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FROM THE DEATH OF THE PRINCE CONSORT TO THE GENEVA CONVENTION,

With mumerous Engravings.

CASSELL, PETTER & GALPIN:

LONDON, PARIS & NEW YORK.

226. l. 128.

PREFACE.

ZEN years have passed since the publication of the Eighth Volume of CASSELL'S HISTORY S OF ENGLAND, which originally ended with a notice of the lamented death of the late

Prince Consort.* The reader is now presented with a continuation of the narrative nearly to the present day. He will not fail to note the striking difference between the complexion of the story of England's fortunes as traced in the preceding Volume, and that

which is exhibited here. In the twelve years from 1860 to 1872, no Crimean War stirred every 'English heart to its depths—no mortal struggle against a revolted army made critical appeal to the valour and energy of the English race. As if dissatisfied with the result of the war with Russia, England bas since that time retired more decidedly than ever from intervention in foreign politics; and neither the dismemberment of Denmark her ancient ally in 1864, nor the violent destruction of the independence of Hanover, nor the rending of Alsace and Lorraine from France, appeared to our Parliament and people a sufficient cause for armed interference. Yet, moving ever onwards in the path of industrial and social progress, England has effected, since 1861, a variety of changes in her domestic polity, and extended the dominion of man over nature by a thousand new applications of science to the useful arts, the record of which in the following pages will be found of no ordinary interest. A new Reform Bill has brought the masses who earn their bread by the labour of their hands within the pale of the Constitution ; the Irish Church has been disestablished ; finally, the education of the whole people, for the first time in English history, has been made a matter of public enactment and provision. Of the memorable struggles which attended the passing of these measures through Parliament, the reader will here find a full and coherent account. To the exposition of the industrial progress of the nation during the last twenty years, the six closing chapters of the Volume have been devoted. The movement of population, the development of commerce, the invention of new methods for facilitating human intercourse and quickening the transmission of ideas, and the wonderful growth of all forms of industry connected with the working of metals, especially of irun-on all these points the concluding chapters will be found to contain a large amount of accurate information, compiled from authentic sources.

The peaceful tenor of the public life of England, during the period comprised in the present Volume, has not been shared by our kinsmen across the Atlantic, nor by the neighbour nations of the Continent. A conflict of four years' duration was necessary before the Northern Americans succeeded in overcoming the resistance of the South, and preventing the dissolution of that federal union to which they are so justly attached. Since the date at which our last Volume closed, Denmark has been deprived of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, Austria utterly defeated in a seven weeks' war and driven out of Germany, the unification of the kingdom of Italy continued and completed, Germany transformed from an unwieldy

• In the new issue of the History, with a view to the preservation of the chronological order of events, various other important incidents have been treated in the last chapter of Vol. VIII., and the narrative of the Prince's last illness and death has been transferred to the first chapter of the present Volume.

confederation into a powerful Protestant empire ; while France, crushed and conquered in a brief war, has been compelled to surrender two fair provinces to Germany. Perhaps no period of ten years in the history of Europe ever witnessed more memorable events, more extraordinary and unexpected vicissitudes. These things, in spite of our neutrality, cannot but be deeply interesting to Englishmen, and the reader will accordingly find the great wars, revolutions, and negotiations of America and the Continent described at some length in the following pages.

The differences between Great Britain and the United States arising out of the depredations of the Alabama, and other cruisers of her class—the negotiations which succeeded in adjusting those differences by a treaty referring them to international arbitration—and the proceedings of the Tribunal of Arbitration appointed under that treaty, will be found narrated, in their proper sequence and connection, in the forty-fifth and forty-sixth chapters.

A narrative of the progress of English Art during the last twenty years will be found in Chapter XLI.

