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plırases, betrayed extreme irritation on the part of his the Berlin papers, did infinite damage to the reputation Government. The Lower House then passed the following of Austria. Instead of taking a high tono, as he might resolution :-“The Second Chamber, in conjunction with so easily have done, Count Mensdorff said that “ Austria the Upper Chamber, declares that the occupation of Rends. would only assent to the incorporation of the duchies burg by Prussian troops, effected by abuse of an over. with Prussia upon an equivalent augmentation of her whelming force, is a violation of the rights of the German own German territory being guaranteed to her.” Such Confederation, and an outrage upon the honour of the an augmentation could not be made except at the expense German Federal troops. The Chamber protests against of some existing German state, which would have to be this act of violence on the part of a German Federal despoiled for the purpose ; it seemed, therefore, that Power."

Austria was even less scrupulous than Prussia, for the Anstria and Prussia having now entered into full pos- rights of the Prince of Augustenburg, however well session of the conquered territory, acted together for grounded they might be, had never yet been translated some time in considerable harmony. By a convention, into actual possession.* dated the 16th January, 1864, it had been agreed between By keeping a French corps in the Roman territory, the them that, if war arose in Schleswig, and treaty engage: | Emperor of the French knew that he gave continual ments came to an end, the future condition of the duchies umbrage to the Liberal sentiment of Europe; he was should be established only by way of mutual under therefore anxious to withdraw his troops, yet so that standing. One Austrian and two Prussian brigades were Rome should be left secure from attack, whether from left in the duchies, for the civil government of which two the Italian Government or the partisans of the Revolution. commissioners were appointed—Von Lederer (soon suc Thus arose the famous Convention between France and ceeded by Baron Halbhuber) by Austria, and Von Zedlitz Italy, of the 15th September, 1864, the principal articles by Prussia. The government was to be in common, and of which were these :-1. Italy engaged not to attack the its seat the city of Schleswig. The execution forces were territory then belonging to the Pope, and to prevent, even now withdrawn from Holstein by a decree of the Diet. by force, every attack on that territory from without. Count Rechberg, the Austrian Minister for Foreign 2. France undertook to withdraw her troops from the Affairs, was replaced about this time by Count Mens Pontifical States in proportion as the Pope's army should dorff. A difference of opinion soon manifested itself be organised; but the evacuation was, under any circumbetween the occupying Powers in regard to the proposal stances, to be completed within the space of two years. which they had jointly made at the London Conference, | 3. The Italian Government engaged to raise no protest favourable to the hereditary claims of the Prince of against the organisation of a Papal army, even if comAugustenburg. Austria still desired that the duchies posed of foreign volunteers, sufficient to maintain the should be disposed of in that way, but such an arrange- Pope's anthority and tranquillity as well in the interior ment no longer suited the expanding views of the Count as upon the frontier of his states, provided always that von Bismarck. He was resolved that Prussia should be this force should not degenerate into a means of attack great by sea as well as by land, and for this end the fine against the Italian Government. 4. Florence was to be harbour of Kiel was a valuable and indispensable acqui. substituted for Turin as the capital. This last stipulation sition. Availing himself, therefore, of the fact, that a was insisted on by the French Emperor, because it was claim had been, since the Conference, put forward by the evident to all that the capital of the Italian kingdom Grand Duke of Oldenburg, in whose favour (as the could not much longer remain at Turin—a city exposed arrangements of the Treaty of 1852 had fallen through) on two sides to a sudden invasion across the Alps; if, the Emperor of Russia had lately renounced his rever- then, it were once removed to the other side of the Apensionary interest in the Gottorp portion of Schleswig,--and nines and fixed at Florence, not at Rome, he calculated of the further fact, that a very small minority of the popu- that there it would probably remain, and that the ardent lation of the duchies had petitioned that they might be longing for Rome, as the natural and necessary capital of annexed to Prussia,-Bismarck declined to take any step Italy, would gradually fade away from the Italian heart. tending to favour the succession of the Prince of Augus. Thus only, he considered, was it possible to reconcile the tenburg. The wishes of the vast majority of the German urgent claim of French Catholics, that the Pope should population of the duchies were on the Prince's side, but be protected, with the political and military necessity that trifling circumstance made no impression whatever which compelled the Italians to seek a more central on Bismarck. The Diot, in December, took into consider. position for their capital. But in the Italian intellect tho ation a motion to regulate the succession in the duchies Emperor encountered an adversary not less tenacious, by its sole authority, but the Prussian minister quickly not less wily, than himself, and endowed besides with a informed the Courts of Dresden and Munich that no swift, flashing audacity which was foreign to his own such interference would be permitted. At the same time character. The Italians thought it a clear gain that the (December 13, 1864) he hinted, in a despatch to Vienna, French eagles should be withdrawn from their soil, and that the annexation of the duchies to Prussia, though trusted to tho chapter of accidents to bring them to not to be carried out except with the assent of Austria, Rome at last. Cialdini, in an eloquent speech to the would be highly advantageous to German interests, and not detrimental to those of Austria. Count Mensdorff

