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order of Louis XIV., history can point to nothing more command at Nashville, the capital of Tennessee) should ruthless than the devastation of Western Virginia, and have an ample force left at his disposal wherewith to afterwards of South Carolina, by the agents of a Republic defend that state, returned to Atlanta. The end of which started on its career with an ostentatious declara- Hood's ill-judged enterprise may be told in a few words. tion of its respect for human rights. Sheridan writes to Entering Tennessee from Alabama, he first met with Grant on the 7th October :-" The whole country from serious resistance at Franklin, a few miles south of Nash. the Blue Ridge to the North Mountain has been made ville, where General Schofield defended himself vigorously untenable for a rebel army. I have destroyed over two | in an entrenched position (November 30), but being outthousand barns filled with wheat and hay and farming numbered, fell back on Nashville. In this action the implements, over seventy mills filled with flour and brave Irishman, Pat. Cleburne, sometimes called the wheat; have driven in front of the army over four thou. “Stonewall Jackson ” of the West, fell mortally wounded. sand head of stock, and have killed and issued to the Thomas had collected at Nashville a force fully equal to troops not less than three thousand sheep. This destruc- that under Hood, and better fed and equipped ; and tion embraces the Luray valley and Little Fort valley as when the latter appeared before the city, the Federal well as the main valley. A large number of horses have General at once attacked, defeated his adversary been obtained, a proper estimate of which I can not in several engagements, and finally drove him out of now make."

Tennessee. We have now to speak of Sherman's advance into Meantime, Sherman, having thoroughly destroyed the Georgia, and of the great march by which that General railways in his rear, and collected thirty days' supplies cut his way through the heart of the Confederate dominion, for his men, set out from Atlanta (November 11) at the dividing its eastern from its western half by a broad belt head of a seasoned and efficient army of 65,000 men. of plundered and wasted territory. Appointed in March The withdrawal of Hood's army had left the way almost to the chief command of the military division of the open before him, the natural obstacles of bad roads, Mississippi, he mustered his forces from their winter forests, marshes, and rivers being the chief impediments encampments round Chattanooga, and at the head of an in his path. The army was divided into two divisions or army but little short of 100,000 men of all arms, com- wings, one under Howard, the other under Slocum; and menced his forward march on the 6th May. The Con- a skilful use of cavalry on each wing to cover and conceal federate General Johnston, posted at Dalton, had barely the march of the main body left the feeble Confederate 50,000 men to oppose to this formidable force. The force remaining in his front in continual uncertainty as movements, feints, surprises, combats, which followed to his objective point. At one time they thought he was possess little interest except from the purely military aiming at Macon; at another time Augusta, a large town point of view; suffice it to say that Johnston, thongh on the South Carolina border, appeared to be meuaced; resolutely defending every available position, was pushed and they broke up and moved about their forces accordback, by weight of numbers and skilful strategy, to the ingly. Milledgeville, the political capital of the state, fell lines which covered Atlanta, an important city in the into Sherman's hands on the 23rd November. Pushing north of Georgia, where the Confederate Government steadily forward at the rate of about fifteen miles a day, and had established extensive workshops and manufactories. subsisting on the resources of the country, his troops In the battle of Kenesaw mountain (June 14) the Southern arrived in front of Fort M'Alister (December 13), the service lost a valuable officer in Lieutenant-General Polk, chief defence of Savannah on the west. The fort, defended formerly the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Louisiana, by a weak garrison of two hundred men, was easily who was instantaneously struck dead by a cannon-shot. stormed, and Savannah was immediately invested, comPresident Davis considered-erroneously, it would seem munications being now opened between Sherman's army —that Johnston had given ground too easily, and sent and the Federal blockading fleet in the river. On the Hood to Atlanta to supersede him. The change was night of December 20, Hardee with 15,000 men evacuated unfortunate. Hood, a rash, eager, impatient man, vainly the place, and effected a safe retreat into South Carolina. flung his troops against Sherman's disciplined and wellSavannah, one of the most important towns in the Con. handled masses; he was beaten in almost every encounter, federacy, with 25,000 bales of cotton in its warehouses and compelled, Sherman having seized the railway in his and 154 guns mounted on its ramparts, became the prize rear, to evacuate Atlanta (September 5), after destroying of the conqueror. Here he remained over a month, engines, stores, and war material to the utmost of his resting his troops, and making preparations for the conpower. But instead of interposing his army between tinuation of his march into South Carolina. His losses Sherman and the coast, and trusting to being reinforced on the long march from Atlanta to Savannah did not so as to hold his ground, Hood resolved to transfer his amount to 600 men. army to a different field of operations, foolishly imagining The naval transactions of the year comprise the termi. that the invasion of Tennessee by a beaten army would nation of the destructive career of the Alabama, and draw Sherman out of Georgia. The Federal commander the capture of the Mobile forts. Up to the beginning followed him for a few days, as he was rapidly marching of 1864, one hundred and ninety-three merchant ships, out of Georgia into Northern Alabama ; but since Hood valued with their cargoes at more than thirteen millions declined battle, Sherman gave up the pursuit, and after of dollars, had been captured by Confederate cruisers; taking care that General Thomas (who had been left in and of these, all but seventeen were burnt after capture.

