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does not propose to consider at all the most profitably employed, and the hap Constitutional questions involved, as the piest people, because the most hopeful of precedent of Porto Rico had settled the any people at any time or under any sky." question so far as the Commission was Senator Hoar, Mr. Richardson, Senator concerned, pending the decision of the Daniel, and others “improved the occaUnited States Supreme Court. The exact sion” in a similar vein. The ceremonies provisions of the tariff have not been of rejoicing were, on the whole, dignified agreed upon by the Commission, but will as well as elaborate. How Washington be given to the public before long. They has changed since Congress moved to its are not primarily designed, however, for new Capitol in the year 1800 has been illusprotective purposes, but for revenue, with trated by quotations from John Cotton a few slight exceptions; and Judge Taft Smith, a Representative from Connecticut states that the provisions will be so framed in 1808; he wrote that “nearly the whole as to encourage rather than to restrain distance (from the White House to the importation from the United States. The Capitol], a deep morass, was covered with standing of this law constitutionally will elderbushes, which were cut through to be determined by the decision of the the President's house. There appeared Supreme Court on the question, “Does to be," he added, “but two really comthe Constitution of necessity, and by its fortable habitations within the bounds of own vigor and force, follow the flag ?” the city.” Another member wrote: “ We Cases involving this question are this week have to drive to sessions from Georgebefore the Supreme Court, and in due time town in a rickety wagon, and drive back we shall give a summary of the decisions in again at night. Nothing is to be seen these cases (the most important Constitu- but scrub oak. The worst is yet to be tional decisions of recent times), and also told. There is only one good tavern within those belonging to the Neely case, which a day's march.” Who knows but the year has already been argued before the Supreme 2000 will see Pennsylvania Avenue as Court, and which involves equally impor much improved architecturally from its tant questions as to the relations between present state as it has gained in the last the United States and its ward, Cuba. century! The architectural possibilities The Taft.Commission has decided to ex- of Washington are still enormous, and the pend two million dollars in road construc- people may be thankful that the general tion; this seems to us a proper and desir- design of the founders was one capable able expenditure, as it will give the islands of allowing growth and increasing beauty. a much-needed improvement, will afford The need of enlarging the White Houseemployment and wages for many of the why not, instead, have a new and entirely people who are now destitute, and will separate building for an executive office, have a tendency to improve the relations thus releasing the entire present White between the natives and Americans. On House for residential and social puranother page will be found an interesting poses?—the constant demand for increased article from The Outlook's special com- room in other directions, the many plans missioner in the Philippines, discussing for beautifying the city and its environsthe subject of educational opportunities all should be watched closely and jealthere.

ously by Congress in order that some sort

of unity in effect may be had and the The Washington Centennial

tennis The celebration opportunities for making the already beau

on Wednesday of tiful city harmonious and dignified be not last week of Washington's hundredth neglected or misused. birthday as the Nation's capital naturally called out a great deal of congratulation by the representatives of the people both

The municipal elections

The Socialist Defeat in Massachusetts this upon the growth and beauty of the city and "

at Haverhill also upon the expansion of the whole coun

year were marked by a try in the century. Governor Shaw, of great deal of independent voting, and Iowa, for instance, “finds Americans the showed several substantial gains for nobest housed, the best fed, the best clothed. license. The independent vote was parthe best educated, the best churched, the tlcularly remarkable in Springfield, which

gave a heavy majority for the Republican cratic nominee, a comparatively strong candiNational and State tickets in November. date, resigned shortly before election, and his

substitute, who was but little known, drew but a month later re-elected her young

ner, young only eighty-six votes; this move helped the Democratic Mayor by a majority of two to Republicans against the Socialists. The perone. Even such events as this, however, sonality of the two leading candidates was a attracted little interest compared with the

compared with the very minor factor, but Mr. Poor, the Repub

lican candidate, received, as a workingman, fate of the Socialist Mayors running form

many votes which would not have been given re-election in Haverhill and Brockton. In to a representative of capital. The Socialists the latter city the Democratic as well as antagonized some voters by their determinathe Republican candidate polled a large

tion to secure party spoils in event of another

victory, even apparently marking for the party vote, and while the Socialist Mayor was

ax some department officials with unusually re-elected, it was by a plurality only, and good records and long experience. The prinnot by a majority of the total vote. It cipal cause of their defeat, however, is found was somewhat interesting to note, how

in what the citizens commonly call the “busi

ness scare." A few large outside jobbers have ever, that the re-election of the Socialist insi

