Pronounce the following expressions with due regard to smoothness on the one hand, and freedom from ambiguity on the other this sail; his tears; his precepts are recorded; last still night; lasts till night; from more than nine; all left this city; God's commands.

Write and Analyze stagger, phlegmatic, unnatural, accent, soulless, missile, misspell, mission, breadths, hundredths, allotted, appetite, acquiesce, currency, wheyey, rapine (not ē), sacrilege, sacrilegious, ordinance, ordnance.


There are certain syllables, mostly terminal, which contain no vowel sound. These usually, perhaps always, contain the letter or n; thus, table, given, mantle, deacon,-pronounced tā-bl, giv-n (not giv-en), man-tl, dē-kn.

Pronounce bl, dl, fl, gl, kl, pl, sl, tl, vl, zl.

Pronounce with the vowel, bel, del, fel, gel, kel, pel, sel, tel, vel, zel. Now, alternately with and without, bl, bel, dl, del, fl, fel, gl, gel, kl, kel, pl, pel, sl, sel, tl, tel, vl, vel, zl, zel. Do this until you can readily omit or insert the vowel at will.

Most words ending in el have the e sounded. Indeed, the following list contains all the common words ending in el in which the e is silent. Memorize the list, carefully avoiding the utterance of either short e or short u before the 7. Remember that in all other words ending in el, the e is sounded.

E before 7 is silent in chattel, drivel, easel, grovel, hazel, mantel, navel, ravel, shekel, shovel, shrivel, snivel, swingel (g), swivel, teazel, weazel, and their derivatives.

Pronounce vl, vil, zn, zin.

I before terminal n is commonly sounded; but it is suppressed in the words devil, evil, weevil, basin, cousin, raisin.

O is sounded (as short u) in Briton, cordon, diapason (*), ebon, horizon, piston, ribbon, sexton, tendon, wanton; also (as o) in pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, &c. When terminal on is preceded by c or k, as in deacon, bacon, beckon, the o is suppressed.

Write and Analyze sword, sward, slough, stanchions, sovereignty, audacious, audacity, rapacious, civil,

matin, doughty, compromise, indict, tunnel, presentiment, courte-sy, quarrelsome, exordium (sonant x.)


Pronounce vn, ven, tn, ten, dn, den, shn, shen, In, len, pn, pen, fn, fen. The termination en, unlike el, usually drops the e. E before final n is sounded in aspen, chicken, hyphen, gluten (u), kitchen, lichen (īk), linden, marten, mitten, rowen, sudden, and in any word not a participle, in which terminal en is preceded by l, m, n, or r,—as pollen, women, woolen, omen, cognomen, linen, siren.

All participles in en (except, possibly, bounden) all verbs of this ending in which the en means "to make," and all adjectives in which the terminal en signifies "made of," suppress the e; thus, given, gladden, wooden. The adjective yewen, made of yew, is a necessary exception, as, to make the e silent would reduce the word to a monosyllable. Find three words to illustrate each of these three classes.

Write and Analyze spirit, tortoise, Palestine, Niagara, isolate, widen, patent, pretty (not e), amenably, soften, barrel, legible, linguist, Xenophon, suffice, sacrifice, discern, tournament (ě), joust, pommel (not o).


C, s, and t are often equivalent to the sound of sh, and are then said to be aspirated, as in dimension, censure, ocean, negotiation. This takes place only when the consonant is immediately followed by ē, i, or ū—vowels intimately related to the vowel-consonant y. [If the pupil would know why the element y should have this effect, let him attempt to pronounce in quick succession pres-yus, kō-ers-yun, lēz-yur, ē-vāz-yun.]

Of the three elements s, y, and sh, which is formed with an intermediate position of the tongue?

S is also said to be aspirated when it has the sound of zh, This occurs in the termination sion when preceded by a vowel, as in collision, evasion; also in many words in which terminal sure or sier is preceded by an accented vowel, as in treasure, leisure, osier, and in ambrosia, elysium, scission and their derivatives.

The changing of t or ti to g, thus, kwes-chun for kwestyun, is authorized, as is also the substitution of j for d or di, as in sōljer for sōld-yer. In oral drill, however, it is well to aim at a pronunciation not less rigorous and labored than that employed in dignified discourse. Our leading orthoëpists, while countenancing the pronunciation indicated in the second column below, more heartily approve that of the first.

Say kwest-yun rather than kwes-çun.

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For kuv-e-çus and te-jus there is no defense: say kuv-et-us, ted-yus.

Pronounce without the aspirate, calceated, caseous, osseous, roseate, enthusiast, odious; with the aspirate, issue, conscientious, nausea, pronunciation, denunciation, enunciation, facial (in two syllables), oceanic, tissue, visual; also prescious (pre-shi-us), prescience (pre-shi-ens).

Write and Analyze covetous, tedious, tremendous, satiate, sumac, sugar, officiate, partiality, plenteous, onerous, beauteous, licorice, osseous, noxious, mensuration, issue, mechanician, manufactory, usury, figure.


In sceptic and scirrhous, c has the sound k. In discern, sice (six), suffice, and sacrifice, it has the force of z. In all other English words, when followed by e, i, or y, and not aspirated, it has the sound s, as in reciprocity, and is called " c soft."

G, when followed by e, i, or y, has the sound j, and is said to be soft. Fortunately for the learner, the exceptions to this rule, though many, are chiefly words which he hears every day,—such as geese, longer, gift, foggy; the following exceptions may be less familiar: gelding, gewgaw, conger, gibber, gibberish, gibbous, gimbals, gyron.

When h intervenes between e, i, or y and a preceding g, the g is hard, as in ghee, burgher, gherkin.

Blamable is from blame, the final e of the primitive being dropped; so, too, in reversible, receivable. Why not from change, manage, peace, and trace, write changable, peacable, &c.?

Ch has three values in English, as exemplified in the three lists below:

1. Child, chaff, chalk, chap, char, check, cherry, chest, chicken, church, churl, charm [from the Anglo Saxon]; chain, chair, chalice, challenge, chamber, champion, chance, chancel, chancery [from the French, but modified].

2. Chaise, chagrin, challis (s silent), chamois (s silent), champagne, charade, chenille, chevalier, chicanery, chute [from the French, and still retaining the French sound of ch].

3. Character, chameleon, chalybeate, chaos, parochial, archetype, bronchitis, chirography, magna charta, choral, chronicle, chyle [from the Greek or Latin].

Write and Analyze dost, tertiary, apothegm, apothegmatic, February, cosmetic, elongate, humor, humble, hospital, herb, hostage.




1. Reading is the adequate expression in vocal utterances of the thoughts and emotions of a written or printed composition.

2. These thoughts and emotions are exceedingly various, and hence there will be great variety in the tones of voice expressing them.

3. Some thoughts are vigorous, energetic, betokening that the mind is thoroughly aroused and ready to put forth its powers forcibly. Others are indicative of a cool and deliberate state of mind, in which it is prepared to deal with everyday matters of fact. Again, the mind may be borne down by sorrow, animated with joy, distracted with fear, or softened with pity, and each of these states may be adequately expressed by the tones of the human voice.

4. Tones may differ from each other in several ways, as in pitch, in volume, in rapidity of utterance, and in force; and it is by a judicious adjustment of these differences that the voice is made expressive.

5. It is convenient to consider about three degrees each, of Force, Speed, Pitch, and Volume of Voice. Force may be moderate, soft, or loud. Speed may be moderate, slow, or fast. Pitch may be medium, low, or high. Volume may be moderate, slight, or full.

6. When the mind is in an unexcited state, it expresses itself with moderate force. When borne down by sorrow,


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