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Boers are apparently scattering, and the Wood constantly pointed out that the London War Office seems to think it prob- delegates must be men capable of drafting able that President Kruger and President a constitution and of providing a sound Steyn may take refuge in Portuguese ter- form of government without party prejuritory and give up further hostilities. Re- dices. As he put it, “I wish to avoid ports of this kind have been so common making Cuba into second Hayti, for the past three months that the present although I do not think that possible. one must be received with some reserve, We want liberty for all, and for no parparticularly as General De Wet's activity ticular party." General Wood told the in the Orange River Colony seems increas- Cubans everywhere that President McKining rather than diminishing. If Lord ley and the people in the United States Roberts shall soon capture the Delagoa were surprised and pleased at the satisBay Railroad line, it is hard to see what factory way in which the municipal elecother course than surrender will be left tions passed off ; and that the calmness to the Boers. Seventeen hundred British and peace with which those elections were prisoners were released by the Boers before conducted had assured the United States their retreat began. They came from that Cuba was ready for the next step. Nooitgedacht, which is now threatened Less assuring have been the utterances by General Buller. From Rhodesia great of General Maximo Gomez, whom most dissatisfaction is reported with Cubans consider the inevitable choice as Rhodes's new labor policy, which includes the first President of Cuba. General the bringing in of Chinamen under con- Gomez has been urging that all delegates tract to take the place of the costly white elected should be, not only Cubans in and unwilling black labor.

favor of independence, but Cubans who actually took part in the revolution. At

a distance, nothing appears more certain As the day of election than the undesirability of electing a ConThe Election in Cuba

of delegates to the stitutional Convention composed entirely Constitutional Convention (September 15) of insurrectionary military officers; and approaches, considerable political activity we believe that Cuba will follow General is being shown in Cuba. The parties are Wood's advice rather than that of General the same as those which presented candi- Gomez. A number of Cubans, many of dates in the municipal election, and the them men of influence and wealth, have several parties vary in political preponder- been urging the Washington Government ance in different parts of the island. In to give assurances that the Constitution Havana, for instance, the National party drafted by the Convention should not appears to be in superior strength, and settle the relations of Cuba to the United has named eight candidates for delegates States (as is laid down in the decree callto the Constitutional Convention. In ing for the Convention), but that those Santa Clara Province, on the other hand, relations should be established by treaty the Republicans are believed to be in and agreement between the new Cuba, great strength, and their candidates are when once established, and the United almost all active revolutionists. A good States. Mr. Cisneros has presented a effect has been produced by the speeches memorial to the President which he asserts made lately at several large towns in represents the feelings and opinions of all Cuba by Governor-General Wood. These Cubans; it urges immediate, absolute, and speeches have greatly increased the confi- unconditional independence with freedom dence of the people of Cuba in the sin- in the scope of the questions to be concerity of the assurances of the United sidered by the Constitutional Convention. States Government that independence should be established. Thus, at Santiago, General Wood said: “Whatever the ultimate destiny of Cuba may be, its

Primaries, Direct and Indirect The important

political news immediate future is independence. This last week was all connected in some way is no political move on the part of the with the issue of direct primaries. The United States, but a necessary desire to most im tant event was the holding of do what is right." Furthermore, General the indirect primaries throughout New

Could Do

York State to determine who should be about nineteen thousand votes together. the Democratic candidate for Governor. As no candidate received a majority of These primaries, under the new law, were, the total vote, there must be a second with few exceptions, fairly conducted, but election, at which every one must vote the fact that the voters could not directly for either Governor McSweeny or Colonel express their choice for Governor, and Hoyt; but the emphatic majority given could only select delegates to a State Con- to the dispensary candidates almost invention, kept four-fifths of them at home. sures Governor McSweeny's renominaAs a rule, in this city, only the regular. tion. Whatever the outcome of the secworkers and their immediate friends came ond election, however, no one can questo the primaries, and as a result the regu- tion that direct primaries do bring the lar machine, whose nominees were not voters to the polls. pledged to any particular candidate, had little difficulty in carrying all the wards. In a few, however, opposition candidates,

What Mr. Bryan

In a recent interview, in directly pledged to support Mr. Coler,

answer to the question as obtained nearly half the votes. Outside

to what Mr. Bryan could of this city delegates who support Mr. do, if he were elected President, to break Hill in his indorsement of Mr. Coler were down the gold standard, Mr. Gage, the nearly everywhere elected, and it is still Secretary of the Treasury, replied: possible that the Brooklyn machine will

