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formed, depend, it is confessed, somewhat on the accident of "going home the same way," or some other chance association. Yet with all these disadvantages, one is pleased as well as surprised to find that it used to be said of the Paulines at the universities, that they “hung together more than other schools;" though it was " perhaps because they went up only three or four together, not like a large school, where they send up thirty or forty."
Religious Observances and Instruction. The chapel provided by the founder was consumed in the great fire and was not restored, and the chaplain was converted into an assistant master. The observances originally required were, (1.) that every child on entering the school shall salute the child Jesus, an image of whom well sculptured, stood at the upper end of the room; (2.) that at the time of the "saving,” (elevation of the Host,) in the adjoining chapel, every child should remain kneeling; and (3.) that thrice in a day, (morning, noon, and evening,) they shall say the prayers duly prescribed. At present, at the beginning and ending of each school time, Latin prayers, including two of Erasmus's, are read by the captain. The Greek Testament is read, and certain scripture lessons got. But the boys depend on their parents and religious patrons for their religious education. Boys of all denominations are admitted provided they can produce certificates of baptism.
School Terms and Holidays. The school terms occupy forty weeks, and half holidays are Wednesdays and Saturdays, and whole holidays are Shrove Tuesday, Ash Wednesday, Queen's Birthday, Coronation Day, Fawkes' DayFifth of November, and Lord Mayor's Day, and such other days as are commanded by the sovereign, or a bishop.
Results as to Scholarship. The number of boys leaving for the universities is not more than five or six annually, and these principally to Cambridge. And while scholarships, prizes and other distinctions are won by Paulines, the Commisssioners think " that much more ought to be done." The paucity of Fellow. ship, obtained at Trinity as compared with the Scholarships, seems to prove that first-rate attainments are at present rare, and confirms us in the view we have already expressed, of the necessity for a more effective and vigorous competition, and a better system of admission to the school. It is certain that the founder looked for great literary and educational results, and in past times his hopes were not disappointed. But of late years the school appears to have contributed but little to the educating body of either university, or to the wis. dom of public schools, or the military service of the country.
Proposals for Improvement. The Commissioners recommend the sale of the present site, where the noise of the traffic seriously interrupts the work of the school, and affects unfavorably the health of the boys, and the erection of better and larger accommodations within the metropolitan district, so as to realize the design of Dean Colet, for a day-school for the dwellers in London, which might and ought to become the first in the city, and one of the first in Great Britain. To the school “the present system of admission by nomination should be abandoned, and the foundation thrown open, as at Eaton and Winchester, to perfectly unrestricted competition. Until this is done, St. Paul will not take that rank among schools which its founder designed, and which it can actually possess.” They recommend a radical change in the Governing Body, and investing the high master with the power of appointing and dismissing all the assist. ant mastors; and that the choice of masters be not restricted to former Paulines, nor to particular colleges.
As guardians indeed of the school property, the Court of Assistants appear as we have already remarked, to have performed their duty both honorably and efficiently; nor are we disposed to criticise too severely their distribution of its annual income, though we may think that in some important particulars its ample funds might have been, not more bonestly, but more wisely, applied. But the administration of the school property is one thing, the government of the school is another; and assuredly a body constituted as is the Court of Assistants, can not be considered as in all respects " suitable and efficient for the purposes and duties” which the Governing Body of a school is or ought to be called upon to fulfill. The number is, in our opinion, too large, and as it is impossible that the members of the Court should be selected with any special view to their knowledge or experience of educational matters, or to their literary or scientific attainments, it must, we think, inevitably happen that the majority will consist of persons indisposed to trust to their own judgment in considering any plan that may be brought before them for the improvement of the school, or the extension of its field of usefulness. The tendencies of such a body will not be progressive, and it is, therefore, no matter of surprise that we should have had to echo the complaint of a Commission which reported more than a quarter of a century ago. The plan for the extension of the school which we have proposed, will probably necessitate important changes in the nature and working of the system, and it is evidently most desirable that the renovated institution should be watched during its early years with an attentive and intelligent ege.
That a school of such magnitude as this will be, should be administered with a view solely to the higher educational interests of the metropolis, is what the country has a right to demand of those who will have the distribution of its ample resources; but the recent history of St. Paul's School has shown that there has been a growing tendency in the Court of Assistants to narrow the sphere of its operation, and convert it more and more from a public school into a mere charitable foundation, useful doubtless to individuals, but of inferior public importance. It would be a grievous injury to the cause of classical education if the same principles of exclusive patronage were allowed to obstruct admission to a school which might and ought to become the first in London, and one of the first in Great Britain. More liberal views we know to be entertained by those members of the Court who have taken the most active part in the management of the school, and whose opinion is therefore most valuable; but the evidence of these gentlemen gives us little reason to suppose that their views are gaining ground among their colleagues.