Her Majesty Queen Victoria still reigns, as she reigned when the last preceding Volume of this History appeared, over a loyal and united people. After the great and crushing sorrow of her life, it has pleased Providence to send her no scanty share of those alleviations which help us to bear mortal ills with resignation ; she has seen, since the death of the Prince Consort, most of her children happily and honourably married ; death has made no more encroachments on the family circle; and the young life of blooming grandchildren has come to lead her thoughts towards the joys and interests of a new generation. That a similar immunity from great afflictions may attend Her Majesty during the next decennial period of English history, must be the sincere prayer of all her subjects.

That a due proportion has invariably been observed in the narration of events so near to us, or that amidst the embarrassing abundance of materials, nothing has been omitted which ought to have been noticed, nothing related which ought to have been omitted, it would perhaps be hazardous to assert. It is hoped, however, that the moving picture of English and European life, from 1861 to 1872, has, on the whole, been transferred to these pages with fidelity and impartiality; and in this hope the Ninth Volume of Cassell's ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF ENGLAND is confidently commended to the indulgent judgment of the public.

The Portrait of H.R.H. the Princess of Wales (see Frontispiece) is copied, by permission, from a photograph

by Messrs. W. and D. Downey.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE NINTH VOLUME.

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PAGE Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and

Princess of Wales ... Frontispiece The Queen holding the First Investiture

of the Order of the Star of India
The Prince Consort ...
George Peabody
Battle of Pittsburg ..
Fight between the Monitor and

Merrimac ...
Earl Granville ...
View of the Exhibition of 1862
The Marriage of the Prince of Wales
Horticultural Gardens, South Kensington
Lord Lyndhurst
General Jacksoa mortally wounded
Archbishop Whately
Puebla-fron the West
Puebla-from the East
Ditch of Fort Wagner after the Bom

bardment ...
Charleston Harbour, with the sunken
Captain Speke ... - ***
William Ewart Gladstone ...
Presentation of a Sword to Garibaldi, at

the Crystal Palace
Planting “Shakespeare's Oak"
Storming a New Zealand Pah
Scene at a Belfast Riot
Sir George Grey
Count Bismark
The Exchange, Copenbagen ..
Engagement before Düppel
Prince Frederick Charles ...
Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico ...
Arrival of the French Troops in Mexico...
Entrance to the Cathedral of Mexico ...
Hurricane at Calcutta

108 John Stuart Mill ...

109 View of tbe Matterbora Arrest of Charles O'Connell

120 Sir Joseph Paxton ... King Leopold I. Funeral of Lord Palmerston in West

minster Abbey
Captain Cameron and the Ab yssinian

Captives
Pope Pius the Ninth ... ... ... ...
M. Thiers
Meeting of Frenchand English Iron-clads
General Lee
The Jamaica jasnrrection : volunteers

Firing on the Mob
General Lee takiny Farewell ot bis
Soldiers

... 1 Great House, št. Thomas-in-the-East,

Jamaica ... ... *** "*
Mancbioneal Bay, Jamaica ...
Sir Alexander Cockburn,

Justice of England
Westminster Hall: Waiting for the Divi.

sion on the Reform Bill ...
The Right Hon. Robert Lowe
The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli 169
Lord Stanley ...
The Great Eastern paying out the Atlantic

Cable ... The Foundering of the London .. . Dr. Whewell .. Mr. Bright's Vindication of the Queen .. John Keble : 1812 ... Francis Joseph I., Emperor of Austria... 1 William I., King of Prussia Biarritz ... The Crown Prince of Prussia The Prince of Angustenburg Battle of Langensalza

211 Frankfort-on-the-Main

216 General Steinmetz

PAGE Marshal Benedek The Battlefield of Königgrätz

223
Marshal von Wrangel
The Archduke Albrecht
Peschiera
Prague ...
General von Moltke ...
Review of Prussian Troops...
Sir John Pakington
Lord Cranborne
Mr. Gathorne Hardy...
Mr. Disraeli introducing the Reform

Bill ...
Mr. Beresford Hope
Lord Carvarvou

270 Meeting of Reformers in Hyde Park: 271 Lord Naas ...

276 The Emperor of Russia Salzburg ... ..

. Naval Review at Spithead in honour

in ho
the Sultan of Turkey ...
Bird's-eye View of the International E

hibition at Paris, 1867
Marshal Bazaine
The City of Mexico
Lord Derby ...
Lord Chelmsford
Right Hon, E. Cardwell

301 The Emperor Theodore The Emperor Theodore threatening a

Captive ... ... Map of Abyssinia

312 Putting the Captives into Irons ... ... 313 Sir Robert Napier ... The Abyssinians at the River Beshilo 319 King Theodore's Honse at Magdala ... Interior of Magdala, with Selassyè in the Distance ... ...