* It has been sinco alloged that Count Mensdorff had in his mind

It h replied in a despatch which, surreptitiously conveyed to the county of Glatz in Silesia.

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Senate, counselling the removal of the capital to Florence, Lincoln-Maximilian accepts the Mexican Crown: Arrives in made no secret of his ulterior aims. He fully concurred,

Mexico': His progress in putting down the Juarists-Destructive

Cyclone at Calcutta. he said, in the opinion ascribed to the great Napoleon, that Florence was not sufficiently central to be the capital The course of the Civil War in America in 1864 was of Italy, “and exactly for that reason I desire and characterised by as desperate fighting, but distinguished

hope to go to Rome.” The discontent of the people of by fewer picturesque incidents than the campaigns of the · Turin, at the prospect of losing the advantages which two preceding years. The contest became more sangui.

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had hitherto accrued to their city from being the seat | nary as it proceeded; in this year we hear of the massacre of Government, broke out into open rioting; the troops of prisoners, of fights in which no quarter was given, had to be called out, and several lives were lost before of the burning of villages and farms, of the ruthless dethe tumult was quelled.

struction and wholesale plunder of property. Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Seward erected the preservation of the Union

into a religion, and did not fear to characterise those who CHAPTER IX.

sought to dissolve it as the " enemies of the human race"!

Naturally, therefore, they made it a point of duty to American Civil War in 1864: Battle of Olustee: Federal Failares in Louisiana and Arkansas : Grant takes the Command in Virginia ;

wade through seas of blood and stride over wide-spread He crosses the Rapidan: Battles of the “ Wilderness" and Spot ruin to their object. On the other hand, this frightful sylvania Court House: Terrible Slaughter: Death of Stuart :

pertinacity maddened the Confederates, and infused a Fighting on the North Anna: Battle of Cold Harbour : Grant transfers his Army to the South of the James River : Fruitless

spirit of vengeful fury into their resistance, so long as Assault on Petersburg : End of the Campaign : Inexhaustible any resistance was possible. Resources of the North: Early Invades Maryland; Menaces

In the outlying portions of the vast territory over Washington; Is twice Defeated by Sheridan : Devastation of the Shenandoah Valley by Sheridan's Order: Sherman Advances into

which the war raged, the events of the year were, upon Georgia : Fall of Atlanta: Hood Invades Tennessee ; Repulsed

the whole, unfavourable to the Federals. In an attempt, from Nashville : Sherman's Great March : Fall of Savannah : made in February, to overrun and recover Florida for the The Alabama and the Kearsarge : Capture of the Mobile Forts by

Union, General Seymour was defeated (February 20), Parragut: The Florida at Babia: The St. Albans Raid : Constitu. tional Amendment Abolishing Slavery: Re-election of Mr. | with heavy loss, by the Confederate General Finnegan, at