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This was unavoidable, because the Confederate ports were brave resistance, was overpowered. The Tennessee and closed by the blockade, and England had, by express pro- Selma were captured, while the remaining vessels either clamation, at the commencement of the strife, prohibited ran on shore or escaped up the bay to Mobile. All the captors from bringing prizes into any British or colonial three forts were reduced within a few days with the help port. Of these captures, a large share had fallen to the of General Granger, and the entrances to Mobile bay Alabama and her active captain, Raphael Semmes. Being were thus effectually closed against the friends or cusin Cherbourg harbour in June this year, and learning | tomers of the Confederacy. that the Kearsarge, a Federal gun-boat, was off the port, The Florida, which escaped out of Liverpool, at an Captain Semmes sent a challenge to her commander, early period of the war, under the name of the Oreto, had Captain Winslow, which was, of course, accepted. The like the Alabama, made havoc of Federal commerce for two ships were pretty equally matched, the Alabama a considerable time. In the October of this year, she carrying eight guns, the Kearsarge soven, but the heavy was lying in the harbour of Bahia, whither she had gone 11-inch guns of the latter gave her the advantage. for repairs, when the U.S. frigate Wachusetts, Captain The Alabama sailed out of Cherbourg on the morning of Collins, suddenly attacked her, at a time when her captain the 19th June, attended by the English yacht the Deer. and half her crew were on shore, compelled her to surhound, owned and sailed by Mr. Lancaster. The render, and towed her out of the bay. The Brazilian Kearsarge was waiting about seven miles from shore. Government loudly protested against this flagrant breach The fight began, the ships moving round each other in of international law, and Mr. Seward promptly disavowed circles, and lasted for about an hour, when the Alabama, the act, and informed the Brazilian chargé d'affaires having been hulled several times by the heavy 11-inch that the captain of the Wachusetts would be suspended, shot of her antagonist, was observed to be in a sinking and the consul at Bahia, who had urged the captain to condition. When she was nearly filled with water, the act complained of, dismissed. As to the Florida, Semmes hauled down his flag, and the boats of the Kear- she could not be restored, having sunk at her anchors in sarge, assisted by those of the Deerhound, took off him Hampton Roads, “ owing to a leak which could not be and his crew. In twenty minutes after she struck her seasonably stopped;" the fact being that a war transport, colours, the Alabama went down stern foremost. Her by a convenient accident, had run her down. practice had been far inferior to that of the Kearsarge, An unpleasant incident occurred in the autumn, which, which only had three men wounded, one of them mortally; but for the firm and moderate attitude of Mr. Lincoln, while of the crew of the Alabama, nine were killed and might easily have involved us in a serious difficulty with twenty-one wounded. Captain Semmes was landed from the United States. A considerable number of Confederate the Deerhound at Cowes, and afterwards claimed as a refugees had gradually gathered in Canada, men rendered prisoner of war by the American minister ; but the claim desperate by the wreck of their property and the misforwas disallowed.

