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and discussion. In the trivial schools the object sought is simply to secure fair penmanship and correct orthography. In the highest class the exercises are continued in running and Latin script and the principles of orthography are taught with their application to the more common foreign words. In arithmetic the scholars make use only of exercise books. Mental arithmetic receives the chief attention in the lower classes and is continued through the course. Decimal arithmetic, a knowledge of which is made now almost indispensable by the new system of currency, is generally introduced, and in the upper class of the high school the doctrines of denominate numbers are thoroughly taught and a practical knowledge given of ratio and proportion. In all classes two halfhours per week are given to vocal music, including the more usual church hymns and popular songs. Artistic instruction in music can be given only out of the ordinary school hours. Drawing is introduced in the fourth class and is often brought in as a means of instruction in other branches. Gymnastics have recently become looked upon as an indispensable part of public instruction, and in the construction of school buildings care is taken to provide suitable rooms for the purpose. The city of Vienna has taken the lead and provided for the gradual erection of gymnastic halls in connection with every one of its schools, while the “ Turnverein” have taken measures to secure the proper training of the teachers. Instruction is gratuitous and organized upon the systems of Jahn and Spiess.
20. Object Teaching.–No special hours are given to this, but from the first the words and lessons of the primer, and everyday objects and occurrences, are made the subjects of explanation and illustration and a means of training the understanding and powers of observation of the children, and throughout the course, in the high school especially, the reading lessons are so conducted as to give the pupils a practical knowledge of natural objects and of their native land.
21. Industrial Instruction.- Instruction in necdle work and like femi. nine employments is usual in the female schools and in the female classes of the mixed schools, but is not made obligatory and is not so uniformly pursued as other branches.' It is not gratuitous except to the poor and in the industrial schools of the religious corporations and ladies' societies. In the country frequent opportunities occur to direct attention to various agricultural operations and to excite a love and taste for them. Where there are orchards the older pupils are instructed in their care, and extra hours may be given to instruction in the care of mulberry trees, grape-vines, becs, &c.
22. Discipline.—Education, as distinct from instruction, is regarded as the prime object of the public school, and hence special stress is laid upon the correct moral and religious life of the teacher and upon the inculcation and encouragement in every manner of a religious spirit among the scholars. As means of discipline, the chief rewards are commendation from the teacher or other member of the school authorities, certifi
cates of diligence and good behavior, rolls of honor, &c. Punishments include private or public reprimand, before the class or the school authorities, assignment of a separate seat, detention after school for the perforınance of neglected exercises, and corporal punishment. The semiannual classification of the scholars has also an important disciplinary influence.
23. Tuition Fees.—The requirement of tuition fees is not obligatory upon the community. Where they exist they include instruction in all the school branches and must be paid to the school to which the child legally belongs, except in cases of non-attendance from sickness, physical or mental infirmity, too great distance from the school, or other good reason. They may be graded according to the classes or ages of the scholars and are made payable each week or month. When these fees form an essential part of the teacher's salary, their minimum amount in the trivial school has been recently fixed at three kreutzers (2 cents) per week, increased to four and five kreutzers in the higher classes. In the high schools they amount to 17-42 kreutzers monthly, and in the Vienna schools to fifty kreutzers. Their collection is obligatory upon the community authorities and the amount goes either directly to the teacher or to the fund from which his salary is paid. The children of the poor are relieved from the payment of these fees, and even in certain other cases a partial exemption is permitted. This exemption is a correlative of compulsory attendance and is in no way affected by the progress or character of the children. In village schools tuition is also not required from more than three children attending at the same time from the same family. In Vienna the instruction of the children of all factory operatives is made gratuitous, but an equivalent compensation may be required from the manufacturers. In Bohemia, by a law of 1863, the full amount of the fees of all exempted children is to be made up to the teacher by the community.
24. Regularity of Attendance.—Uninterrupted attendance for at least six years and until twelve years of age is required of such children as do not enter a gymnasium or real school. Time that has been lost without sufficient reason must be so far made up as to secure the required amount of instruction. A record of attendance is kept by every teacher, he examines into all cases of irregularity, and such as require farther attention are reported weekly to the pastor. If his admonitions and efforts fail to remedy the fault, the same course follows as is prescribed for cases of continued non-attendance. Where for three months no cases have occurred requiring the interference of the district authorities, the fact is reported by the pastor, and at the close of the year by the district superintendent to the provincial authorities.
