by the Trustees of Phillips Academy, and was opened in Sept., 1830, under the Principalship of Rev. Samuel Read Hall—whoso Lectures on School Keeping, and experience in his private seminary in Concord, Vermont, signalized him as almost the only man in the country whose studies and experience qualified him for this special work. The Seminary continued in successful operation until 1842.

* For Memoin of Samuel Read Ilnl] and Jimet G. Carter, lee Barnard'l American Journal of Education, Vol. V.; and AnurUan Educational Biography, Vol. I.

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