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The existence of a lurking wish to extend and strengthen by this means the power and dominion of the church is the more evident, as establishments for education are daily arising, which are entirely withdrawn from temporal influence. I repeat that such a system as this appears to me quite as one-sided and disadvantageous as the opposite one.
In the third place, what is called the philosophical course, is here, still less than in the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, such as to afford any compensation for the meagerness of the education afforded at the gymnasium. How, for instance, can a single lesson or lecture a week in Greek grammar make amends for many years' academical study of that difficult language, or afford any preparation for the studies of the university, in themselves meagre enough? Besides, there is merely a choice offered to the quasi-student, whether he will learn Greek or history. Should he prefer history, he must renounce Greek altogether. Fourthly, much might be said
against the subordinate universities above-men-' tioned. They were established at a time when the unquiet dispositions of the Turin students had turned towards politics, and occasioned much trouble to the government, which endeavored to weaken them by scattering them thus over the country. It may be doubted, nevertheless, whether this lasting resource against a merely temporary evil has proved really effectual.
It is at all events likely that the number of ignorant students has been thereby increased, and the instruction deteriorated from the diminution of the number of learned professors. The German universities sometimes exhibit the dangers of too much liberty, those of this country the evils of too much restraint. The time must come in a young man's life when even paternal authority must cease-much more, then, the discipline of a school.
III. THE GRAND DUCHY OF TUSCANY.
The means of education provided by the central government, municipal authorities, or charitable endowment are:-1. infant schools, of which, in 1850, there were 22, numbering over 2,000 children. 2. Elementary schools, of which there is at least one supported by the commune, and a number of schools of mutual instruction supported by voluntary associations. In these schools, there is no charge for tuition. 3 Schools for secondary education embracing 4 colleges for nobles, 1€ gymnasiums or classical schools, 16 seminaries or boarding schools for girls, called conservatori. The seminary at Florence, has 600 boarders. In all of these schools there are over 5,000 students. 4. Three universities, viz.: at Pisa, (founded in 1138.) with 580 students; at Siena, (founded in 1331,) with 300 students; and at Florence, (called the academy, and founded in 1428,) with 230 students.
Mr. Von Raumer, remarks: “In so highly polished a land as Tuseany, the value of education and instruction has by no means escaped the attention of the government and of individuals; yet much still remains to be done, and schools and universities appear to be very scanty in comparison with the number and revenues of the clergy and especially of the monks. Indeed, the Italians do not acquire knowledge by means of their universities, but in spite of them; and how can governments be surprised if many, both old and young, have either no ideas at all, or false ones, of passing events, of social relations, states, constitutions, and governments, since every genuine avenue to science and experience is cut off from them by the perverse one-sidedness and silly apprehension of their rulers !"
IV. STATES OF THE CHURCH.
The Roman or Papal States, or States of the Church, are divided into 21 provinces, of which those lying west of the Apennines are styled Legations, while that of Rome, bears the name of Comarca. This territory was, at various times—most of it from 755 to 1273, donated to the Holy See. The general supervision of all the educational institutions is committed to a Commissioner of Studies, while the local management of the elementary schools is assigned to a committee, of which the parish priest is one. The means of elementary education are very generally provided either by parish schools, or by schools conducted by various religious orders. Higher education is dispensed by seven universities, several of which are among the oldest in the world.
The institutions for elementary education in the city of Rome, are:
1. Orphan Asylums. Of these there are a large number richly endowed and well regulated, of which some are for boys and others for girls. The San Michael is supported by the government, and furnishes instruction, not only in the elementary studies, but in various trades, to over 400 orphans of both sexes. In this class of institutions there are about 2,000 boys and girls.
2. Parish schools for poor children-established by the rector of the parish, assisted by the commission of charitable subsidies. There were in 1847, eleven of these schools, with about 1,000 scholars, between the ages
of five and twelve years. 3. Schools conducted by religious orders, devoted by their vows to teaching.
i. Schools conducted by a religious order established by Calasanzio, a native of Spain, who opened a free school in Rome, in*1597, which at one time numbered over 1,000 poor children in one of the poorest districts of the city. He died at the advanced age of ninety-two years, after his "Congregation to the Poor " had been erected into a religious order, by the pope, the members taking, in addition to the vows of poverty, chas tity, and obedience, the vow of instruction. The members are called Padri Scolapi, and the schools Scolapi, (contracted from schole pie,) or pious schools, of which there are now three, with over 1,000 pupils.
ii. Schools of the Fathers of the Christian Doctrine or teaching. This religious congregation, devoted to teaching, is composed of a fraternity established by Cesare de Bees in 1592, (Congregazione degli Agalisti,) and another founded by two priests in 1559. They have two houses, and educate about 700 pupils.
iii. Schools of the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine, a fraternity connected with the order of teachers established by De Lasalle in 1684, in France, and transferred to Rome in 1702. As they profess to teach only the elementary studies, they are sometimes called the Ignorantelli. They have three houses, and instruct about 1,200 children, without fee or reward.