insisted that their buyers must place orders Mayor was accompanied by a heavy ma- for shoes in towns not troubled with labor jority for no-license. There seems to be agitation, to insure prompt delivery, and travelsomewhat the same relationship between

ing salesmen for local manufacturers have

found it sometimes difficult to secure orders, Social Democracy and no-license in New

even in distant States, because of Haverhill's England that there is between Populism reputation as a Socialist center. This was and no-license in the West. Both, at least, sufficient to cause alarm and some business develop their greatest strength in the com

depression, and while many citizens acknowl

edge some other causes for the latter, the munities where the immigrant vote is

heaviest blame has been laid on Socialist agismallest. In Brockton not one person in tation and government. The “scare," largely four is foreign-born. The Brockton elec- genuine though partly artificial, was used in tion, however, attracted less attention than the campaign to fullest advantage, and the

strong feeling among business men communithat at Haverhill, where Mayor Chase was

cated itself to the workers, some of whom saw last year lifted into National prominence better prospects of work and pay under more by being re-elected against a union candi- conservative and settled conditions. In some date nominated by all the other parties.

cases this strong feeling on the part of their

employers acted on the wage-earners as a mild This year he was defeated by the Repub

form of intimidation. The winning side shows lican candidate by a plurality of more than a remarkably straight Republican vote, indione thousand votes. In reply to an in- cating the determination of the people to quiry as to the causes of this overturn,

abolish the limited Socialist experiment.
The Outlook has received the following
reply from an impartial correspondent in
Haverhill:

The three grim
The Boer War

events of

last week form a sufficient The defeat of Mr. Chase by so large a commentary on the opinion of those who plurality was a surprise to all, but certain

think either that the war “is over," or facts in connection with his two former victories help to an understanding of the matter. that "it will be ended in the early part of In 1898 two-thirds of the total votes were January.” A year ago so eminent a divided among an unusual number of candi- judge as General Buller expected to eat dates, and the one-third which elected Mr. Chase did not represent the real strength of

his Christmas dinner in Pretoria, and even the Socialists, as some were cast by independ more eminent judges have since then ent voters tired of corrupt machine govern- made as startling miscalculations. Of ment, and by workingmen of the other parties

last week's engagements the Boers lost whose feelings were aroused by the local street. railway strike. In 1899 the Socialists cham- one and gained two. At Vryheid their pioned the popular demand for the abolition loss was a hundred in killed and wounded of grade crossings, by which they made large against a British loss of half that number. gains and won the day, being aided by dis. At Zastron, however, the British loss was affection in the ranks of their opponents. This

a hundred and forty in killed, wounded, year the efforts of the Republicans were greatly facilitated by the Presidential cam- and prisoners. The British were compaign and its outcome. Mayor Chase had pelled to retire by the superior Boer force. served two terms, and it is a rare man who can At Magaliesberg. not far from Pretoria make a sufficient showing, as compared with party promises and aspirations, to successfully

11y itself, the British loss was nearly six hunstand for a third-term election. The Demó dred. The engagement was fought on the anniversary of the disastrous battle of