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a place called Olustee, near the northern frontier of the defeat, to work them down again, in which operation lio state; and this was the last serious fighting that occurred was much hampered by the low state of the river, and in Florida till the final collapse of the Confederacy. In the continual attacks of the enemy from the banks, losing the part of Louisiana which lies to the west of the Missis. one or two of his gun-boats from the former cause, and a sippi, a great combined military and naval expedition, considerable number of men from the latter. In Arkunder General Banks and Admiral Porter, the object of ansas, a state on the western bank of the Mississippi, which was to clear the valley of the Red river and to north of Louisiana, the Federal General Steele set ont, :

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reach and capture Shreveport, a place of considerable im- , in the spring, from Little Rock, the capital of the stateportance in the north-western corner of the state, resulted which he had captured in the previous September—on an in complete failure. The Confederate General Kirby expedition to Camden, a town near the Louisiana border. Smith attacked Banks' army while its divisions were But a portion of his force being defeated and compelled scattered at Sabine Cross Roads (April 8), and defeated to surrender at Mark's Mill (April 25), Steele retreated, it with heavy loss in guns and prisoners. Banks fell not without considerable difficulty, to Little Rock; the back on Grand Ecore, repulsing his pursuers with loss at greater portion of the state was recovered by the ConPleasant Hill, and thence on Alexandria; ultimately he federates, and the attempts at a Union organisation, retired to Simmsport, a place not many miles from the which the success of the previous year had encouraged,

Tississippi. Admiral Porter, who had worked his fleet were nipped in the bud. In Missouri, on the other hand, of gon-boats up the Red river to within a short distance in spite of a last and very daring inroad by General d Shreveport, was compeilod, on hearing of Banks' | Prico, the Federal hold of the state remained unshaken;

Vol. IX.-No. 423.

yet, on the whole, the Confederates west of the Missis- abattis. During four days (May 8, 9, 10, and 12), there sippi were stronger at the end of the year than they had was continual fighting round Spotsylvania, with fright. been at the beginning.

