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own time which Shakespeare wrote, and and Claudio, Benedict and Beatrice, as it undoubtedly reproduces conditions, man- chief actors in the drama, with Dogberry ners, and habits which he had known at and Verges as centers of interest in the first hand in Stratford. Falstaff shows a minor or subsidiary plot. Hazlitt declares great decline in spontaneity, freshness, and with reference to this play that perhaps humor; he has become gross, heavy, and “the middle point of comedy was never dull; he easily falls a victim to very obvi- more nicely hit, in which the ludicrous ous devices against his dignity; he has blends with the tender, and our follies, sunk so low that he has become the butt turning round against themselves in supof practical jokers. It is probable that port of our affections, retain nothing but this particular development of Falstaff was their humanity.” In “ The Merry Wives suggested to Shakespeare by Elizabeth of Windsor " Shakespeare drew with a rather than forced upon him by the ex- free hand the large and rather coarse pansive force of the character. As a qualities of English middle-class life ; in whole, the play shows breadth of charac- “Much Ado About Nothing "he presented terization and genuine humor ; while Wind- a study of life in the highest stage of the sor and the country about it are sketched social order, touched at all points with with unusual fidelity to detail, but with distinction of insight, characterization, characteristic freshness of feeling for and taste. The gayety and brilliancy of fields and woods.

the great world as contrasted with the This homely comedy of middle-class little world of rural and provincial society English country life, with its boisterous are expressed with a confidence and confun, its broad humor, and its realistic de- sistency which indicate that the poet must scriptive passages, was probably written have known something of the court circle not long before “Much Ado About Noth- and of the accomplished women who ing,” but the two plays present the most moved in it. striking contrasts of method and manner. Written probably about 1599, and drawThe Italian play is in an entirely different ing apparently for some features of the key ; it is brilliant, spirited, charged with plot and comic incidents upon the inexvivacity, and sparkling with wit; it is a haustible Bandello and upon one of the masterpiece of keen characterization, of greatest works of Italian genius, the “ Orflashing conversation, of striking contrasts lando Furioso ” of Ariosto, “ Much Ado of type, and of intellectual energy, playing About Nothing” marks the highest point freely and buoyantly against a background of Shakespeare's creative activity in comeof exquisite beauty. The dramatist was dy, and perhaps the most brilliant and now completely emancipated from his prosperous hour in this prolific and fortuearlier teachers, and had secured entire nate period of his life. coinmand of his own genius and of the In the same year Shakespeare created resources of comedy as a literary form. his masterpiece of poetic pastoral drama, In this splendid creation of his happiest “As You Like It.” He was still in the mood in his most fortunate years the sunlight, but the shadows were approachprophecy of sustained and flashing inter- ing; his mood was still gay and his spirits change of wit in Lyly's court plays is buoyant, but the one was touched with amply fulfilled, and the promise of indi- premonitions of sadness and the other vidual power of characterization clearly tempered by a deepening sense of the discerned in Biron and Rosaline is per- complexity of life and its mystery of good fectly realized in Benedict and Beatrice; and evil. In the form and background while Dogberry and Verges mark the per- of the play he was in touch with the love fection of Shakespeare's skill in drawing of pastoral life shared by many of the blundering clowns. In this play the poets of his time; by Lodge and Greene, blending of the tragic and humorous or by Spenser and Sidney. The Arcadia of comic is so happily accomplished that the literature was in his imagination, but the two contrasting elements flow together in deep shadows and wide spaces of the a vital and exquisite harmony of experi Forest of Arden in Warwickshire were ence, full of tenderness, loyalty, audacity, before his eye; he knew the affected pasand brilliancy; the most comprehensive sion for flowering meads and gentle shepcontrast of character is secured in Hero herds which were the stock-in-trade of many contemporaries, but he also felt that ness is touched with a not unkindly irony ; fresh and unforced delight in nature which for Shakespeare's vision was so wide that brings him in touch with the modern he was rarely able to look at life from a poets. He knew how to use the conven- single point; its magnitude, its complextional poetic speech about nature, but he ity, the rigor of its law, and at the same saw nature with his own eyes as clearly as time the apparent caprice with which its Burns and Wordsworth saw her two cen- diverse fortunes were bestowed, were turies later. The plot of “ As You Like always within his view. At the best, we It” was probably taken from Lodge's seem to hear him say in this mood : “ Rosalynde; or Euphues' Golden