Last week, after the

The British Parliament war funds were voted, Colenso, and the black week for the Brit- The ish recalls the corresponding week of 1899, the special session of Parliament came to when, besides Colenso, Magersfontein an end. The most important speech of and Stormberg were added to the record the week was that of Mr. Brodrick, the of English defeats in South Africa. To War Secretary. He assured members crown all, that most ubiquitous of Boers, that during the recess (until the middle General De Wet, has escaped from the of February) the Government would corBritish cordon in the neighborhood of dially co-operate with Lord Kitchener Thabanchu (in eastern Orange River Col- in an effort to end the war! Most ony). De Wet, it is said, thrice led in people have been under the impression person an attack on the British position, that this has been the Government's and on the third charge broke the British effort ever since Lord Kitchener went to lines. British taxpayers are now rubbing South Africa. Replying to some stinging their eyes and asking why Generals remarks from Mr. Bryn-Roberts, Mr. Roberts, Buller, Pole-Carew, Dundonald, Brodrick declared that it was criminal to and the rest are allowed to come home. make allegations concerning British camWith commendable promptness, the Co- paign methods which could not be proved, lonial Office gives a lesson to the War but which would be telegraphed to South Office in announcing a swift decision to Africa to increase the discontent existing enlist five thousand instead of the one there. He asserted that the Government thousand men previously asked to be did not wish to pursue a policy which recruited for General Baden-Powell's con- would make it more difficult for the Boers stabulary. One thing is evident : if the to cease fighting. More important was Boers are deficient in clothing, as the des- Mr. Brodrick's appointment of a commitpatches from Lourenço Marques assert, tee to consider the existing system at they are not so deficient in ammunition as work in the War Office and to deal with had been supposed. Their preparations questions of army reform. Mr. Dawkins, for continuing hostilities by means of of the well-known banking firm of J. S. buried stores had not been taken into Morgan & Co., and a man of great adininaccount sufficiently by an enemy which, istrative ability, is chairman. The other at this late day, sees its isolated com- members are Sir Charles Wilby, private mand at Magaliesberg surrounded and secretary to Lord Lansdowne when the forced to surrender after its ammunition latter was War Secretary; Sir George had been exhausted. This lack of ammu- Clarke, formerly secretary to the Commisnition, added to the lack of brains in not sion on Army and Navy Administration ; providing proper mounts and scouting, Mr. Gibb, General Manager of the Lonwill wrench still more the confidence of don and Northeastern Railway; Messrs. Englishmen in their army leaders. It is Beckett and Mather, members of Parlianow reported that Lord Kitchener, com- ment and able financiers. With the manding in South Africa, has requested exception of Sir Charles Wilby, the comthe despatch of all the available mounted mittee may be regarded as unanimous in infantry. Early in this week reports were the desire for army reform and as reprecurrent in London that a severe battle senting in a notable degree training and had occurred somewhere on the Orange experience in active business. River (exact spot not stated), and that the Boers, who are said to have been in number from fifteen hundred to two thousand, China A disheartening delay in the preswere totally defeated, with heavy losses

entation of the Powers' prelimiin killed, wounded, and captured. This nary note to the Chinese envoys has been report, however, has not been confirmed, caused by England's tardy demand for while coincidentally with it comes a report new changes. It is understood that Engthat seven hundred of the Boers have land insists upon the presence of the crossed the Orange River near Aliwal foreign troops in North China until the North into Cape Colony. Altogether, the full terms of the note have been met. This week has been an extremely active one as is regarded by some as a veiled threat. regards South African military affairs. What is of greater importance and signifi

