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The History of the Armenians.
363 JI. The Reigns of the Kings of Armenia Major,
372 III. The History of Armenia Minor,
:: The History of the kingdom of Pontus. SECT. I. The Description of Pontus,
II. The Reigns of the Kings of Pontus,
DIRECTIONS for placing the COPPER-PLATE. Map of the Kingdoms of Armenia, Pontus, Cappadocia, Media, &c.
to face p. 363
S E C T. VII.
Demetrius, in Afa.
Correus, a young woman of remarkable beauty; Antigonus. by her he had two sons, Demetrius and Philip. We have seen in whạt manner he rose from being an officer in Alexander's army, to be lord of many of the faireft provinces, of which his empire was composed ; but hitherto we have treated but slightly of the manner in which he ruled them. Ambition was his capital vice, and indeed it led him into a number of bad actions; he had however several great qualities, with some virtues (A).
(A) In the midst of his stool, never said any thing of prosperity, he was wiser than my celestial origin.” At an. his matter : for when Hermo. other time, when he was com. dotus, a Greek poet, not con- plimented upon his recovery tented with making him a god, from fickness, “ This disease, styled him also " the offspring said he, was sent to let me of the sun." “ I cannot tell know, that being a mortal, I how that is, said Antigonus; should not grasp at any thing but he that empties my close above a mortal.” VOL. VIII,
The Egypo sian ex
In his disposition he was rough and boisterous, and being a great soldier, he trusted too much to arms. When his neceffities required it, he would sometimes fleece his subjects feverely, and when he was reminded that Alexander acted differently, “ True, said he; for Alexander reaped Alia, and I do but glean.” In private transactions, he was strictly just. The harmony in which he lived with his son and family, constituted his chief happiness. His second son died young, but not till he had performed things worthy of his descent. Of Demetrius we have already spoken. The father was now in the zenith of his glory, and the son in the prime of his age; we need not be surprised, therefore, at their so readily accepting the alluring honours of the regal ftatea.
An expedition into Egypt was immediately resolved on,
with a view to drive Ptolemy entirely out of his domipedition.
nions, that they might be annexed to those already pofsessed by Antigonus. The powerful land-army raised for this purpose was commanded by Antigonus himself; the fieet, which was to accompany it, had Demetrius for its admiral. This fleet consisted of a hundred and fifty stout gallies, and a hundred smaller vessels ; the
army was composed of eighteen thousand foot, eight thousand horse, and eighty-three elephants. The general rendezvous of the land forces was at Antigonia, a new city built by Antigonus in Syria ; the fleet anchored on the coast; the kings expressed an earnest desire to be in motion ; but the ablest feamen in the fleet were very desirous of remaining where they were till the setting of the Pleiades, dreading the ill weather, which till then is frequent on the coast of Egypt; but Antigonus would not be detained, he therefore caused provisions of all sorts for ten days to be provided for his army, and having got together camels, and other beasts of burden, fufficient, as he thought, to transport tele necessaries and their baggage, he began his march througla the deserts, which lie between Gaza and Egypt; in this route his army was miserably fatigued,
and the spirits of the people excessively broken. At last distress, and
having coasted Mount Cassius, he perceived his fleet lying his fleet
at anchor; but in a very indifferent state, many ships difperjed. were lost, more driven back to Gaza, and all the rest
shattered by the storm they had sustained. Demetrius intended to have failed up one of the mouths of the Nile; but Ptolemy had so effectually secured these, and had dif
His army in great
• Diodor, Sicul. lib. xx. Plut. Apophthegm. Reg.
posed his troops on the coast so judiciously, that no impression could be made ; and if Antigonus had not supa plied those on board with water and provisions, they must have perished in light of the shore. This was a melancholy beginning; however, Antigonus marched on, hoping to rectify all things by his success in a battle ; which Ptolemy studiously avoided; he had fortified all the fords of the Nile, and occupied these posts with strong detachments. He had besides an army of observation, with which he held Antigonus at bay, while in the interim he offered, by proclamation, every common soldier two minä (about six pounds five thillings English), and to every officer a talent, or one hundred and eight pounds, who should join his army. He had practised the same expedient when Perdiccas invaded Egypt, and he had the same success as formerly ; for numbers deserted to him ; and if Antigonus had not posted some choice troops on the road, the greatest part of his army would have deserted. At last tumults arising, Antigonus saw plainly, that it would not be for his interest to remain any longer He aban
dons the in Egypt : wherefore, to avoid farther mischiefs, he retired with his army, and Demetrius failed back with the
expedition. fleet towards Syria.