These, in our opinion would, under circumstances otherwise favorable, be valid reasons for recommending some modification in the Governing Body, similar in principle to the changes proposed in those of Eaton, Winchester, and Westminster. The time seems to have arrived when more formal and systematic effect should be given to the memorable ordinance of the founder, that on important occasions recourse should be had to the advice of " well-literate and learned men." The spirit of this ordinance would be preserved by such a reconstitution of the Governing Body as should include on the one hand the Master, Wardens, and Surveyors, with perhaps one or two elective members of the Mercers' Company, and on the other an equal number of persons extraneous to the Company, to be selected by the Crown in consideration of personal eminence or special fitness to superintend a place of liberal education.
IX. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN ITALY.
Introductory to an outline of the system of public instruction projected for Italy under its new political organization, we present the best summary we could collect of the condition of education in the different states in 1850.
1. SUMMARY OF CONDITION ON EDUCATION IN 1850.
ITALY comprises, 1. The kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, with 5,068,000 inhabitante. 2. The kingdom of Sadinia,
5,292,000 3. The Duchy of Parma,
479,900 4. The Duchy of Modena,
490,000 5. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany,.
1,752,000 6. The Republic of San Marino,
8,200 7. The State of the Church,
2,970,000 8. The kingdom of Naples, .
8,373,000 In all of these States there is legal provision made for public education, besides a large number of schools connected with religious houses and charitable institutions. The institutions and endowments for charitable purposes exceed in number and amount those of any other portion of Europe.
1. LOMBARDY AND VENICE. The system of public instruction in the Austrian dominions in Italy, is substantially the same as in Austria proper. It embraces, 1. elementary schools of two grades ; 2. technical schools; 3. gymnasiums; 4. lyceums; and 5. universities. The following account of the system and the schools, is taken from a valuable work on " Italy and the Italians, by Frederic Von Raumer.
According to the principal law on the subject of schools of an inferior order, there are two gradations of elementary schools, from those with one class to those with three or four. To these are added what are called technical schools. In the lower elementary schools the first principles of religion are taught, together with reading, writing, and arithmetic. The higher elementary schools are intended for those who purpose devoting themselves to the arts or sciences. The technical schools are chiefly intended to prepare youth for commerce and agriculture. The law compels parents to send their children to school between the ages of six and twelve, and a fine of half a lira per month is incurred by those who neglect to do 80; but is not enforced in Lombardy. Wherever circumstances allow of its being done, the education of boys is separate from that of girls. A building for school, and the necessary supply of desks, forms, &c., must be provided by the commune. In the cold and mountainous districts only are the school-rooms warmed in winter. The books prescribed for these schools vary in price from forty-two centesimi to a florin. In the higher elementary schools, religion, orthography, Italian grammar, the elements of Latin, mathematics, natural philosophy, geography, and natural history, are taught. In the technical schools instruction is given in modern lan. guages, - English, German, and French. The clergy are recommended, not merely to give religious instruction, but also to take charge of some other of the lessons. The general superintendence of religious instruction, is committed to the bishops. For opening a private school, an express permission must be obtained from government. The elementary schools in Lombardy* amounted In number, in
1835 1836 1837 to..
4,422 4,470 4,531
726 In 1837, there remained only 66 communes without an elementary school for boys, so that, if the education be not general among children, the fault must arise less from the want of public institutions than from the want of good-will. The outlay for elementary schools amounted, in 1837, to 507,000 forins. Of this 21,000 florins were derived from endowments, 423,000 were contributed by the communes, and 63,000 were defrayed by the State. Of every 100 schools, 84 were public, and of every 100 pupils, 59 were boys and 41 girls. About three-fifths of the children of a suitable age attend school, and of those that do so, 91 per cent. attend public, and 9 per cent. private schools. The teachers (including 2,226 clergymen, directors, and school authorities) amount in number to 6,284. The infant schools are attended by 2,026 children, and directed by 93 teachers ; their yearly revenues amount to about 16,000 forins. Thus we every where perceive the cause of education advancing, and the several communes manifest their praiseworthy sympathy by constantly increasing votes for the support of schools.
In immediate connection with the higher order of elementary schools are the gymnasiums, of which some are public, some communal, some in immediate dependence on the bishops, and other private institutions. In Lombardy, in 1837, there were 10 imperial gymnasiums, with 96 teachers and 2,865 pupils; 8 communal, with 1,291 pupils. The private gymnasiums were attended by about 1,168 pupils. None but teachers who have been strictly examined are allowed to give lessons in a private gymnasium, the pupils must all be entered on the list of a public school, to which they are bound to pay a yearly contribution of two florins, and at which they must submit to periodical examinations. Private gymnasiums mast adopt the course of study prescribed for public institutions, and must not allow their pupils to remain less than the regulated period in each class. Those intended for the church, for the medical profession, or for that of architecture, must be educated at a public school, and those intended for the law are subject to a variety of stringent rules.