25. Examinations. At the close of each half-year the scholars are classified according to their conduct, diligence, and advancement, and an examination is held, of which public notice is previously given. In the high schools an entire day is given to the examination of each class. The final examination is attended with special festivities and often with the distribution of prize books which, in the Catholic schools, must be selected from such as have been approved by the bishops. After this examination the promotion of the scholars to the higher classes is made, which is, however, for the most part determined by their standing in the general record of rank. Pupils in the trivial schools receive no certificates except at the close of the required course of study. At the high schools, on request of the parents, certificates of the standing of the pupils may be furnished at the close of each half-year.
26. Private Schools.- Private day and boarding-schools require a license from the provincial authorities, approved by the bishop, and are kept so far distinct that day scholars can not even be admitted into a boarding-school without the consent of the State Department Day schools may give instruction in special branches or in all the studies of the common school, and may include modern languages, music, &c. They are not permitted to increase beyond the obvious wants of a community and are generally allowed only in the larger towns. The teachers must be qualified to give instruction in the proposed branches, and in Catholic schools religious instruction must be secured. When they take the place of common schools they are subject to the same regulations as to studies, school-books, form of records, and management, and if they prove well conducted may be permitted to hold public examinations and confer certificates. Boarding-schools can be established only by experienced and approved teachers and the instruction, so far as it corresponds with that of the common school, is under ihe same regulations. Family instruction requires no certificate of qualification on the part of the teachers and is subjected to no supervision. The requirements by which Jewish girls—who receive all their instruction in this mannerwere annually examined before the superintendent, has mostly gone out of practice. Pupils of private schools or of private tutors may be examined in the presence of the teachers of a public school and receive a private certificate, but to obtain a legally valid certificate they must undergo a public school examination; similar requirements are made as of the public school scholars and the certificates are of a similar form.
27. Adult Instruction.—The after-instruction of youth in the common practical branches of education is conducted in close connection with the common school and through the same agencies. The tradesmen, especially in the cities, are required to take an active interest in it, and to appoint special inspectors to aid in its superintendence. In Upper and Lower Austria, Salzburg, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia there are comparatively few schools in connection with which such instruction is not given, while in Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and the Tyrol the proportion is somewhat greater. In the Littorale, on the other hand, more than half—in Galicia, three-fifths—and in Bukowina, four-fifths of the schools are without it. In Dalmatia and in Lombardy and Venice it is very rarely met with
"Barmen Catechism " be exclusively used in the Evangelical seminaries, and that the teacher be restricted to seeing that the pupils understand the same, and make it their own, without himself adding anything further to its substance.
It is further requisite that the schoolmaster cherish a warm and lively sympathy with the church life of the present. To this end some knowledge of the past is requisite, but no regular chronological course of church history can be given in the seminary. It shall suffice that the pupils learn the most important facts and names in the method of biographical groups, especial reference being had to the Apostolical period, to the Reformation, the present period, and the extension of the church by missionary enterprise, that the future schoolmaster may be thus qualified for a free and disinterested action in the fields both of the foreign and inner mission, the succor of the poor and the forsaken, and other charitable objects. This is an object which can not be attained so much by lessons as by lending appropriate books, or reading passages out of them, by introducing the pupils to practical participation in the various mission enterprises. It would be desirable that the seminaries, as such, should be enrolled as members of the mission unions.
The next point to be attended to in the religious instruction in the seminary is, to bring this instruction, much more than hitherto, into immediate relation to the religious instruction to be given in the elementary school. To this purpose there is required a clear understanding of the duty of the elementary school in respect of the religious instruction it is called upon to give.
First, it must be firmly established that systematic treatment of Christian doctrine, whether in the way of explanation of catechism, or independent expounding of dogmas or Scripture texts, is not the province of the elementary teacher, but of the clergyman. The catechism lesson in the school is only a lesson preparatory to the confirmation preparation to be given by the pastor, and must be restricted to bringing the catechism in its verbal and material meaning before the understanding, and inculcating it in the memory of the children.
Secondly, Scripture History must be treated as the field in which the elementary school has to solve the problem of founding and extending the Christian life of the youth committed to its charge. It must be pre-supposed that this instruction aims neither at moral applications nor.at abstract dogmatic inferences, but at leading the children to the sure apprehension and the inward and faithful appropriation of the facts of God's treatment of His chosen people and of the whole human race, and thence to deduce for them the eternal ideas of the most important divine and human things. In this view, the whole course of the Biblical history must be gone through with the seminarist, who shall thus be brought to an immediate and intuitional knowledge of the fundamental ideas and truths, by living in and through each step and each personal relation of the religious life under the leading of God's Word.