There is no doubt Mr. Bryan could order join forces with the “up-the-State ” dele- his Secretary of the Treasury to make paygates and put in nomination the man who ment in silver of all of the public debt payable would bring to the party incomparably in coin, and for all current disbursements of

Neverthe largest independent vote.

the Government as well, which amount to

$1,500,000 to $1,750,000 per day. That he would theless, the probabilities are that the give such an order, too, is very certain, if he machines will sacrifice not only the is in the same mind that he was when in 1896, public interests, but the party's interests, is any one who believes that the

gold standard

for he was then quoted as saying: " If there in order to subserve the private interests is a good thing, or that it must be maintained, of their own leaders. With direct prima- I want him not to cast his vote for me, because ries the vote would unquestionably have I promise him it will not be maintained in the given Comptroller Coler an overwhelming country longer than I am able to get rid of it.” majority over all other competitors. No In answer to the question whether it would one can question this who believes that be possible to control a sufficient volume direct primaries would bring out a general of silver to make such payments, the Secvote ; and no one can question that they retary declared that there would be great would bring out a general vote who noticed difficulty in doing so at once, the Treasury the result of the direct primaries held last being now firmly established on a gold week by the white voters of South Carolina. basis; but he said that the announcement There are only a hundred and twenty thou- by the Treasury of its purpose to pay sand such voters in South Carolina, and at silver in settlement of all interest on the the last regular election less than thirty public debts not specially payable in gold, thousand of them went to the polls. At and to make its daily disbursements in the primaries last week, however, the total silver, would stop the inflow of gold and vote exceeded ninety thousand. In other increase payments into the Treasury of words, the vote at the direct primaries was silver and silver certificates, with the as general as was the vote in Massachu- result that within a short time all the setts, for example, at the last State election. revenues of the Government would be The principal issue in South Carolina was paid to it in silver dollars or silver certhe dispensary--Governor McSweeny and tificates, and all its disbursements made two other candidates championing the con- in similar coin or currency. In this way tinuance of that institution, and Colonel a circuit of silver out of the Treasury into Hoyt advocating the substitution of com- the hands of the people, and from the plete prohibition. At the direct primaries people to the banks, and back again Colonel Hoyt polled approximately 34,000 through the Custom-House and the colvotes, Governor McSweeny 38,000, and lectors of revenues, would be established, the two remaining dispensary candidates and the Government would be practically on a silver basis. In Mr. Gage's opinion element of both parties felt it necessary, in the result would be a run upon the Treasury framing the new Constitution of the State in the form of presentation of greenbacks later in 1898, to enact stringent rules and which are redeemable in gold, and of penalties against bribery in future. They which there are $430,000,000 outstanding, appear to have had little effect, howagainst which the Government holds ever, and both parties fear the inroads $150,000,000 in gold; and this fund would of Mr. Addicks upon the venal vote. He soon be reduced below the minimum of has succeeded, this summer, in mar$100,000,000. When these statements shaling so large a delegation to the Rewere brought to the attention of Mr. publican National Convention that his Bryan by a reporter at Lincoln last week, delegates were recognized, and the Reguhe refused to submit to an interview or to lars, refusing to compromise, were turned answer any questions. He can hardly down by the committee. Mr. Addicks afford to leave his purpose in doubt, and pledged himself, if recognized in the Conthe country will await with a good deal of vention, to carry Delaware for the Repubinterest his declaration of policy on this licans on both State and National tickets, subject. He has definitely declared what but it remains to be seen whether he can he would do if he were elected President perform his promise, since “ Anybody but in regard to the attitude of the United Addicks" has come to be the logical States toward the Philippines ; it is much answering war-cry to “ Addicks or noto be hoped that he will be equally frank body.” The situation at present is that as to his attitude toward the currency the Regulars, led by Mr. Higgins, having question.