All the world's a stage, Legacy,” an old-fashioned, artificial, pas- And all the men and women merely players. toral romance, full of affectations and un- Jacques must not be taken too seriously, realities, based upon the much older “ Tale but there are hints of Hamlet's mood in his of Gamelon," which appeared in the four. brooding meditation; and through the teenth century and was handed down in whole play there is a vein of sadness several manuscripts of Chaucer's “ Can- which, mingled with its gayety and poetic terbury Tales,”and was probably intended loveliness, gives it a deep and searching for use in a tale which the poet left un- beauty. written. This old story belongs to the In the Christmas season of 1601 cycle of the Robin Hood ballads; and “Twelfth Night” was presented in the Shakespeare had this origin of the story noble hall of the Middle Temple. “At in mind when he wrote: “ They say he is our feast," writes John Manningham, a already in the Forest of Arden, and a many member, in his diary, “we had a play merry men with him ; and there they live called "Twelfth Night; or, What You like the old Robin Hood of England.” Will.' Much like the ‘Comedy of Errors'

The woodland world of Arden, in which or · Menæchmi’ in Plautus; but most like sonnets are affixed to ancient trees, and and near to that in Italian called 'Inganni.' lovers, courtiers, and moralists live at ease, A good practise in it to make the steward has much in common with the pastoral believe his lady widowe was in love with backgrounds of Spenser and Lodge; but him, by counterfeiting as from his lady in its artificiality is redeemed by its freshness general terms, telling him what she liked of spirit, its out-of-door freedom, and its best in him, and prescribing his gesture enchanting society. Rosalind and Orlando in smiling, his apparel, etc., and then are the successors of a long line of pas- when he came to practise making him toral lovers, but they, alone among their believe they took him to be mad.” This kind, really live. In Rosalind purity, pas charming comedy, so characteristic of sion, and freedom are harmonized in one Shakespeare's genius at play, was probof the most enchanting women in litera- ably acted by the Lord Chamberlain's ture. In her speech love finds a new servants, the company with which Shakelanguage, which is continually saved from speare was associated, before the Court extravagance by its vivacity and humor. in the old palace at Whitehall during the In Audrey and Corin the passion of Or- same season. lando and Rosalind is gently parodied; The ultimate source of the play was in Touchstone the melancholy humor of probably Bandello's “Novelle,” though the Jacques is set out in more effective relief. Italian plays to which Manningham refers There are threatenings of tragedy in the (there were several plays with the title beginning of the play, but they are dis- Inganni) may have furnished incidents; solved in an air in which purity and truth but Malvolio, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew and health serve to resolve the baser Aguecheek, Maria, and, above all, Viola, designs of men into harmless fantasies as they live in the comedy are ShakeIn Jaques, however, there appears for the spearean to the heart. The framework first time the student of his kind who has of the play is essentially serious, a beautipierced the illusions of place and powerful vein of poetic feeling runs through it, and passion, and touched the underlying and, intermingled with these, the most contradiction between the greatness of unforced and uproarious fun. In inventman's desires and the uncertainty and in- iveness in the comic type and in freedom adequacy of his achievements. This sad- in handling it, as well as in grouping of

and other books. He has drawn his material
for the present work from original sources,
and in every way this book is first hand and
thorough. It is, moreover, a readable and
often dramatic narrative of events, a close
study of a critical period of French history,
and an impartial analysis of the character and
powers of the brilliant and implacable Cardi-
nal who left such an impress of molding
strength on France, and so mightily affected
all Europe. Mr. Perkins's “Richelieu" will at
once take its place as one of the very best of
an almost uniformly excellent series.
Second Lady Delcombe, The. By Mrs. Arthur

Kennard. The J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.
4 x74 in. 328 pages. 50c.
Shakespeare's Julius Cæsar. Edited by George

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Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 714 X5 in.

161 pages.
Study of the Greek Pæan, A. By Arthur

Fairbanks, Ph.D. (Cornell Studies in Classical Philology, No. XII.) Published for the University by The Macmillan Co., New York. 6x9 in. 166 pages. $1.

To an English Sparrow. By William S. Lord.

Published by the Author, Evanston, Ill. 546x8 in.

10 pages. Trusts : What Can We Do with them?

What Can They Do for Us? By William M. Collyer. The Baker & Taylor Company, New York.

712X5 in. 338 pages. $1.25. This volume is an exceptionally able defense of trusts. The author puts effectively innumerable illustrations of the wastes incident to competition, and keeps in the background the economies incident thereto. He boldly takes the position that “the mother of trusts" is not the tariff, as Mr. Havemeyer said, nor the desire of producers for higher prices, as most men believe, but “the demand for cheap production." In defense of this proposition he urges the economy of production on a large scale; but he does not make clear why the demand for cheap production leads great concerns to enter combinations which promise extravagant dividends to small competitors if they too will enter. In short, this book, though well written, is to be read as the plea of an attorney rather than the opinion of a judge.