The future schoolmaster shall be required to be able to repeat, without book, each Scripture history in the form in which it is taught in the school. He shall be further led to handle each of these histories in detail, and with due reference to the general objects of Scripture teaching, in strict connection with the order of the church's year, so that he may know how to establish a connection of his school with the liturgical life, and make the children conscious participators in the same. From this time forth an indispensable condition of admission into the seminary will be an exact acquaintance with these histories as contained in such manuals of those of Zahn, Preuss, or Otto Schultz, and the ability to recite them by heart.
Here follow specific directions for reading the Bible and the gospels and epistles for the year; for learning texts and hymns. The section concludes thus:
Religious instruction, conducted according to these principles, will form teachers clearly aware of what they have to do, possessing within themselves a sufficient knowledge of the word, doctrine, and life of the Evangelic church; it will open to them the entrance upon a God-fearing life, in which they may find practical experience of the course by which God leads us from sin to justi.
fication by faith, which worketh by love. To this end, the whole life in the seminary must be brought under the discipline of the Word and the Spirit; teachers and pupils alike must draw from the fountain of grace, and the community must exhibit a pattern of common Christian lise.
3. LANGUAGE.—The future teacher is sufficiently qualified to instruct in language and reading in the elementary school, when he knows how to handle rightly the spelling and reading book. The seminaries hitherto have too much neglected to teach a simple method of learning to read. Consequently, years. have been spent in acquiring, perhaps very imperfectly, what might be attained in months, viz., the mechanical power of reading. To qualify the schoolmaster in this branch, neither theoretical instruction nor yet practice in the model school will alone suffice; but it will be necessary to take the seminarist in the lowest class through a course of practical lessons in all the details of teaching to read, which practice must be continued till the right method has been thoroughly mastered by each pupil.
Again, in the use of the reading book, it is not enough to instruct the seminarist generally in the mode of interpreting; each portion and passage of the reading book, authoritatively introduced into the schools of the province, must be gone through in the way in which it has to be by them afterwards treated in the elementary school.
In connection with the reading book the pupils must be introduced to German grammar, keeping in view always, that this is a subject which they will not have to teach again in the school.
This is the reading course for the third class. In the two upper classes the object of this branch of instruction is, starting from the knowledge acquired in the lower class, to introduce the pupil to so much of the contents of the language as is necessary for the level of culture, proper for an elementary teacher, and for life among the people. To acquire a good and correct intonation the best method is, to penetrate the sense of what is read. The ability to read difficult passages well forms a tolerably correct measure for judging the amount of formal education possessed by the seminarist. Wackernagel's reading book may be taken, and a selection of pieces in prose and verse made from it, ascending from the easy to the more difficult, and as to their substance bearing on the arrangement of the other parts of the pupils' course. These passages must be worked over till they are thoroughly understood, and have become the learner's own property. Teacher and pupil have here the fittest opportunity to apply the art of concentration of teaching. Within the limits of these passages must be acquired the power of understanding and using bis own language so far as it is requisite for the elementary master, without any theoretical lessons of etymology, prosody, lexicology, &c. The remaining contents of the reading book may be afterwards read in a more cursory way, without, however, neglecting to understand what is read, or to practice the reproduction of that which has been read.
The written exercises for the lower and middle class must be set in connection with the reading lesson; but in the upper class they may consist in independent reproduction of single parts out of other parts of the course, or in consideration of questions which concern the profession of teacher. Here also the pupil should learn the written forms of office and business which he may have afterwards occasion for.
The students of each year must have a course of private reading pointed out to them, of which they shall be called on from time to time to give an account to the teacher. In the choice of books for this purpose, regard must be had, not merely to the student's own culture, but to the influence which he may hereafter exercise, beyond the limits of the school, upon the character and more als of the people. Accordingly, the so-called classical literature (of Germany) must be prohibited from forming any part of this private course, and nothing must be admitted into it but what has a tendency to promote church life.
Here follows a list of permissible books.
4. HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY.—Both these branches shall start from a common point; that of our own country. General history is useless in the seminary, and the instruction shall be confined to German history, with especial