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have literally hastened to the defense of their country's flag. Thousands of our young men, who could at any time during the war, have commanded the respect and deference of their officers by their superior talent and learning, have cheerfully yielded obedience to inferior men, and have borne the burden and shared the dangers of the private soldier, siinply from their love of country. All honor to those noble young men ! The country owes them much. They fought well. They knew for what they fought. Many will never return. They have died for their country-some on the battlo-field, some in the hospital, and some in the accursed prison-pens of the South. Others have returned to their homes, some maimed for life, somc, with constitutions crushed -beyond recovery, and some, a good number let us hope, with health and vigor to resume their former calling.

Nor has our profession been represented in the capacity of the private merely. Some of the most successful officers were teachers in one form or other. And not a few have sealed their patriotism with their lives. Ohio mourns an Andrews; Indiana, a Fletcher ; Rhode Island, a Pearce; and the world a Mitchel. Our Academies and Colleges, in the true spirit of our fathers, have most patriotically stood forth in defense of the government. They have yielded up their young men. They have sent forth their professors, and with unflinching fidelity, they have lent their full moral force to the cause of freedom and good government. And yet have they closed their doors? Seldom, if ever. All through the loyal States, our principal institutions of learning have prospered to a most wonderful degree. How has it been with the States in rebellion ? Scarcely an Institution of learning survived! Who has heard of the suspension of a Public School at the North on account of tho war? Our teachers have gone to the war,—but new ones have been ready to take their places. The four past years have been years of progress. Never before in all the history of this Association was there such a gathering as that at Chicago in 1863. Sixteen hundred to two thousand teachers assembled in one city to take counsel of each other, and give mutual support and encouragement! Let us look at the state of the country as it was before the war. In all the free States the Public School System prevailed, and in most was administered with great efficiency, giving a good education, alike to the children of the poor and the rich. Its blessings were diffused among the people. The children of all classes sat together in the same school, were competitors for the same honors, and were taught to value personal worth and intrinsic merit wherever developed,

rather than the accidents of birth and external circumstance. What they learned to value in childhood, they retained as they grew up together. Hence, a community where moral and intellectual worth, in no small degree, formed the standard of judgment, as to character and position.

How was it in the states where the institution of slavery prevailed ? There was no Common School System. Exceptions there were in some of the cities,—but as a general fact, the statement is correct. The children of a large portion of the population were, by law, prohibited the advantages of an education; and a largeportion of the free population were virtually shut out from the means of early culture. These two sections of the country, from the necessities of the case, must be parted from each other, by different tastes, different views of life, different aspirations, different judgments as to right and duty as to the true functions of government. Sectional and selfish jealousies are engendered. Designing men inflame and cherish them. A geographical distinction inevitably ensues. Jealousies give place to animosities; animosities to bitter hate, and bitter hate results in war. Thus has our land been deluged in blood. Sagacious politicians at the South saw the tendencies, and attributed the evil to the quality of Northern education. Without stopping to defend the character of our educational processes at the North, let it be observed that the root of the difficulty lay not in this direction, but in the fact of a diffused and universal education at the North, and a very limited education at the South. No two sections of country, though under the same government, can dwell together in peace and harmony, where the advantages for education are widely dissimilar. This proposition, the past history of our country has abundantly proved. And now that the war is over, it becomes us gravely to consider the grounds for hope in the future. Shall the North relinquish its system of universal education? Or shall the people of the South, of all classes, grades, and complexions be educated ? Nothing short of this will give unity to the whole people. We may evade, compromise, and put off the evils which will evi. dently spring from the present diversity of educational advantages, but as surely as the Sun shall rise and set, they will spring up at some future day, to wither and destroy as they have done in the days just past. Education is the chief unifying process on which we can rely for a permanent peace. Let our statesmen duly con sider this point in the work of reconstruction.

It becomes us as educators, while we re-examine the quality of the instruction which we are giving, to take courage from the tests of the late trying ordeal.

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have literally hastened to the defense of their country's flag. Thousands of our young men, who could at any time during the war, have commanded the respect and deference of their officers by their superior talent and learning, have cheerfully yielded obedience to inferior men, and have borne the burden and shared the dangers of the private soldier, simply from their love of country. All honor to those noble young men ! The country owes them much. They fought well. They knew for what they fought. Many will never return. They have died for their country—some on the battlefield, some in the hospital, and some in the accursed prison-pens of the South. Others have returned to their homes, some maimed for life, some, with constitutions crushed -beyond recovery, and some, a good number let us hope, with health and vigor to resume their former calling.

