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Bukowina; Gipsies, (146,100); Armenians, (16,131); Albanians, (3,175); and Greeks and Bohemians, (2,255.)

The number of languages or dialects exceeds twenty, but the German is the official language, and it is a significant fact that at a Panslavic congress held at Prague in 1848, the delegates of the different Slavic nationalities were unable to understand the different dialects of their own tongue and were forced to make the German the medium of communication. The Germans are the ruling race, not merely on account of the nationality of the ruling dynasty, but because German intelligence, culture, and industry prevail in all the different provinces, the Italian excepted. This diversity of nationality and language is one of the governing elements in the politics of the empire, and the consequent want of sympathy among the several nationalities and the general jealousy of the Slavonic and other races against the German, their hostility to any supposed attempt at “Germanization," and the effort to rid themselves of an oppressive feeling of inferiority to the Germans, have not merely complicated and embarrassed the school system of the empire, but have been the greatest and, indeed, the insurmountable difficulty in the way of a successful political reorganization.

Great differences exist in the state of civilization also of the masses of the people of the different provinces. The highest advancement is found in the Italian provinces, where agriculture is carried to the highest perfection, and among the inhabitants of the German provinces. In a lower grade are the Bohemians, Silesians, and Moravians, who occupy almost exclusively the manufacturing provinces. The Slavonians of the south may be ranked with the Poles and Moravian inhabitants of Hungary, and above the rude and almost nomadic Magyars, while the Dalmatians may be considered as standing on the lowest footing of civilization in Europe. South of the Danube the severity of the feudal system has long been nearly extinct, but much feudal power has remained until very recently in Bohemia and Moravia, still more in Galicia, and most of all in the Hungarian provinces. Though equality of right exists in all subjects of the empire to hold property, without distinction of class or religion, yet a great portion of the land is rendered inalienable by entails, and landed properties are still possessed in large masses. Late patents bave abolished serfilom entirely throughout the empire. The peasants live little on the country lands but are gathered into villages. In 1840 there were within the limits of the empire 72,135 villages, 2,545 market towns, and 782 cities. Each province is divided into a large number of "circles' (Kreise,) each containing 100–150 square miles, and having its proper officers and government, subordinate to that of the province. The lowest form of civil organization is the community' (Gemeinde,) coördinate with which is the 'parish' (Pfarrei) as an ccclesiastical organization, existing wherever there is a church and settled minister. For school purposes there also exists in later times the district'( Bezirk,) coincident generally with the ecclesiastical deanery' (Decanat) in the

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Catholic, or superintendency (Superintendential-bezirk) in the Protestant church of Austria.

As to religion, the great bulk of the nation (23,968,686) is Roman Catholic; of United Greeks (holding the communion of Rome and acknowledging the supremacy of the Pope, but employing the Greek language in their services) there are about 3,609,244 ; of the Greek Church proper, 2,835,834; Protestants, of all denominations, 3,182,616; Jews, 1,049,871. At the accession of Joseph II. there were 2,024 Catholic convents, which in 1816 had been reduced to 800. Since then they have again increased. In 1842 there were 766 monasteries with 10,354 monks, and 157 nunneries containing 3,661 nuns. By the Concordat of September, 1855, the Catholic Church in Austria has become a power entirely independent of the temporal government. The placitum regium was abolished, thus rendering all decrees of the Pope valid and binding for the catholics of Austria without previous sanction of the government. The bishops are empowered to prohibit all books which they may deem pernicious, and have immediate control over the Catholic schools so far as relates to religious instruction; they may punish clergy and laymen for any violation of the regulations of the Church, and may establish any number of new monasteries; in short, all the limitations of the Papal power established by Joseph II. have been removed, and Austria has become emphatically the leading Catholic power in Europe.

There were in 1853, 249 newspapers and other periodical prints, of which only 77 were political. Fully half were in German, but all are fettered by conditions which render them quite worthless as organs of public opinion. Literary censorship is strictly enforced.