cance is the fact that, for the first time

An utterance which may

Cardinal Vaughan since the beginning of negotiations, there

be regarded as inspired

he remarded as inspired

on China was last week an open expression of irri

by Leo XIII. is Cardinal tation at the participation in those nego- Vaughan's pastoral letter read from the tiations of so many diplomats. Instead pulpits of all Roman Catholic churches of a settlement by America, England, on Sunday of this week. The Cardinal Russia, Germany, France, and Japan, the declared that there were three-quarters Powers chiefly interested, Italy, Austria, of a million Roman Catholics in China, Holland, Belgium, and Spain have also ministered to by about a thousand Europarticipated through their representatives. pean priests and by half that number of The absurdity is evident of a vote from men native priests. Christian work throughwho have few if any interests to safeguard. out the larger part of the country has The Macchiavellian reason for their votes been swept away, or at least checked, by is, however, as evident: their Govern- the Boxer rebellion and its consequences. ments have interests elsewhere which the So far the material loss in builaings to greater Powers can aid ; hence advantage the Roman Catholics has been nearly five is put up against advantage, and votes thousand churches and chapels, four thoutraded. This situation is especially peril. sand elementary schools, and about fifty ous for our own country. Again, it is seminaries. The cause of the upheaval, evident that the small Powers are not claims Cardinal Vaughan, was primakeeping troops in China for nothing, rily a revolt against Christianity, but and the conviction grows that Germany its most recent activity was aroused and France belong to the same category; by foreign, especially Russian and Gerit would seem not a very risky speculation man, encroachments on Chinese territo spend thousands in sending soldiers to tory, by the reactionary policy of the China and then collect millions in indem- Empress Dowager, and by the encournities. During the week the Russian agement given by native secret societies Government made an official statement to combat the reforms proposed by the concerning its seizure of the Tientsin-Shan- Emperor. While all students of Chinese haikuan railway, contending that the seiz. politics will probably agree that these ure was a necessary result of the military were the four reasons for the outbreak, situation, declining to recognize the British most may prefer a different order; some as owners of the line, but admitting that who have long been on the ground say they have the preponderating financial in- that the last should be first. The Carterest, and finally promising to restore it to dinal Archbishop of Westminster does not the former administration after the foreign believe in mincing matters concerning his troops have evacuated the province of second reason for the upheaval; he says Chili. This seems a safe promise! The that the murder of two German missionaries history of the week also brings to light in the province of Shantung was made a new evidences that the game of loot and pretext for the permanent seizure of the grab in China has become inexcusably splendid port of Kiaochau (he might have brutal. Thousands of lives and much added the practical seizure of the entire treasure have already fallen a sacrifice province). “ This shows how well the to it. Confirmation is at hand of the soil was prepared, even antecedently to the report that General Tung (the most for. causes enumerated, for the more extensive midable of anti-foreign Chinese army movements which followed. ... In conofficers) has been ordered to proceed to sequence of such foreign aggression, the his home in the province of Kansu, in the danger to which Christians in China are extreme northwest of the Empire. This exposed is thoroughly realized by those is said to be the first-fruits of the efforts interested in missions, and was pointed towards peace of the pro-foreign Chinese out in our church magazines as far back as Viceroys at Nanking and Hankau, who May, 1898. The action of Germany was threatened to stop sending supplies to specially referred to as likely to lead to the Imperial Court at Singan unless their identification in the heathen mind of Westsuggestion met a favorable reception. The ern religion with Western politics." CardiCourt's action certainly indicates some nal Vaughan closes with an “I told you so;" desire on its part to please the Powers. the prophecy, he says, has literally come The Outlook has already called attention publish the ancient Armenian Bible, addto the importance of the excavations at ing, however, at the bottom of each page Mugheir, where are the remains of the the translation from the Hebrew direct, most ancient of the civilizations of an- wherever a passage in the Armenian vertiquity. Ur was old when Abraham was sion differed from the original text. These young! Professor Hilprecht, of the Uni- foot-notes, so we are told, aggregate over versity of Pennsylvania, who has just re- twelve thousand in number, thus giving turned from Mugheir, discovered some clay some impression of the stupendous labor tablets there dating, so he thinks, five to involved. The Catholicos or Archbishop, seven thousand years before the Christian the highest dignitary of the Armenian era. These tablets may materially change Church, and the Roman Catholic Patriour idea of Babylonian life and of the arch of Constantinople have both exBible as related to that life. The forth- pressed pleasure that such a valuable coming expedition has been approved by work has now been done, the only regret the leading Turkish officials, and the being that the apocryphal books were United States Government has decided not included. The first edition of five to send a naturalist with the party to study thousand copies is now nearly exhausted. the flora and fauna of Babylonia. We Not only have the masses now a Bible, but are glad to report that, chiefly through the new translation ought to do much the munificence of Mr. J. D. Rockefeller, towards breaking down the unfortunate sufficient funds have now been provided barrier between the Protestant missionaries to insure the starting, though not of the on the one hand and the Armenians and two years' maintenance, of the expedition. their national Church on the other.

The Armenian Bible
e Armenia was histori-

Preserve Historic Places

The Society for cally the first Christian

o the Preservation of nation. It possessed a translation of the Scenic and Historic Places and Objects Bible dating from the early part of the in New York, by act of incorporation, fifth century, a translation of great literary enjoys the right to "hold real and perworth and general excellence. Its style sonal property in fee or upon such trusts typified the golden age of Armenian liter- as may be agreed upon " between donors ature, and the people have had for it an and the Society, and is thus empowered intense love; it is even against the law of to act as a trustee for the public, or the the Armenian Church to allow any change State, in preserving the picturesque and in its phraseology. This ancient Bible historic. Its report tells the story of had been published at various times and the efforts made to save the Palisades in places as far removed as Venice and on the Hudson from the quarryman, to Singapore, but the prices charged had rehabilitate and improve the battlefields always made the book a luxury to be of Lake George and Stony Point, to afforded only by the rich. Many Arme- acquire Watkins Glen for a State resernians of piety and culture expressed a vation, and to preserve for posterity desire that the American and English the Philipse Manor Hall in Yonkers, Bible Societies should publish an edition and the Morris Mansion, Fraunces' of the Armenian Bible at a price which Tavern, and the Poe Cottage in New would enable the poor to possess such a York City. While objects like these treasure; but the American Bible Society, illustrate the more conspicuous activities adhering to the principle of translating of the Society, it is no less concerned the Bible, not, as in the case of the Old with humbler but equally important Testament of the Armenians, from the matters; for example, entering persistent Greek Septuagint, but from the best and protest, as opportunity offers, against that original texts, found difficulty in the deter- “spirit of larcenous innovation ” which is mination of the Armenians to have no robbing streets of familiar or historic change made in their edition. A way has names, often to substitute those which are finally been found of getting over the diffi- meaningless or whimsical. Many who culty, as we learn from the “Bible Society had never before thought of the matter Record;" namely, that the Society should would see at once the appropriateness of

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