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as well as he can, is wiser than they. He does nothing to be seen of men; and that was their motive for most of their actions.

Now for the philosophy which relates to knowledge. Knowledge is a brave thing. I am a plain, ignorant, untaught man, and know my ignorance. But it is a brave thing when we look around us in this wonderful world to understand something of what we see; to know something of the earth on which we move, the air which we breathe, and the elements whereof we are made; to comprehend the motions of the moon and stars, and measure the distances between them, and compute times and seasons; to observe the laws wbich sustain the universe by keeping all things in their courses; to search into the mysteries of nature, and discover the hidden virtue of plants and stones, and read the signs and tokens which are shown us, and make out the meaning of hidden things, and apply all this to the benefit of our fellow-creatures.

Wisdom and knowledge, Daniel, make the difference between man and man, and that between man and beast is hardly greater.

These things do not always go together. There may be wisdom without knowledge, and there may be knowledge without wisdom. A man without knowledge, if he walk humbly with his God, and live in charity with his neigh. bors, may be wise unto salvation. A man without wisdom may not find his knowledge avail him quite go well. But it is he who possesses both that is the true philosopher. The more he knows, the more he is desirous of knowing; and yet the further he advances in knowledge the better he understands how little he can attain, and the more deeply he feels that God alone can satisfy the infinite desires of an immortal soul. To understand this is the perfection of philosopby.”

Then opening the Bible which lay before him, he read these verses:-
My son, if thou wilt receive my words,

So that thou incline thine ear unto wisdom, and apply thine heart to understanding;

Yea, if thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding; If thou seekest after her as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures;

Then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and find the knowledge of God.

For the Lord giveth wisdom: out of his mouth cometh knowledge and un. derstanding.

He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous: he is a buckler to them that walk upriglitly.

He keepeth the paths of judgment, and preserveth the way of his saints.

Then shalt thou understand righteousness, and judgment, and equity; yea, every good path.

When wisdoin entereth into thine heart, and knowledge is pleasant unto thy soul;

Discretion shall preserve thee, understanding shall keep thee,
To deliver thee from the way of evil.

" Daniel, my son,” after a pause he pursued, “thou art a diligent and good lad. God hath given thee a tender and dutiful heart; keep it so, and it will be a wise one, for thou hast the beginning of wisdom. I wish thee to pursue knowledge, because in pursuing it, happiness will be found by the way. If I have said any thing now which above thy years, it will come to mind in after time, when I am gone, perhaps, but when thou mayst profit by it. God bless thee, my child!"

He stretched out his right hand at these words, and laid it gently upon the boy's head. What he said was not forgotten, and throughout life the son never thought of that blessing without feeling that it had taken effect.

"My son, many things appear strange or silly in themselves if they are presented to us simply, without any notice when and where they were done, and upon what occasion. The things which the old philosophers said and did, would

appear, I dare say, as wiso to us as they did to the people of their own times, if we knew why and in what circumstances they were done and said.

Daniel, there are two sorts of men in all ranks and ways of life, the wise and the foolish; and there are a great many degrees between them. That some foolish people have called themselves philosophers, and some wicked ones, and some who were out of their wits, is just as certain as that persons of all these descriptions are to be found among all conditions of men.

Philosophy, Daniel, is of two kinds: that which relates to conduct, and that which relates to knowledge. The first teaches us to value all things at their real worth, to be contented with little, modest in prosperity, patient in trouble, equal-minded at all times. It teaches us our duty to our neighbor and ourselves. It is that wisdom of which King Solomon speaks in our rhyme book. Reach me the volume.” Then turning to the passage in his favorite Du Bartas, he read these lines:

She's God's own mirror; she's a light whose glance
Springs from the lightning of his countenance.
She's mildest heaven's most sacred influence;
Never decays her beauties' excellence,
Aye like herself; and she doth always trace
Not only the same path but the same pace.
Without her honor, health, and wealth would prove
Three poisons to me. Wisdom from above
Is the only moderatri spring and guide,

Organ and honor, of all gifts beside.
"But let us look in the Bible: aye, this is the place:"-

For in her is an understanding spirit, holy, one only, manifold, subtile, lively, clear, undefiled, plain, not subject to hurt, loving the thing that is good, quick, which can not be letted, ready to do good;

Kind to man, steadfast, sure, free from care, having all power, overseeing all things, and going through all understanding, pure and most subtile spirits.