tunes of their country. Some twenty-five of these men, By the summer of 1864, nearly all the ports of the in the month of October, crossed the border into the state Southern States were effectually sealed against blockade- of Vermont, and entering the little town of St. Albans in runners, except Mobile and Wilmington. It was now the dead of night, attacked and plundered the bank, shootresolved to attack the first of these. Mobile, the princi- ing dead several of the townspeople who endeavoured to pal sea-port of the state of Alabama, a flourishing and arrest their proceedings, and escaping back into Canada. populous city before the war began, stands at the head They were soon arrested by the Canadian authorities, and of the bay of the same name, some thirty miles from | the money was recovered. The case being an important the open sea. There is a double entrance into the bay, one, it was removed from the jurisdiction of the magis. Dauphine island separating the two inlets; and the ap- trates of St. John's, the place where the raiders were arproaches were guarded by three large forts-Fort Powell, rested, to that of the Supreme Court at Montreal, and a Fort Gaines, and Fort Morgan. Inside the bay was a writ of habeas corpus was refused. The American consul, Confederate squadron, comprising the formidable iron- | Mr. Edmonds, was instructed to demand their extradition, clad Tennessee, under the command of Admiral Buchanan. but this was refused on legal grounds, and an investigaNotwithstanding these obstacles, Admiral Farragut, hav tion was instituted into the affair under the Ashburton ing a fleet of four iron-clads and fourteen wooden ships- Treaty. A number of witnesses were examined, and much of-war (including the stout old Hartford, in which he time consumed; but in the end Judge Coursol decided had run the ganntlet of the forts below New Orleans) at that his court had no jurisdiction in the case, and ordered bis disposal, and aided by a land force under General | the release of the raiders from custody. The Canadian Granger, resolved to attempt to fight his way between Government wisely resolved that so flagrant a miscarriage the heads. On the morning of the 5th August, the fleet of justice should not be permitted ; in fact, their law advisers steered for the eastern entrance. The leading ship, the gave it as their opinion that the Judge's decision was bad iror-clad Tecumseh, struck upon a torpedo, which blew a in law; and accordingly warrants were issued for the relarge hole in her bottom, causing her to go down imme- apprehension of the criminals. Already, as a precautiondiately with the greater part of her crew. But the other ary measure, the colonial Government had appointed ships held on their way undaunted, and, passing between special stipendiary magistrates to prevent breaches of inForts Morgan and Gaines with little loss, encountered, ternational law along the frontier. But the news of the inside the bay, the Confederate squadron, which, after a Judge's decision, releasing the raiders, had reached New

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chose General M‘Lellan for its candidate. The Democrats The Regency, after the French capture of the capital, and held an essentially false position; they professed to be as afterwards Maximilian, determined to uphold the law of firmly opposed to disunion as Mr. Lincoln himself; yet secularisation; against the former the bishops launched an they desired to have peace with the South, and trust to excommunication, and if they refrained from that extreme conciliatory and peaceable means to bring about re-union. measure against the new Emperor, their disaffection and How baseless and irrational such views were was clearly covert hostility must have been seriously detrimental to demonstrated this year, when President Davis, on being his interests. Hence must be explained the singular fact, sounded, by some Northern men, who had been permitted that, in the autumn, while the Emperor was absent on & to pass through the lines of both armies, on the subject tonr through several provinces, Miramon, the native geneof peace, declared that he desired it most fervently, but ral most attached to the Church party, supported by the that it could not be obtained on any other basis than the Archbishop of Mexico, rose in rebellion, and got possesrecognition of Southern independence. Republican cansion of a portion of the city. But his success was only didates were chosen in an overwhelming majority, and Mr. ephemeral, and before the end of the year the French had Lincoln was accordingly re-elected President for another taken Matamoras on the eastern, and Acapulco on the term of four years.