1. History. The history of education in Austria prior to the Reformation corresponds fully with its history in other states of Central Europe as given in previous Articles. Here, after the close of the struggle against the Reformers, the schools for higher instruction remained in the hands of the Jesuits, while primary instruction, confined principally to religious teaching and the catechism, was in the special charge of the Brotherhood of Christian Instruction. Not until the establishment of the order of Piarists in 1621, who in addition to the three usual monastic rows devoted themselves also to gratuitous instruction and soon became very numerous, were special schools endowed for the exclusive instruction of poor chil. dren in reading, writing, and arithmetic, as well as, the catechism. Besides these schools and the similar ones belonging to the female orders, there were also some parochial schools founded by the lords of the es. tates or by the communities, hut until the year 1770 the government even of the Empress Maria Theresa, who was the first to take an active interest in the personal welfare of her subjects, had gone no farther than to enforce the church regulations respecting religious instruction, to per.. mit the teaching of the poor in other than the schools of the religious orders, and to adjust certain disagreements between the priests, the manorial lords, and the communities, respecting the engagement and dismissal of teachers. During the first thirty years the Empress' accession to the throne in 1740, the condition of elementary instruction continued at the lowest. At Vienna, indeed, nearly one-fourth of the children between five and fifteen years of age were attending school, though teachers and text-books were often of the poorest description, and in the country generally but few of the children received any instruction whatever. Through the influence of Archbishop Sigismund (1753–1771) the condition of Upper Austria and Salzburg was somewhat improved, and in the Tyrol an attempt was made in 1747 to abolish the hedge schools and introduce a better system of schools and teaching. In Bohemia and Moravia, the suppression of the Protestant schools and continued persecution left but a miserable remnant, while in Silesia the Protestant schools were far in advance of those of the Catholics. In Galicia and Bukowina, not at that time attached to Austria, popular instruction was unknown.

Some attempts for the improvement and systematizing of elementary schools had, however, been made. Felbiger's method of instruction had been introduced into the orphan schools of Vienna, Gratz, and Klagenfurt, and in 1752 Rabstein's system was favorably received by the Empress, but its trial was prevented by the Seven Years War. In 1766 a “plan for the thorough reform of trivial * schools " was under discussion, modeled after that of Silesia, (then belonging to Prussia,) and was partially introduced by way of trial in the Tyrol, together with Felbiger's method. But the first effective impulse was given by a memorial of Count Firmian, Bishop of Passau, probably drawn up at the suggestion of the Empress herself, who, after the close of the Seven Years War, had devoted herself with new energy to the domestic improvement of her territories, and had already decreed, against an attempt of the clergy of Carinthia to possess theinselves of the entire control of school appointments, that the management of the schools was and should remain a State matter, (politicum.) As a result of the memorial, it was decided in 1770 to create two “Boards of Education," for Upper and Lower Austria, which initiated a reform by establishing a normal school at Vienna. This school, under the management of Joseph Messmer, who was previously tutor of the Empress' children and at whose suggestion the Boards had been formed, contributed much to awaken a general interest throughout all the German and Slavonian provinces. A normal school fund was formed, a school-book publishing house was established, and the improved methods of teaching were introduced by teachers from the normal school, especially into the orphan and Piarist schools. Like measures were to some extent effected in other provinces. Kindermann opened a model school in Bohemia which

* For an explanation of the designations of the different grades of schools, see page 24

was largely attended; Count von Pergen urged with persistent zeal the assumption by the State of the care and control of both public and private instruction, the exclusion of the religious orders from the schools, the sole use of the German language in instruction, improved text-books, and more advanced female instruction; and Hägelin, who had been the most energetic member of the Boards of Education, effected some changes in the supervision and support of schools and in the course of study. The expulsion of the Jesuits in 1773 permitted the transfer of the funds of the order to educational endowments, facilitated the change of some of the too numerous “Latin schools” into public schools, and added new importance to the question of the assumption by the government of the whole subject of education. In the following year a State Board of Education was formed with power to act independently of every other authority and, at the desire of the Empress, Felbiger himself was called to Vienna to undertake the reorganization of the whole system. He soon effected the preparation of suitable school-books, devised a thorough course of normal instruction, and projected the first general school ordinance, that of Dec., 1774, many of the provisions of which are still in force.