held their State Convention on August 21, refuse to unite with Mr. Addicks upon

a State ticket, though they have nomMr. J. Edward Ad- inated the same National electors and Political complications dicks, the perpetual accepted four of his nominations made at in Delaware

candidate for Senator the “snap ” Union Republican Convenfrom Delaware, is making his usual aggres- tion the week before. The official sive campaign this year, and three Repub- Addicks State Convention, held on Aulican State Conventions, for and against gust 23, has placed in the field a ticket him, have been held lately. It was in made up largely of the directors of 1888 that Mr. Addicksma millionaire Mr. Addicks's well-known“ Bay State Gas gas speculator, and a newcomer in the Company,” the nominees for Governor State-first made his appearance in Del- and Attorney-General being closely conaware politics by contributing largely to nected with that corporation. The Reguthe campaign fund. In 1894, when a lar ticket is of much better type, and the Republican Legislature tried to elect a Democrats, at their State Convention in successor to Mr. Higgins, Mr. Addicks, September, hope to take advantage of by controlling four representatives, held the situation and make their State ticket the balance of power between the Demo of as high a caliber as possible. If this crats and the regular Republicans, and, is done, the probabilities are that many by his insistence upon “Addicks or Regulars, to make assurance doubly sure, nobody," prevented an election and left will vote the Democratic State ticket rather the coveted seat vacant. In 1896 he than their own. As there are two Senand his followers held a State Convention atorial seats for the next Legislature to fill, and sent "Union Republican" delegates it is counted among the possibilities that to the St. Louis Convention, but were not Mr. Addicks may be able to combine with recognized. In 1898, by another contest the venal elements of both parties and in the Legislature, he again prevented an make a deal which will secure him the election for Senator, adding this time three seat he has coveted so long. To prevent Democratic legislators to his list of sup- this the Democrats have made a standing porters. Delaware had for some time had offer of $5,000 for the detection of any a bad reputation as to bribery in elec- case of bribery either at the polls or in the tions, and Mr. Addicks gained wide and Legislature. An independent observer unenviable notoriety by enlarging and per- writes us that the Republicans, being united fecting the practice, so that the better on the National electors, may carry Dela

He pro

ware by a small margin for McKinley, but of a pessimist. A man of brilliant abilithat the Democrats will win on the State ties and of abnormal mental activity, -ticket; that the coming Legislature will be Nietzsche was practically insane for many divided into the usual three groups_Demo- years before his death, and had been crats, Regulars, and Addicks men—with entirely insane since 1889. During his the Democrats so much in the majority student life at Bonn and Leipzig his unthat, unless Mr. Addicks is able to inake usual ability attracted attention. He some unlooked-for combination, he will planned at one time to enter the ministry, be left out in the cold next January. but renounced it, made a specialty of

Oriental languages, and secured the ap

pointment of Professor of Philology at The assassin of King Basle. About this time he fell under the Bresci's Sentence

Humbert was convicted influence of Wagner, and became a pasat Milan last week with hardly any oppo- sionate partisan of the great composer. sition or defense, and, as capital punish- In 1876, while listening to the performment does not now exist in Italy, was ance of Wagner's operas at Bayreuth, he sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor suddenly changed his attitude and became for life. The expectation of some per- as bitterly opposed as he had previously sons that sensational scenes would be been enthusiastically devoted. At the enacted during the trial was disappointed ; time this change was considered inthe accused, Bresci, acknowledged the explicable, but it was later explained by deed, but denied that the crime was his mental disease. He published a book plotted either in Europe or America, or in which he denounced almost without that he had any accomplices. It is stated measure Wagner's theory of life and his that Bresci displayed callous cynicism on principles of musical composition. His the stand. The defense was limited to later books pressed the doctrine of pesevidence going to show that Bresci had simism to its furthest limits. borne a fair character before the deed, posed not only to abolish hospitals and although the attorney for the defense, philanthropic associations of all kinds who is said to be a theoretical rather than which looked to the relief of the weak, but a destructive Anarchist, made some slight to restrain physicians and surgeons from attempt to defend the theories of Anarch- interfering with what he regarded as the ism, but was compelled to desist by the natural processes of nature, the end of court. Bresci's final utterance was a dec- which was to destroy by pitiless evolution laration that Italy would soon see a revo all save the strongest. Life was to him lution. This, of course, is quite possible, simply a struggle for existence. He reas revolution may occur in any country, garded religion as superstition, moral and the condition of the lower classes of ideas as faint shadows of religious conpeople, and particularly of the agricultural ceptions, and society as largely an interpeople, in Italy is shocking and depress- ference with the operation of natural laws. ing in the extreme, and appears to be growing worse rather than better; but, whatever may be the possibilities of revo