In these schools, much time is given to religious instruction and observances, and the methods which were once in advance of other schools, are now antiquated and formal, to which these fraternities adhere with the tenacity of religious faith.
4. Elementary schools for the gratuitous instruction of poor girls. In one of these, the conservatori, sixty girls are boarded, lodged, and instructed ; and as soon as they are of suitable age, are taught to spin, weave, make gloves, and other profitable handicrafts.
5. Regional or district schools. Rome is divided into wards, or districts, in which are maintained, partly at the expense of the government, and partly by a small charge on the parents, 246 district or regional schools, (scholae regionarie,) with about 5,000 children. These schools are of three grades--first, those which receive boys and girls under five years; second, those which receive only girls, in which they are taught, besides the elementary studies, to sew, knit, and embroider; third, those which receive only boys over five years. In a few of the two last grades of schools, the course of studies is extended so as to embrace the studies of our public high schools.
6. Schools established by individuals and associations such as the school of Prince Massieno in one of the poorest districts of Rome-the evening schools established by Casaglio, an engraver in wood, in 1816, and extended by others.
These schools belong to the primary grade, and are intended mainly for the poorer classes.
V. KINGDOM OF THE Two SICILIES. A system of public instruction was established for this kingdom during its occupancy by the French, embracing the three grades of schools : 1. primary; 2. secondary ; 3. superior.
1. The law requires at least one elementary school in every commune, for reading, writing, arithmetic, and the catechism. This provision is not very generally enforced. There are a number of primary schools taught by religious congregations, such as the Christian Brothers, and the Fathers Scolapi. In 1847, there were 2,500 primary schools.
2. Secondary instruction is supplied by 780 gymnasia, or classical schools, besides 4 lycea, which confer degrees. There is a large seminary for girls at Naples, and another at Palermo, besides a number of conventual seminaries for female education.
3. Superior education is dispensed by 4 universities:-at Naples, (founded in 1224;) at Catania, (founded in 1445;) at Palermo, (founded in 1447;) at Messina, (founded in 1838,) with an average attendance of about 2,300 pupils.
MODEL PRIMARY SCHOOL-HOUSE, IN BOSTON. 'The following description of the May Primary School-house, in Boston, taken from the Annual Report for 1864, was prepared by Hon. John D. Philbrick, Superintendent of Public Schools :
The accompanying cuts represent perspective views and plans of the two Primary School-houses which illustrate most strikingly our progress in this department of school architecture. Here are shown in contrast the first and poorest building ever erected in this city for the accommodation of a Primary School, and the latest and best. The former was built in 1831, thirteen years after the establishment of Primary Schools here, and when the whole number of schools of this grade was sixty, the registered number of pupils being 3,700. The whole cost of this edifice was $468. It is still occupied by a Primary School, but it will probably be vacated at the close of the present school year. It is located about a mile and a half west of the State House, on the Milldam road [a continuation of Beacon Street], a few rods beyond the corner of Parker Street. It is a wooden structure, perched up on piles four or five feet above the high-water mark of the tide millpond. It is about twenty-five feet square, and two stories high, the upper room having been occupied as a missionary chapel, by the Old South Society. It has recently been furnished with the modern school chairs and desks, but the original furniture was of the most primitive description, consisting simply of long forms without backs. There were no desks or benches for writing, and no boxes, or contrivances of any kind, for keeping the books. There was no need of any provision for the safe-keeping of slates, for in the early days of this building a slate in a Primary School was a rare phenomenon.
From this humble beginning, we have gradually advanced by successive steps of progress, which are fully illustrated by buildings now standing, till we have at length reached, as the result of the experiments of the past thirty years, that combination of improvements in school architecture which is exhibited in the new building already referred to, - a building which combines so many excellences as to deserve, perhaps, to be called a model Primary School-house. By far he most important improvements in our Primary School-houses have been made within the past ten years. Indeed it is only since 1860, that we have been working with a clear and definite purpose in the erection of buildings for our Primary Schools. Previous to this time there was no recognized ideal standard, or model plan, to which the buildings were made to conform as far as circumstances would permit, and cach structure represented the idea of the Committee which happened to be in power at the time of its erection.
And, although such a standard has been kept constantly in view for four years past, owing to the difficulty of securing adequate lots, we have only now succeeded in coming fully up to its requirements, in the edifice which has recently been completed on Washington Square.
The plan which has at length been substantially carried out in this building, was the result of a movement inaugurated by the Committee on Public Instruction (of the City Council), under the intelligent lead of Thomas C. Amory, Jr., Esq., Chairman on the part of the Board of Aldermen, and J. Putnam Bradlee, Esq., President of the Common Council.
At the request of this Committee, early in the year 1860, the Superintendent of Schools, in conjunction with G. J. F. Bryant, Architect, prepared several model plans of Primary School-houses, with accom