By this ordinance it was required that wherever there was a parislı church there should also be a trivial school, for instruction in religion, Biblical history, morality, reading, writing, and arithmetic, at the expense of the communities and manorial lords. In each circle there should be a “ High school" sustained by the school fund, having 3-4 teachers and giving instruction in the elements of Latin, geography and history, written composition, arithmetic, and geometry. It recommended distinct female schools under female teachers and giving instruction in feminine employments. In the provincial capitals there should be “model schools," with a more extended course which should also embrace normal instruction. Like instruction should be given at all the larger high schools. Religious teaching was left to the clergy, and therefore the study of catechetics and methods of instruction was made a requisite for admission to the pastoral office. Of those already engaged in teaching some measure of normal training was required and new candidates, as well as private teachers, were to be subjected to a previous examination. The rights of appointment to schools were left unchanged. Fixed salaries were established for the model and high school teachers, and the more poorly paid country teachers were recommended to the aid of the lords and communities and were permitted to engage in other suitable employments. Text-books and methods of discipline and instruction were prescribed, in which Felbiger's peculiar tahular and simultaneous methods were prominent. School attendance continued from the sixth to the twelfth or thirteenth year, and was to be enforced with some strictness in the country upon the younger chil. dren especially in suminer and upon the older in winter--and Sunday. schools should be held for all over the age of twelve, not pupils in the higher schools, at which attendance was required of apprentices until the close of their terms of service, and of others until their eighteenth or twentieth year. The immediate superintendence of the model and high schools was given to the principal teachers, and of the trivial schools to the pastors, while the financial and other business matters were in. charge of a lay superintendent, appointed by the magistrate or lord. There was to be also a "circle superintendent,” usually the dean, having the general supervision of the high and trivial schools of his district, receiving their reports and submitting them, with his own, to the chief official of the circle. Provision was also made for a provincial “School Board," which, among other duties, should have care of the school fund and of the general administration of the school ordinance. Finally, there was in Vienna the "General Board of Directors for Model Schools," which was the advising organ of the State Board of Education and to which the provincial boards reported for approval the proposed course of action in their several provinces.

School boards were soon formed and model schools opened in all the German and Slavonian provinces, and provision was made for school funds and improved text-books, the personal interest of the Empress encouraging a general spirit of self-sacrifice. To avoid prejudice, no taxes were permitted for school objects beyond a duty upon bequests and amusements, an increase of tuition fees was forbidden, corporations and the clergy were called upon for contributions, and the surplus revenues of ecclesiastical benefices and the property of the dissolved religious orders were freely drawn upon to supply the deficiencies of the school funds. The abolition of brany gymnasiums supplied the buildings, means, and teachers for high schools, and convents were in some cases persuaded to their support, so that in 1776 there were already twenty schools of this character in Upper and Lower Austria, the Tyrol, and Carinthia. Well organized female schools existed in the convents of the Ursuline and other nuns, and one at Hall with lay teachers. The first Jewish school was opened at Görz in the same year.

In the establishment of trivial schools, the Empress took the lead in her own patrimonial territories and her example was followed by many of the ecclesiastical princes and large landed proprietors. Kindermann was especially active and successful in Bohemia, as chief superintendent, and was the first to effect a union of the common and industrial school systems. Under Felbiger's care an entirely new series of text-books was published in 1775, followed by a series of manuals for the use of the teachers. The catechisms were translated into the Italian, Bohemian, and Slavonian languages, and the text-books for the trivial schools into the Czech dialect. The annexation of Galicia in 1772 was followed by the establishment of a model school at Lemberg in 1775 and the formation of a school board in 1776, and the school ordinance was:adapted by Felbiger to the civil and religious relations of the new kingdom with great skill and impartiality. Thus in the last ten years of the Empress'

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