Outside the ranks of

A Socialist Leader's lution, certainly nothing will be accom


royalty, no death in plished for the people by aimless and

Germany for many senseless assassination, such as that of years has called forth such a popular King Humbert.

demonstration as that of Wilhelm Liebknecht. Next to Marx and Lassalle, the

thinkers who founded the Socialist moveFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, ment in Germany, Liebknecht did more F.W. Nietzsche

who died at Weimar last than any other man to build up its month, was not a man to be counted present power. Herr Bebel, who alone among the serious thinkers of his time, came to rank with him in leadership, was although his so-called philosophical works his disciple, and entered the movement have been widely read by many who take through Liebknecht's influence. From an interest in intellectual paradoxes and his youth Liebknecht fought for de who are ready to welcome the conclusions mocracy and suffered for it. At the age of twenty-two he was imprisoned is not to him a record of ecclesiastical for the part he had taken in the demo- happenings; he penetrates the fact to the cratic revolution of 1848—to the failure vital force or the spiritual quality behind of which America owes the intellectually it. Moreover, he has kept his scholarfinest part of her German-born citizenship. ship fresh by continual contact with the While an exile in England, after his im- original sources of knowledge in the deprisonment, he embraced the social phi- partments of church history and of dogma, losophy of Marx, and on his return to to which he has devoted his life. His Germany in 1862 he at once became an range of information in these spheres is influential writer for advanced democ- co-extensive with their boundaries; and racy-industrial as well as political— whatever he knows he possesses. Stuin the columns of the North German dents in his lecture-room are drawn from * Gazette.” When this paper became a all departments of the University ; they Bismarckian organ, he established another; are not only students of theology, but also and when this had been suppressed and of law, medicine, the fine arts, and the another imprisonment endured, he again sciences. His vitality, originality, and re-entered the lists. Soon thereafter he religious spirit stamp him as one of the was elected to the Prussian legislature, creative men in German scholarship toand his legislative and parliamentary day; and his election as rector places at career has since been interrupted only by the head of one of the greatest universihis imprisonments. Without pre-eminent ties in the world a scholar who represents intellectual ability, his overmastering faith the best in German intellectual life. in Socialism as the cause of humanity made him a power throughout the German Empire. Even beyond the na

The House of Savoy stands

Pope and King tional boundaries his influence was felt,

for two great traditions in and his funeral was attended by repre Italy: constitutional government and “a sentatives of the Socialists of all the coun- free Church in a free State.” These tratries of western Europe. “The funeral,” ditions were faithfully preserved by Victor says the Berlin “ National Zeitung,” “was Emmanuel and by King Humbert, and a great popular demonstration.” Six thou- there is good reason to believe that Victor sand men from Liebknecht's election dis- Emmanuel III. will consistently maintain trict led the procession, and over twenty- them. His earliest utterances show that five thousand more from other districts he has them clearly in mind, and that, in followed, while the streets all along the spite of the report that he has been under nine miles over which the procession clerical infiuence, he intends to remain passed were lined with sympathizers. loyal to them, in accordance with the The poor of the whole city seemed to tradition and with the policy which the join in the mourning over the dead poli- Papacy has maintained ever since Italy tician.

became united and Rome its capital. The Pope has addressed a letter to the Cath

olic Governments of Europe, declaring The election of Dr. that he does not recognize Victor EmAdolph Harnack

Adolph Harnack as Rec- manuel as King of Italy, but as King of tor of the University of Berlin, at the age Sardinia, reaffirming the Papal claim to of forty-nine, and in the face of the strong sovereignty over the States formerly held opposition of the orthodox party, is a just by the Church, and appealing to the recognition of his eminent services to Catholic Powers for relief from the posiChristian scholarship, the influence which tion in which the Papacy has been placed he exerts among scholars in all parts of for three decades. The new King will the world, and the affection in which he maintain the traditions of his family, and is held by his old pupils. It has been Leo XIII. the traditions of the Papacy; said of him that, more than any other accordingly, the breach between the Vatiliving man, he has made Church history can and the Quirinal will not be healed. popular. This is due to the fact that, The Roman Catholic Church has almost being charged with vitality, he vitalizes unlimited ability to wait, and it has seen every subject he touches. Church history many things come to pass which would

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