To repair the credit of their arms, the kings imme- The kings diately resolved on a new expedition, which was the re- resolve on duction of the island of Rhodes. While Demetrius was
tion of employed in the siege of Rhodes, happily for him, am
Rhodes. baffadors from Athens arrived to implore his allistance against Cassander ; this circumstance gave him a pretence to make peace with the Rhodians on these terms, that they should serve Antigonus against all his enemies, except Ptolemy, king of Egypt. Then Demetrius, failing Demetrius with three hundred and thirty gallies, and a great army obliges on board, steered for Attica, where he landed, having Callander, constrained Caffander to retire towards Macedon; but to abandon
Attica. when he came near Thermopylæ, Demetrius fell upon his rear, and gave him so rude a shock, that his troops seemed rather to fly than to march through Theffaly. A corps of fix thousand Macedonians, left in Greece, revolted to the victor, and Demetrius returned in triumph to the fea-coast of Peloponnesus. This extraordinary flow of fuccefs bore down before it almost all the virtues of Demetrius; for he began now to exceed Alexander in vanity, styling himself king of kings, drinking the healths His vanity, of Seleucus, Cassander, Lysimachus, and Ptolemy, as debauchgreat officers of his ftate and houshold. In debauchery ery, *".
he sunk far below the dignity of human nature, indulg. ing himself.not only in sensual pleasures, but in a vice which ought to want a name; he likewise deviated into gross impiety; and, forgetting his father's former moderation, would needs be styled a god, and the younger bro
ther of Minerva b. Yr. of Fl.
Caflander fearing that Demetrius would pursue the 2046.
blow he had already given him, and follow him into MaAnte Chr.
cedonia, fent deputies to Antigonus in Syria, in order to 302.
treat of peace; but Antigonus would hear of no other A new
terms than his submitting himself, and his dominions, to confederacy his pleasure ; so that these negociations proved abortive, againft and Cassander was forced to send to his old confederates, Antigonus. in order to engage them in a new alliance against this for
midable conqueror: they readily liftened to his proposal, for they perfectly well discerned, that when once Macedonia was subdued, Antigonus would fall upon them next. To prevent this misfortune they entered into a treaty with Callander. Lysimachus having obtained from him a part of his army, pafred over into Afia, where he fell upon Phrygia, Lydia, and other provinces; proceeding with such success as greatly alarmed Antigonus, at that time celebrating shews and gymnic sports at his new city of Antigonia. He did not, however, lose his courage when he was made acquainted with this formidable confederacy; on the contrary, he could not help boasting publicly, “ That he would scatter the confederates as easily as boys do birds among the corn, by throwing a stone among
them.” He began to draw together his forces, and, as pares to
soon as he had assembled a sufficient army, he crossed Mount oppose it.
Taurus, and came down into Cilicia, where, having taken a considerable sum out of the treasury of Quinda, he made use of it to recruit his troops, which were foon in a condition not only to recover the places that had been loft, but even to offer Lysimachus battle. This crafty old captain kept on the defensive, knowing, that if he loft a battle, he lost all; but that Antigonus, in such a case, had many provinces to which he might retire. Lysimachus, therefore, proposed an accommodation, but as Antigonus refused to treat, the winter was employed in preparations on both sides, and early in the spring Seleucus, with his own and Ptolemy's forces, began his march in order to join Lysimachus. Antigonus instantly sent to recall De. metrius out of Greece, beginning now to foresee that
• Diodor. Sicul, ubi fupra. Plut, in Demetrio,