ful carnage. On the first day, General Sedgwick, while The Army of the Potomac was entrusted this year to placing his guns, and bantering some of his men who General Grant, who was nominated by the President, on winced at the singing of Confederate bullets, was struck the 1st March, Lieutenant-General of the Armies of the in the face by the ball from a sharp-shooter's rifle and United States, a dignity hitherto accorded only to George fell dead. The command of his corps was given to Washington. What emphatically recommended General General Wright. Grant wrote to the War Department, Grant both to the President and to Congress--notwith on the 11th May, declaring that the result of six days' standing his civilian training and frequent serious mis- heavy fighting was much in his favour (which was only takes in strategy-was his “utter disbelief in the efficacy true in the sense that he could better afford to lose two of any rose-water treatment of the rebellion.”* His men than the Confederates one), and ending: “I propolicy, agreeing with that of Mr. Lincoln himself, was pose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer.” to wear out the Confederacy by continual and simulta- The Federal losses round Spotsylvania again amounted neous attacks in every quarter, to give them no rest to nearly 20,000 men. After the action on the 12th, either winter or summer, and thus to make the utmost several days of marching and counter-marching ensued, possible use of the great advantage possessed by the Grant endeavouring, but without success, to find a weak Federals in their practically unbounded resources in men place in the Confederate lines. On the 21st, he withdrew and material, and to impede the Confederates as much his army by its left in a south-easterly direction, and as possible in the use of the advantage which they pos- marched ppon the North Anna, a stream which, when joined sessed—that of moving on interior and shorter lines of by the South Anna, forms the river Pamunkey. Meancommunication. He was determined—to use his own time, General Butler, commanding at Fortress Munroe, words in his final report on the war—" to hammer con- had advanced with 30,000 men up the James river to. tinuously against the armed force of the enemy and his wards Richmond, which he hoped to find feebly defended. resources, until hy mere attrition, if in no other way, Both he and Grant were aided in their movements by the there should be nothing left to him but” submission. operations of a powerful cavalry, now far more numerous He assumed the command of the army, which, however, and well appointed than the Confederate horsemen, whose still remained under the immediate direction of Meade, brilliant raids had carried consternation far across the early in March, and devoted the rest of that month and Federal border in the earlier years of the war. Stuart the whole of April to a careful re-organisation, massing himself, the best cavalry officer on the Confederate side, his entire force, amounting to about 100,000 men, in three had fallen mortally wounded at Yellow Tavern, near corps, under Generals Hancock, Warren, and Sedgwick. Richmond, on the 11th May, whilo resisting, with far inLee also had re-formed his far inferior army into three ferior numbers, the attack of a large cavalry force under corps, under Hill, Ewell, and Longstreet. When all was the command of General Sheridan. But Beauregard was ready, Meade was ordered to cross the Rapidan, and summoned up from Charleston, the attack on which had enter the “ Wilderness”-a tract of broken table-land been turned into a blockade, to oppose Butler, and attack. densely covered with dwarfish timber and bushes, which ing him at Proctor's Creek (May 16), on the James river, lies to the west of Chancellorsville. His columns crossed forced him to retreat. the river without opposition, and moving to their right. When Grant reached the North Anna, he found the were about to emerge from the tangled broken country, ever-watchful Lee confronting him again in a strong when Lee, who had drawn up his army outside the position to the south of that river. Two days' fighting western border of the Wilderness, vigorously attacked (May 23, 24) ensued; after which, perceiving the imposand checked their progress. The battle raged with sibility of forcing the Confederate entrenchments without various success through the 5th and 6th of May; but, a loss which even the Federal armies could not afford, about sun-down on the 6th, a sudden Confederate.charge Grant again withdrew by his left, and moved towards broke the Federal right, and led to the capture of several the Chickahominy. Lee, moving on a shorter line, had thousand prisoners. The total losses in the two days' time to post himself at Cold Harbour, north of the river, battle were-on the Federal side, nearly 20,000 men, before the Federals could reach it. His position was of whom some 6,000 were taken prisoners; on that naturally strong, and he knew how to make the most of the Confederates, according to their own estimate, of its advantages. “No other American has ever so only 8,000. General Longstreet was severely wounded thoroughly appreciated and so readily seized the enormous in this battle.

advantage which the increased range, precision, and On the next day (May 7), as Lee did not attack, efficiency given to musketry by rifling have insured to Grant resolved to resume his march upon Richmond, and the defensive, when wielded by a commander who knows pushed his columns in a southerly direction through the how speedily a trench may be dug and a slight breastWilderness into the open country round Spotsylvania work thrown up, which will stop nine-tenths of the Court House. Here he found Lee posted in a position bullets that would otherwise draw blood.” Yet, if Grant of considerable strength, fortified by earthworks and was to reach Richmond on this line, he must force Lee's

position, and the attempt was accordingly made. The • Greeley

Federals came on bravely and swiftly, but were as swiftly

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repulsed with terrible slaughter. Twenty minutes after Tho losses during the campaign, in his and Butler's the first shot was fired, ten thousand men were stretched | army together, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, reached, on the sod, dead, dying, or disabled; while the loss on the according to Federal accounts, the amazing total of side of the Confederates did not exceed a thousand men. | 100,000 men; while the Confederate losses amounted to When, some hours later, General Meade ordered the little more than half that number. But for the overassault to be renewed, the soldiers simply and unani. whelming numerical superiority on the part of the mously refused to obey. The total loss to the Federals North, and the stubborn resolution of the Governin this battle of Cold Harbour (June 3) exceeded 13,000 ment, such a result of the campaign would have been men.