Notes and Queries

It is seldom possible to answer any inquiry in the next issue after its receipt. Those who find expected answers late in coming will, we hope, bear in mind the impediments arising from the constant pressure of many subjects upon our limited space. Communications should always bear the writer's name and address. Can you tell me anything of a body of Chris- follow (Scribners). Decidedly good is the much briefer

tians calling themselves “ The Catholic and Apostolic work of Professor Cary's “ The Synoptic Gospels” in Church”? They flourish in Europe, and the burden the series of New Testament Handbooks (Putnams). of their teaching is the coming of Christ, which I think they believe to be imminent. Their service, I I am expecting to give my young people a am told, is ornate and very impressive. They differ series of Sunday evening talks next winter on the from the Millerites and Second Adventists. Are subject, Legendary tradition of the creation, flood, there any in this country? When and where did and prehistoric times generally. Can you recomthey originate?

J. E.C. mend a good work to me covering this topic?_ Give The Catholic Apostolic Church, nicknamed " Irvingites"

publisher and price of same.

W. B. S. from its acceptance of the teachings of Edward Irving,

See Ryle's “Early Narratives in Genesis" (The Maca Scotch clergyman, has flourished chiefly in Great millan Company, New York, $I); Morris's “Man and Britain, where it originated in the early part of this cen His Ancestor " (the same, $1.50) ; also Smith's " Chaltury. There have been a few congregations in this

dean Account of Genesis" (Scribners, $3), and Clay's country, but it appears to be in a decline even in its

“Man, Past and Present" in the Cambridge (Eng.) native land. Prominent among its doctrines, besides the

Scientific Series (Macmillan, $3). Advent, is that of a revival of the primitive gifts of the Can you tell me when and by whom the sysSpirit, especially the gift of tongues and the gift of tem of dating was established as changed to before healing.

and after Christ, or B.C. and A.D.?


A Roman abbot, Dionysius the Little, introduced into Will you kindly publish in an early number

century the system of dating from the the names and prices of a few of the best magazines

year of the birth of Christ. Old English charters show for circulation in a Mothers' Club?

that it was used in England before the close of the eighth Your club will find useful, “ Art Education,” J.C. Witter

century. The article on Chronology in the Encyclopædia Company, 123 Fifth Avenue, New York; “Good House

Britannica gives accounts of the methods of reckoning keeping," Springfield, Mass.; " The American Kitchen

time employed by different peoples. Garden," published by the Home Science Publishing Company, 488 Tremont Street, Boston, Mass.; "Harper's Kindly inform me whether there is a book pubBazar," New York; “Bird Lore," Harrisburg, Pa.; lished on Protestant missions among the American "Kindergarten Magazine," The Temple, Chicago; Indians during the eighteenth century. If there is "Child-Garden," 9333 Prospect Avenue, Chicago; “Child

not any cingle book, where could I obtain information on that subject ?

J. W . Study Monthly," Auditorium Building, Chicago; “ Education." 50 Bromfield Street. Boston: “ Domestic

“The Life and Times of David Zeisberger," a Moravian Science Monthly," Oakland, Cal.; "The Chautauquan,"

missionary in Pennsylvania, and “ Samson Occom and

the Christian Indians of New England” (Pilgrim Press, Cleveland, Ohio; " Health Culture," 503 Fifth Avenue,

Boston). Occom was a distinguished Indian convert and New York; “ Trained Motherhood," 13 Park Row, New York ; " St. Nicholas," New York

preacher in New England. Please suggest the two best critical commen

Can any reader tell me where I can find a full taries on each of the four Gospels (English).

account of the case of Edgar Mortara, the Jewish McD.

child who, about 1858, was taken by the authorities

of the Roman Catholic Church from his parents, on The " International Critical Commentary” is far the

the plea that he belonged to that Church inasmuch best. Two volumes on the Gospels have already ap as he had been baptized, although it was, I think, by peared, viz., Mark and Luke, and the others are soon to his nurse?


The Outlook


Published Weekly Vol. 66 September 8, 1900

No. 2 Russian diplo- to the Russian proposition in the followChina: The Russian-American

macy has given ing words: Proposal

the Powers a In our opinion, these purposes could best surprise in its proposal that the allies be attained by the joint occupation of Peking, withdraw their troops from Peking during under a definite understanding between the negotiations for the establishment of a

Powers, until the Chinese Government shall recognized Government in China and the

" have been re-established and shall be in a posi

tion to enter into new treaties with adeguate settling of questions of indemnity and provisions for reparation and guarantees of security for the future. That Russia future protection. With the establishment should plainly state her willingness to main- and recognition of such authority, the United

