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employments. In the Tyrol, indegd, the condition of whose schools is in many respects so favorable, there are teachers for the purpose connected with two-thirds of the regular schools, and in the larger towns of other provinces much of the private instruction is directed to this object, but less attention generally is given to it and there are large extents of country where it is entirely wanting.

Adult instruction is still very defective and the attendance upon it is less general and much less regular than upon the usual day schools. This irregularity is not the fault alone of the parents and employers; too frequently the instruction, which more than any other needs maturity of judgment and experience, is thrown upon the younger and less interested teachers, through whose negligence and imperfect methods of teaching these schools have fallen into too general disrepute. The number of schools must be increased, more time must be given to them, and there must be a more uniform and complete system of organization of the system of instruction, which must be more than a mere review of past studies, before they will fulfill as they ought the duty of supplementing the instruction of the common schools—if the extension of obligatory attendance upon the common schools to the end of the fourteenth year and the organization of every such school in eight classes be not preferable. The extent to which a common education prevails among the lower classes may be judged, in some measure, from the number of military recruits in the several provinces who are found unable to write, and also from the criminal statistics, which show the number of criminals unable to read. The results are nearly the same, showing that of recruits and criminals of the German provinces of Austria, Tyrol, and Salzburg three-fourths, or morf, are able to read and write. In Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia the proportion is somewhat less; in the southern provinces of Styria, Carinthia, Lombardy and Venice, the Littorale, and Carniola it dimin ishes to one-half and one-fourth, while in Dalmatia, Galicia, and Bukowina it is one-twentieth, or even less.

The burgher school, looked upon as a continuation of the common school, may be considered a failure. They have become, as the popular voice styles them, subordinate real schools, fitting pupils for the higher real school and indirectly for technical studies, and are rarely attended by any but such as intend to pursue an academical course. A satisfactory training for the mass of youth not intending such a course can be gained only by making provision for it in the common school itself—by reorganizing a number of the high schools, broadening the course of instruction, and including such special branches as the peculiar wants of any section may require. Similar schools would finally be needed and be established in all the larger villages. But the existing burgher schools are for boys alone; the establishment of higher female schools has been left wholly to private enterprise, and even in many of the larger cities those that belong to the more cultivated ranks must send their daughters to a distance, if they would secure their education beyond the most necessary elements. There is, therefore, need of a grade of public female schools corresponding to the burgher schools.

Another necessity of the greatest importance is the reorganization of the normal schools. The number of pupils has, indeed, increased considerably of late years, and fewer exemptions from the required course are permitted, but the course should be more extended, and to effect this the seminary should no longer be attached to a high school, but be an entirely distinct institution, under its own competent teachers, with a course of three or four years, and with suitable provision for the aid of poor candidates. 'Such a seminary could be properly established and sustained only by the action of a provincial government, or better still by the coöperation of several provinces of closely allied educational interests. The only organized teachers' societies are the Volkschule" and the "Lehrercerein,” both at Vienna. The number of school journals now published in different parts of the Empire is seven, in several different languages, and as many school calendars and annuals.

With a higher cultivation and intelligence among the body of teachers, the prescriptive system of text-books will doubtless give place to a greater degree of license in their selection. Such license of selection from books duly approved would allow more regard than can now be paid to provincial and even local wants, especially in the use of reading books, and would not necessarily affect the continuance of the present publishing system. While the German and Italian books might probably be pro duced as cheaply and well by other agencies, the same is not the case with those in other languages, nor can any method be devised more favorable to the communities for the gratuitous supply of books to the children of the poor.

One question yet remains, which does not yield in importance to any other —that of the separation of the schools from the influence of the Church. Upon this subject parties are widely divided and stubbornly opposed to each other, and no attempt at compromise or at the establishment of a just mean between the opposing extremes meets with favor from either side. Yet it is probable that in the reorganization of the method of school administration, without destroying the confessional character of the public school nor the participation of the pastor in the education of the children, a larger share in the immediate management of the school will be given to the community and any possible overstepping of its authority be met by the restraining power of the province or State. In the more general superintendence of the schools, the ecclesiastical authorities will in some suitable manner coöperate with those of the province and of the Empire, while in all its grades a more prominent position will be given to tried and experienced teachers. Certainly, there is nothing either in the Concordat, with respect to the Catholic schools, nor in the Protestant Patent, with respect to the evangelical schools, to prevent such a thorough and effectual reorganization of the system of administration.




As EARLY as 1821, there prevailed in Kentucky a strong feeling in favor of popular education. Provision was made for a public school fund, and a Board of Commissioners was appointed by the Legislature to collect information and to prepare and report a system of common schools. These Commissioners, (Messrs. W. T. Barry, David R. Murray, J. R. Witherspoon, and John Pope,) made a Report in the following year, embodying the opinions of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison, William Johnson, H. W. Desaussure and Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina, and William Duane of Philadelphia, and constituting one of the most valuable documents upon common school education that had at that time appeared.* Nothing, however, was done to carry out their suggestions, and the general interest in a measure subsided.

The earliest instance of association for mutual improvement is believed to have been the “ MechanicsInstitute,” formed at Lexington, in June, 1829, by whose efforts a library was commenced, a course of public lecturers secured, and an “ Apprentices' School" tablished for the instruction of young mechanics. The subject of common schools was again taken up by the Legislature of 1829 and 1830. Rev. Alva Wood and Rev. Benjamin O. Peers were appointed to report any information upon the subject of common schools that would aid the Legislature in selecting and adopting the best system for the State, and the able communication of the latter gentleman, containing the results of his investigations into the most prominent school systems in the Union, accompanied the report for 1830 of the House Committee on Education, of which: Charles S. Morehead was Chairman. But no action of importance followed.

In 1831, the Western College of Teachers " at Cincinnati was organized, and to the influence of its annual meetings is probably due the first educational convention in Kentucky, which met at Lexington on the 6th of November, 1833. The number of dele


* The Report was written by Amos Kendall, then a teacher in Frankfort. H. B.



Principal of Academy, Monson, Mast.

RECENT events have directed attention to that class of schools known as Academies and suggested the importance of studying their history as related to classical and what is called higher English education. The erection and dedication of a splendid edifice for the use of Phillips Academy at Andover reminds us of the long continued usefulness of that institution as a classical

school Within a few years the biography of the founder of that institution, Judge Phillips, has been written by the Rev. John L. Taylor, a work of the greatest value in the help it gives to those who wish to understand the motives which led to the establishment of the Academies at Andover and Exeter.

The history of Leicester Academy by Ex-Governor Washburn, now Professor of Law in Harvard College, is a most valuable contribution to the history of the classical schools of New England. The address of Prof. Cleveland at the Centennial Celebration of Dummer Academy, recently published, suggests the antiquity of some of the oldest and best of New England Academies, while it is a most worthy tribute to the patrons and teachers of sound learning in former days.

The Academies of this country belong to that grade of schools often called in Europe by the general term, middle schools. On the Continent they are often called gymnasia, or classical drill schools, where boys are prepared for the Universities. In England they are called “the Great Public Schools,” as Harrow, Rugby, Eton, and Westminster. Those of less note are called simply grammar schools, which is their most ancient appellation. In Scotland they are called grammar schools and sometimes high schools, of which the High School at Edinburgh is one of the best, having been founded as early at least as 1519; since we have from that

year continuous references to the High School in the records of the town council.* Stevens, in his History of the Edinburgh

• 1519, April 11. The quhilk day, provest baillies and counsall slatutis and ordanis, for reason

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