equivalent to hopeless and admitted defeat. As it was, But Grant's nerves were as firmly steeled as those of a loss which nearly equalled the entire strength of the Count Bismarck; and the sole alteration which this day | army with which General Grant began the campaign of slaughter induced in his plans was the transference of had no effect in lessening the pressure upon the Conhis line of attack from the north to the south of the federates, for the numbers of the Federals “ had been James river. Running down from Richmond in a nearly or quite kept up by reinforcements from various general south-easterly direction, the James is joined at quarters." * Thus the severe losses sustained by the City Point by the river Appomattox, flowing from the Confederates, though falling far short of those they had south-west, on whose banks, about twenty miles due inflicted, yet, since they could not be made good, left south of Richmond, stands the town of Petersburg. This them relatively weaker than when the campaign began. is an important railway centre, to which all the railways It is easy to conceive the feeling of despair which must communicating with Richmond from the south converge, have gradually infused itself into the breasts of the except one. Its capture, therefore, by cutting off the Southerners, both officers and men, at seeing the capital from its main sources of supply, would render futility of all their victories and all their sacrifices, the continued occupation of Richmond by a large Con- when measured against a political zeal—which some federate army a work of difficulty. The army was safely might call patriotism, others fanaticism—that counted conveyed over the James river in the first week of June, human lives as nothing compared with the attainment and with as little delay as possible Grant hurled strong of its object. columns of assault against the defences of Petersburg. In Western Virginia, the course of events at first Some success was obtained at one or two points, and the went favourably for the Confederates, but ended with a attack was renewed from day to day for several days crushing disaster. Breckinridge defeated Sigel in the (June 10—20), but eventually the assailants were beaten Shenandoah valley in May, giving place afterwards to back, with the loss of 10,000 men. The Federal army Early, whose army was raised to a strength of 20,000 then entrenched itself in front of Petersburg, and Grant men. Defeating the Federal generals who opposed him, opened communication on his right with General Butler, Early crossed into Maryland and threatened Washington, who had gradually advanced up the James river as far sending a force under General M'Causland to Chambers. as a point on the left bank known as Deep Bottom, only burg, in Pennsylvania. The panic in the frontier states ten miles from Richmond, where he constructed a bridge, was for a short time greater than at any period since the so as to ensure an easy and rapid communication between commencement of the war. But troops were soon col. the extreme right and left of the Federal line. Desperate lected in sufficient numbers to secure Washington, and fighting, attended by heavy loss to the Federals, especially Early having advanced within seven miles of the city in prisoners, continued through the best part of June, (July 11), and exchanged fire with some of the outer Grant's object being now to seize and destroy the lines of forts, thought it prudent to make a speedy retreat. railroad connecting Petersburg with the interior. There | M.Causland imposed a heavy war contribution on the was a lull in July; bnt, on the 30th of that month, a mine town of Chambersburg, under penalty of conflagration, having been sprung with terrible effect beneath an ad- and when the money was not produced, set fire to the vanced redoubt forming part of the Confederate lines place; about two-thirds of the town were destroyed. at Petersburg, which blew the garrison of 300 men into Sheridan was now appointed by Grant to the chief comthe air, and opened a yawning breach in the defences, mand in the valley, with an army of 30,000 men. This storming columns were ordered to the assault. But the able General defeated Early at Opequan Creek, near arrangements were planned with little skill and executed Winchester (September 19); and when, in the following without ardour; and the Confederates, recovering from month, the Confederates had surprised and routed General their first consternation, repelled the attacking force with Crook, one of Sheridan's subordinates, at Cedar Creek heavy loss. - In August, Grant made decided progress, (October 19), Sheridan, who was then on his way to Washthough effecting it at an enormous cost, inasmuch as the ington, turned back in time, restored the battle, and by Weldon railroad, running due south from Petersburg, masterly generalship transformed defeat into a decided was seized and firmly held by Warren and Hancock. In victory. Previously to this, Sheridan, acting upon an the last week of October, there was more fighting on order addressed to his predecessor in command by General Hatcher's Run, to the south-west of Petersburg, but with Grant, had commenced a systematic devastation of this no particular result. The Virginia campaign for the year fertile region. Since the ravaging of the Palatinate, by was now at an end. Grant had neither defeated Lee, nor penetrated to Richmond, nor even taken Petersburg.

* Greeley, " American Conflict," rol. ii. p. 599.

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