For wisdom is more moving than any motion: she passcth and goeth through all things by reason of her pureness.

For she is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence, flowing from the glory of the Almighty; therefore can no defiled thing fall into her.

For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of his goodness.

And being but one she can do all things; and remaining in herself she maketh all things new: and in all ages entering into holy souls she maketh them friends of God and prophets.

For God loveth none but him that dwelleth with wisdom.

For she is more beautiful than the sun, and above all the order of stars: being compared with the light she is found before it. For after this cometh night: but vice shall not prevail against wisdom.

He read this with a solemnity that gave weight to every word. Then closing the book, after a short pause, he proceeded in a lower tone:

“The philosophers of whom you have read in the dictionary possessed this wisdom only in part, because they were heathens, and therefore could see no fur. ther than the light of mere reason could show the way. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and they had not that to begin with. So the thoughts which ought to have made them humble produced pride, and so far their wisdom proved but folly. The humblest Christian who learns his duty, and performs it as well as he can, is wiser than they. He does nothing to be seen of men; and that was their motive for most of their actions.

Now for the philosophy which relates to knowledge. Knowledge is a brave thing. I am a plain, ignorant, untaught man, and know my ignorance. But it is a brave thing when we look around us in this wonderful world to understand something of what we see; to know something of the earth on which we move, the air which we breathe, and the elements whereof we are made; to comprehend the motions of the moon and stars, and measure the distances between them, and compute times and seasons; to observe the laws which sustain the universe by keeping all things in their courses; to search into the mysteries of nature, and discover the hidden virtue of plants and stones, and read the signs and tokens which are shown us, and make out the meaning of hidden things, and apply all this to the benefit of our fellow-creatures.

Wisdom and knowledge, Daniel, make the difference between man and man, and that between man and beast is hardly greater.

These things do not always go together. There may be wisdom without knowledge, and there may be knowledge without wisdom. A man without knowledge, if he walk humbly with his God, and live in charity with his neighbors, may be wise unto salvation. A man without wisdom may not find liis knowledge avail him quite so well. But it is he who possesses both that is the true philosopher. The more he knows, the more he is desirous of knowing; and yet the further he advances in knowledge the better he understands how little he can attain, and the more deeply he feels that God alone can satisfy the infinite desires of an immortal soul. To understand this is the perfection of philosophy.”

Then opening the Bible which lay before him, he read these verses:-
My son, if thou wilt receive my words,-

So that thou incline thine ear unto wisdom, and apply thine heart to understanding;

Yea, if thou 'criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding; If thou seekest after her as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures;

Then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and find the knowledge of God.

For the Lord giveth wisdom: out of his mouth cometh knowledge and understanding.

He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous: he is a buckler to them that walk uprightly

He keepeth the paths of judgment, and preserveth the way of his saints.

Then shalt thou understand righteousness, and judgment, and equity; yea, every good path.

When wisdom entereth into thine heart, and knowledge is pleasant unto thy soul;

Discretion shall preserve thee, understanding shall keep thee,
To deliver thee from the way of evil.

“ Daniel, my son," after a pause he pursued, “thou art a diligent and good lad. God hath given thee a tender and dutiful heart; keep it so, and it will be a wise one, for thou hast the beginning of wisdom. I wish thee to pursue knowledge, because in pursuing it, happiness will be found by the way. If I have said any thing now which is above thy years, it will come to mind in after time, when I am gone, perhaps, but when thou mayst profit by it. God bless thee, my child !"

He stretched out his right hand at these words, and laid it gently upon the boy's head. What he said was not forgotten, and throughout life the son never thought of that blessing without feeling that it had taken effect.

V.

THE EDUCATIONAL DUTIES OF THE HOUR.

BY SAMUEL S. GREENE, PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION.

Introductory Discourse before the National Teachers' Association at Harrisburg, Penn., in

August, 1865.