... 324 Church at Magdala, with Theodore's

Grave... .
Magdala in Flames ...
The Suicide of Theodore
Dr. Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury ... 326
Sir Roundell Palmer ... ...
The Right Rev. Dr. Magee, Bis

Peterborough ...
The Bishop of Peterborough addressing

the House of Lords
Mr. Chicbester Fortescue ...
Earl Russell

349 M. Jules Favre...

354 Malaga ... ... Burgos ...

360 Night Scene in the Bay of Jeddo

by Fire
The Duke of Richmond
Collision between the Bombay

Oneida
Professor Henry Fawcett
Mr. W. E. Forster ...
Mr. Mundella ...
Attack on the English Travellers by the

Greek Brigands ...
Cathedral in Athens ...
M. Alexandre Dumas
Charles Dickens
Gadshill Place, the Residence of Charles
Dickens ...

391 * * M. Ollivier ...

397 Coblenz, from Ehrenbreitstein

402 Mitrailleuse : Back View ... Mitrailleuse: Front View ... Attack upon Weissenburg ... General von Göben View of Metz .... Fortification of Paris : Felling the Trees

in the Bois de Boulogne The Surprise at Beaumont... ..

PAGE
View of Sedan ...
Marshal MacMahon ...
The Emperor Napoleon on the Road to

Wilhelmshöhe
The Empress of the French embarking

in the Gazelle
St. Peter's and the Vatican...
Cardinal Antonelli ...
Departure of the Papal Zouaves :

ceiving the Pope's Blessing ...
The Assassination of Marshal Prim
Strasburg Cathedral ...
The Prince Imperial ...
Evacuation of Metz
View in Orleans
View of Rouen...
A Sortie from Paris : the Battle of Mon-

tretout ...
Houses of Parliament: Grand Eötrance 463
Mr. Ruskin ...
Front of the Army and Navy Club
The Albert Memorial...
Hereford Cathedral: North Tr angep

and Screen ... ...
Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A.
Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A.
Interior View of the Manchester Exhibi.

tion ....
The Royal Academy Galleries
Mr. John Leech
Epping Forest ...
The Duke of Argyll ..
The Queen and the Royal Family at the

Thanksgiving Service in St. Paul's

Cathedral ... ... ..
Scarborough ..
The Alabama sinking

the Kear&arge
View of Nassau...
The Melbourne Po

Shenandoah ...
View of Funchal
President Grant
View of Geneva
The San Juan Question: Map of

Disputed Territory
Sir Stafford Northcote
Mr. Adams
M. Staen pfli ...
Meeting of the Arbitrators on

Alabama Claims at Geneva
View of Melbourne
The New Opera House in Paris
View of Versailles
Demonstration of the Paris Preemasons 547
Colonel Rossel...
Jardin des Plantes
The Cemetery of Père la Chaise

558 Insurgents Ravaging the Streets of Paris 559 Mr. Childers, M.P. Mountaineers of Afgb nanistan Indian Fakir .. Assassination of the Viceroy of India ... Saltaire ... George Stephenson St. Katherine's Docks, London Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester Robert Stephenson ... Isambard K. Brunel ... .. The Mont Cenis Railway ..

395 . The Victoria Bridge at Montreal

600 Opening of the Suez Canal Mr. Bessemer ... .. Baron Liebig ... Nasmyth's Steam Hammer... Sir W. Fairbairn

Dundee ... | Work-girls at Wigan Collieries .

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