Nor has our profession been represented in the capacity of the private merely. Some of the most successful officers were teachers in one form or other. And not a few have sealed their patriotism with their lives. Ohio mourns an Andrews; Indiana, a Fletcher ; Rhode Island, a Pearce; and the world a Mitchel. Our Academies and Colleges, in the true spirit of our fathers, have most patriotically stood forth in defense of the government. They have yielded up their young men. They have sent forth their professors, and with unflinching fidelity, they have lent their full moral force to the cause of freedom and good government. And

yet
have

they closed their doors? Seldom, if ever. All through the loyal States, our principal institutions of learning have prospered to a most wonderful degree. How has it been with the States in rebellion ! Scarcely an Institution of learning survived! Who has heard of the suspension of a Public School at the North on account of tho

Our teachers have gone to the war,—but new ones have been ready to take their places. The four past years have been years of progress. Never before in all the history of this Association was there such a gathering as that at Chicago in 1863. Sixteen hundred to two thousand teachers assembled in one city to take counsel of each other, and give mutual support and encouragement! Let us look at the state of the country as it was before the war. In all the free States the Public School System prevailed, and in most was administered with great efficiency, giving a good education, alike to the children of the poor and the rich. Its blessings were diffused among the people. The children of all classes sat together in the same school, were competitors for the same honors, and were taught to value personal worth and intrinsic merit wherever developed, rather than the accidents of birth and external circumstance. What they learned to value in childhood, they retained as they grew up together. Hence, a community where moral and intellectual worth, in no small degree, formed the standard of judgment, as to character and position.

war?

How was it in the states where the institution of slavery prevailed ! There was no Common School System. Exceptions there were in some of the cities,—but as a general fact, the statement is correct. The children of a large portion of the population were, by law, prohibited the advantages of an education; and a largoportion of the free population were virtually shut out from the means of early culture. These two sections of the country, from the necessities of the case, must be parted from each other, by different tastes, different views of life, different aspirations, different judgments as to right and duty as to the true functions of government. Sectional and selfish jealousies are engendered. Designing men inflame and cherish them. A geographical distinction inevitably ensues. Jealousies give place to animosities; animosities to bitter hate, and bitter hate results in war. Thus has our land been deluged in blood. Sagacious politicians at the South saw the tendencies, and attributed the evil to the quality of Northern education. Without stopping to defend the character of our educational processes at the North, let it be observed that the root of the difficulty lay not in this direction, but in the fact of a diffused and universal education at the North, and a very limited education at the South. No two sections of country, though under the same government, can dwell together in peace and harmony, where the advantages for education are widely dissimilar. This proposition, the past history of our country has abundantly proved. And now that the war is over, it becomes us gravely to consider the grounds for hope in the future. Shall the North relinquish its system of universal education? Or shall the people of the South, of all classes, grades, and complexions be educated ? Nothing short of this will give unity to the whole people. We may evade, compromise, and put off the evils which will evidently spring from the present diversity of educational advantages, but as surely as the Sun shall rise and set, they will spring up at some future day, to wither and destroy as they have done in the days just past. Education is the chief unifying process on which we can rely for a permanent peace. Let our statesmen duly con sider this point in the work of reconstruction.

It becomes us as educators, while we re-examine the quality of the instruction which we are giving, to take courage from the tests of the late trying ordeal.

the balance was against the Federal armies. The war was carried on, upon scientific principles, with a very unscientific practice. Nor is this surprising. Many of the officers educated at our National Military School had never been engaged in actual war.

There was all the difference between play practice and real practice,-between the theoretic movements in military tactics, and the actual struggle for victory in the deadly encounter. Much was said in derision of military training. An actual schoolmaster in Kentucky, it was said, was gaining more fame than the best graduates of West Point. Practical good sense, personal daring, and a natural aptitude for command, did give, through the whole war, to some of the officers directly from civil life, a well-deserved fame. But how was it in the end? Almost all the officers who became eminent for distinguished services were men educated at West Point.

These facts are suggestive. We could not wish to have actual war, that our cadets might learn the theory of warfare, from the dreadful realities of the battle-field, but we can not restrain the thought of how much blood and treasure would have been spared if our officers had been at the beginning of the war what they were at the end. - Now, this suggestion is none of mine. It is patent every where. Floods of tears have been shed because of the loss of dear ones, through the simple blunders of inexperience. Thousands of curses and imprecations have fallen upon the devoted heads of inexperienced officers, by men who have seen whole fortunes fade away at the loss of a single battle. And yet these very officers did the best they could. They have suffered worse than a score of deaths at the mortification of defeat-the crushing responsibility of exposing and losing so many precious lives. In many cases no one could have been at hand to do better. Let the lesson be generalized. It is not confined to military affairs. We have mere theorists in education. We have had those enter our schools as teachers, who have had correct views of education, but no practice; we have had those who from a natural tact have become good practical teachers, with very little knowledge of the theory of education, to say nothing of the many who, in like circumstances, have failed—and we have some who have both theory and practice combined. We have heard much said against Normal Schools and Training Schools, that the power to teach is a gift—not an attainment—we have known of teachers being employed because they could be hired cheap. But when a son or a daughter has the sensibilities maimed for life, the intellectual nature dwarfed, the reasoning faculties perverted, the injured interior nature does not call forth the tear of anguishı, as when a

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