.

ANOTHEK

year
has passed away

and with it a terrible war. The year marks an era in our history, Never before, in the annals of any nation, was the heart of the whole loyal people made to thrill with joy so enthusiastic, or, in quick succession, to throb with anguish so intense. The single month of April is without a parallel. The triumphant march of one of our most brilliant Generals through Georgia and the Carolinas had cut off the retreat of the rebel forces, while the General-in-Chief guarded their stronghold at Richmond. At length the time for final action had come. Victory after victory crowned every movement, till the main army of the Rebellion was ours. The history of a whole year seemed crowded into a single day. No hour of the day ;—no day of the week was too sacred to restrain the general joy. The glaring bonfires, and the roaring cannon at the midnight hour told a jubilant people that a nefarious rebellion was forever crushed. Scarcely had the sound of the booming gun, and the pealing bell ceased along the hills and valleys of the loyal North, when,—too shocking for belief,—a dastard hand had deprived a grateful people of their cherished chief magistrate. No language can express the undisguised sorrow of the whole nation. Stout hearts were broken. Men, women, and children wept. Before the sun of that memorable 15th had gone down, the streets, the public buildings, and many of the private dwellings of our principal cities were in mourning. All had lost a friend. That day the name of Abraham Lincoln was made immortal.

Such were the closing days of a war as cruel, as it was unprovoked, as fatal to its instigators and their ambitious schemes, as it will prove beneficial to the parties and interests which they designed to crush. God be praised for so glorious a triumph of the right!

As we look back upon the last four years, what changes we have experienced! At the beginning of the struggle, labor, in the arts of peace was never better rewarded. The hum of industry was heard in all parts of the land. The artisan, the farmer, the man

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PREFATORY NOTE.

The official record, or Secretary's Journal of the Proceedings of the Seventh Suosion, of the Sixth ANNUAL MEETING of the National Teachers' Association, held at Harrisburg, Penn., on the 16th, 17th and 18th of August, 1864, and such of the Addresses, Lectures and Papers read during the session, as were received by the Committee of Publication up to this date, are printed in pamphlet form for distribution among the members who have paid to the Treasurer the annual fee of one dollar required by the Constitution.

In 1864 the Association directed the Committee of Publication to include with the proceedings of the annual session for the year, an abstract of the proceedings of the several State Teachers' Associations for the same period. As the Committee were not able to obtain the necessary returns in time for their publication, Dr. Barnard, Editor of the American Journal of Education, in furtherance of the objects of the Association and as a contribution to the History of Education already designed for publication in his Journal, undertook not only to prepare an account of the proceedings of every State Association which held an Annual Meeting in 1861, but also a condensed summary of the subjects discussed in all the principal Conventions which had ever been held, and the Associations wbich had been formed for the promotion of education in the United States, and the improvement of public schools in the several States. Inviting the co-operation of the officers of all existing Associations, and using the material which he has been collecting for thirty years past for a history of Education in the United States, Dr. Barnard intended, as was announced in the Programme, to have submitted a summary of his inquiries, with some suggestions as to a Central Educational Agency, to the meeting at Harrisburg. This he was prevented from doing by illness which kept him at home, and his engagements since have prevented his writing out the brief notes of names, dates, and suggestions, prepared to aid him in an oral exposition of the subject, for publication in the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, as he proposed to do. In his present inability to prepare such a paper, he places at the disposal of the Committee a sheet containing his Plan of a Central Office and Agency, together with a Circular as to his proposed comprehensive survey of the Educational History the country, with the Contents of the volume devoted to tho proceedings of Conventions and Associations for the Advancement of Education in the United States and the Improvement of Public Schools in the several States. The project is of such immediate and immense importance to the future progress of Schools and Education in the whole country, and the volume now ready for publication is in such direct furtherance of the oxpressed wishes of the Association, that the Committee have directed this sheet to be bound up with the Proceedings and forwarded to the members.

S. S. GREENE, Providence, R. I.
JAMES CRUIKSHANK, Albany, New York,

Z. RICHARDS, Washington, D. C.
December 27, 1865.

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