western coast, and armed resistance to the Empire in the The imperial crown of Mexico was offered, as we have field was well nigh at an end. seen, to the Archduke Maximilian, in the autumn of 1863. An appalling calamity befell the capital of our Indian Pressed by the Emperor Napoleon, and confident in his empire in the autumn of this year. On the morning of own upright intentions, Maximilian in an evil hour suf- the 5th October, a heavy gale set in from the north-east fered himself to be persuaded to accept the fatal gift. at Calcutta ; gradually it veered round to the eastward, Money was before all things necessary in order to carry increasing in fury all the time, then to the southward, and out the fair programme of beneficent reforms which the finally to the south-west, so as to leave no doubt that it new Empire was to introduce, and also to re-imburse the was a true cyclone, or revolving storm, to which the site French treasury, which had the fear of the biting eloquence of Calcutta is peculiarly exposed. But such a hurricane of Thiers always before its eyes, in a portion of the enor- as this had never been known within the memory of man. mous expense of the Mexican expedition. The capitalists With a noise like distant thunder the nucleus, or most of Vienna, Paris, and London were consulted, and a Mexi- violent portion of the storm came on, tearing up trees can loan of some £15,000,000 was set afloat, but under condi- by their roots, carrying off the roofs of houses, overturntions onerous in the extreme, so that Maximilian was able ing walls and buildings, and heaping up masses of ruin to take a very small portion of this sum with him, when in the streets and roads, where neither foot nor carriage he sailed for Mexico. With regard to the future, the passengers could make their war. Nearly all the churches Austrian Court must have deemed that its hazards were and chapels in Calcutta were unroofed or otherwise sufficiently guarded against by means of the convention seriously damaged, and scarcely a house in the city which Maximilian entered into with France. Under this escaped without some injury. The native huts, especially convention (April 10, 1864), it was agreed that a French in the suburbs, were nearly all blown down. Except the corps of 25,000 men should remain in Mexico, and should cocoa-nut and other palms, scarcely a tree was anywhere only quit it when the Emperor should have organised his left standing after the storm had passed away. The own army. In any case, even after the recall of her troops, beautiful avenues in Fort William were entirely destroyed, it was agreed that France should, during a further term and the Eden Gardens turned into a wilderness. But it of six years, leave in Mexico a force of 8,000 men, com was on the river that the storm was attended with the posing the foreign legion in the service of that country. | most disastrous consequences. So long as the wind blev The Emperor of Austria also gave permission for officers from the eastward, and therefore across the Hooghly, na of the Austrian army to volunteer into the Mexican great damage was done; but after it had gone round to th: foreign legion, retaining for six years their Austrian mili south, the force of the hurricane, aided by a high tide tary rank. The Archduke formally accepted the crown raised such a sea that no moorings could hold out agains on the 10th April, and a few days afterwards he and his it. Tier after tier of vessels broke adrift, in most case Empress left Miramar, and embarked for Mexico, taking taking moorings, buoys, and tackle with them, and drop Rome on their way. They arrived at Vera Cruz at the about in clusters of four, six, and eight, entangled to end of May, and entered the city of Mexico, amid the ac- gether, and carrying with them ships at anchor in tb clamations of the people, on the 12th June. The rest of stream, and everything else with which they came in con the year was spent in endeavours to crush the partisans of tact. Of more than two hundred ships in the Hooghly, i Juarez and the Republic, who were now called “insur. ' was said that only ten were left at their moorings afte gents.” On the whole, considerable progress was made in the storm, the rost having been stranded or sunk. Th pacifying the country, and in putting down the Juarists, Bengul, ope of the Peninsular and Oriental Company who were defeated in a pitched battle at Durango towards' steamers, another British steamer, and a French ski the end of September. Unfortunately for Maximilian were fairly lifted up and deposited on shore. The tot: he had incurred the anger of the powerful ecclesiastical loss of life was very considerable, but does not appear 1 interest in the country. Juarez some years before had have been accurately ascertained. In the city and suburl secularised the immense landed property of the Mexican of Calcutta it was reported at forty-one natives, and to Church, and had been excommunicated by the bishops. | Europeans, besides some twenty seriously wounded by th

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