All the elementary schools of Lombardy are placed under an inspector, and another officer has the gymnasium under his control
. All vacancies for teachers are thrown open to public competition, and it is only after examination that they are confirmed in their appointments by a government order. To every gymnasium are in general attached a rector, a religious teacher, four professors of grammar, and two of humanity, (d' umanità.) To limit the number of those who crowd into the learned professions, it has of late years been prescribed that no pupil shall be received at a gymnasium before his tenth or after his fourteenth year. From this regulation, however, constant exceptions are made, as it has been found that a rigid enforcement would have the effect of excluding the cleverest and most industrious children.
Corporal punishments have every where been abolished. On Sundays all the pupils of a gymnasium attend church. Not more than 80 pupils must be included in the same class. Thursday is always a holiday. On each of the other five days there are only four school hours. The holidays, in addition to those on occasion of the church festivals, last from the 9th of September to the 1st of November.
The regular couse of study in each gymnasium last six years, during which the pupil has to pass through four classes grammar and two of humanity. In the first grammatical class are taught : Italian, the rudiments of Latin, arithmetic, geography, and religion. In the second class, the same course is continued, but Roman antiquity, and the geography and history of the Austrian monarchy, are added. In the third grammatical class, Greek is added ; and in the fourth, Latin
• In 1834. there were in the Venetian part of the kingdom 1,438 schools, with 81,372 pupils, and 1,676 male and female teachers.
prosody. In the first humanity class are taught rhetoric, poetry, algebra, geography, history, and religion ; in the second, the same subjects continue to employ the papil. A pupil who does not intend to study medicine, or to go into the church, may obtain a dispensation from Greek.
In every branch of study, the school-books are prescribed by the higher authorities. Latin and Greek are taught exclusively through the medium of anthologies and selections, in which there are difficult extracts intended for the more advanced pupils.
A new law was promulgated in 1838 on the subject of technical or commercial schools. These are intended to prepare the future trader and mechanic, and are therefore to give a practical direction to their studies, always keeping in view the interests of the Austrian monarchy and those of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom. The towns in which these schools are established must furnish a suitable building and all the requsite furniture, &c. ; the rest of the charge is defrayed by governinent. Each teacher gives from 4 to 15 lessons weekly, and their salaries vary from 400 to 800 forins. Each school is divided into three classes, into the junior of which a boy may pass from the grammatical first class of a gymnasium. In the first class of a technical school, (the first class always means the lowest,) the pupil is obliged to attend weekly 2 lessons of religion, 3 of Italian grammar, 3 of geography, 4 of mathematics, 3 of zoology, 6 of drawing, 4 of writing, in all 25 lessons, of an hour each ; in addition to these, there are 2 lessons of German, and 2 of French, the attendance on which is optional. In the second class, botany is substituted for zoology. In the third class are given 2 lessons of religion, 3 of Italian style, 7 of natural philosophy, 3 of mineralogy, in all 15 obligatory lessons. In addition to these, there are 5 lessons of chemistry, 5 of commercial science, 5 of book-keeping, and 3 of commercial correspondence. Of these the pupil may choose whether he will attend the lessons of chemistry and one of the other three subjects, or whether be will attend the last three without chemistry.
There is also a special school for
Veterinary surgery, with 5 teachers, 41 pupils, and an expenditure of 71,643 lire.
Chemistry, with 3 teachers, 15 pupils, and an expenditure of 6,750 lire.
For future theologians, on leaving the elementary schools, distinct institutions are provided in the episcopal seminaries, of which there is one attached to every see. The largest, at Milan, in 1837, contained 403 pupils; the smallest, at Crema, only 10. In these the teachers are appointed by the bishop, but satisfactory proof of their capacity must be given to the temporal authorities.
Mr. Von Raumer adds the following remarks :
In the first place, the elementary instruction is so simple, and the natural progress so evident, that there appears in this respect, to be no very important difference between the German system and that of Lombardy. The only thing to be wished for is, that the number of good teachers may increase in proportion to the number of pupils. To the credit of the clergy be it said that, in addition to the regular hours of religious instruction, they sometimes take charge of one or two other branches, a course perfectly consistent with the duties of their profession.
Secondly—the limited number of school-hours at the gymnasiums is explained by the work which the children are expected to do at home, and the incompatibility of an Italian temperament with long confinement. The work to be done at home is, however, much less considerable than at a public school in Germany : and the vivacity of the Italian temperament might just as reasonably be adduced as a motive for subjecting to a more strict and continuous discipline. Besides, in other parts of Italy, we shall see that the number of school-hours is greater. On other grounds, therefore, must be decided the question, whether an increase in the number of lessons be desirable or not; and also, whether it would not be better to give two half-holidays in the week, as with us, than to sacrifice one whole day out of six, as is done in Lombardy.
Thirdly—I have to observe that under the word grammar is included not only Latin, but every instruction in the native language. Greek is thrown two much