States would wish to withdraw its military tain the northern Chinese border as it was before the Boxer outbreak is indeed ex- of peaceful negotiation our just demands. traordinary, and contradicts what was gen- We consider, however, that a continued erally believed to be her policy of aggres

occupation of Peking would be ineffective to sion in Manchuria, and all the more so as Powers unite therein with entire harmony of

produce the desired result, unless all the the week's despatches show that Russian purpose. Any Power which determines to troops are occupying almost all of Manchu withdraw its troops from Peking will necessaria except Mukden. From the point of rily proceed thereafter to protect its interests view of the United States it is extremely

in China by its own method, and we think that

this would make a general withdrawal expedigratifying to have from Russia the positive ent. As to the time and manner of withdrawal, declaration that she has “no designs of we think that, in view of the imperfect knowlterritorial acquisition in China," and that

edge of the military situation resulting from

the interruptions of telegraphic communicashe is ready to retire from Newchang, which

tion, the several military commanders at Peshe has “occupied for military purposes." king should be instructed to confer and agree The Russian note to the Powers even together upon the withdrawal as a concerted goes so far as to declare that orders have

movement, as they agreed upon the advance.

The result of these considerations is that, been given to the Russian Minister in

unless there is such a general expression by Peking to withdraw to Tientsin and for the Powers in favor of continued occupation the Russian troops to be withdrawn, and as to modify the views expressed by the Govthis apparently without reference to the

ernment of Russia and lead to a general agree

ment for continued occupation, we shall give action of other Powers. In reply, our

instructions to the commander of the AmeriGovernment expresses its pleasure that can forces in China to withdraw our troops all the Powers have disclaimed aggressive from Peking, after due conference with the purposes—a somewhat questionable asser

other commanders as to the time and manner

of withdrawal. tion as to Germany, one may think; asserts that far the greater part of China is now In short, the United States would prefer at peace, and that some of the Viceroys that the Powers continued to occupy Pe are active in suppressing the Boxers; re- king at present, but not unless all the peats its former declaration of the purposes Powers agree to that course ; therefore it of the United States, now partly accom- is ready to withdraw if Russia does so. As plished by the relief of the legations, and we write, the replies of the other Powers to to be fully satisfied by restoration of peace, Russia's note have not been made public. security to foreigners, and permanent English papers are outspoken in resenting future protection; and then replies directly the fact that the lead should thus be taken

by Russia; they regard the move as one Tientsin, and between these cities are to acquire predominance by that nation reported on August 18 as about 46,000 in whatever action may be taken, and men, while Russia has large forces in think that the result would be to place Manchuria, and Great Britain, France, too much power in the hands of Li-Hung- and Japan have troops at Shanghai and Chang, whom the English regard as in the Yangtse and Amoy regions, and distinctly favorable to Russian as op- German forces are beginning to arrive in posed to British interests and influence considerable numbers. Most conflicting in China. Earl Li is still in Shanghai, so accounts are given of the experiences of that the discussion as to detaining him at those shut up in the Peking legations so Taku turns out to have been useless, not long, some narrators saying that the Chito say unwise. The New York - Trib- nese made but faint attacks, while others une" on Saturday published this despatch and these probably the more accuratefrom Li-Hung-Chang: “Withdrawal of state that immunity from destruction was foreign troops from Peking would facili- secured only by a marvelously skillful tate peace negotiations. No doubt need construction of sand-bags and earthwork be entertained that I shall undertake defenses, and that even then only the fact vigorously to restore order, protect for- that the Chinese guns were too close to eigners, and punish and suppress the allow of the right elevation averted total Boxers.'

destruction; one reporter states that in

the first three weeks of the siege of the In Peking Dating Actual news from Peking last legations 2,800 shells fell within the

as week filtered through the im- walls. The total loss of the imprisoned perfect telegraph agencies very slowly, foreigners was 65 killed and 131 wounded. and the despatches have an unfortunate Mr. Gilbert Reid, the well-known mistendency to lose their dates in transmis- sionary, was the only American civilian sion. Mr. Conger, in an undated mes- wounded. The first entrance of the ressage (which probably left Peking about cuers was effected by a company of Sikhs, August 24), stated that on August 28 led by Sir Alfred Gaselee, who waded up (Tuesday of last week) a formal entry a sewage-canal under the Tartar City would be made into the Imperial Palace, wall. All accounts speak well of the bethat a “military promenade” of all na- havior of the American soldiers, and cortions would be made through it, and that respondents who have described the lootit would then be closed and guarded. ing and plunder at Tientsin and Peking Despatches to other Governments refer to as extensive and lamentable expressly this spectacular programme in the same state that the American troops took no way, and doubtless it took place on the part in the excesses, and remained under day named. Such a demonstration has discipline. for its object the impressing of the idea of foreign power and victory on the Chinese people ; in 1860, despite the burn

A Defeat for the Boers

The events of last ing and looting of the Summer Palace,

week in South Africa the common people were taught and be- make it not impossible that the end of lieved that the English and French forces armed resistance to British power is at retired from Peking because they dared last near Lord Roberts's advance in not enter the sacred precincts of the force to the northeast was for a while Inner City. Mr. Conger also cabled that stubbornly resisted, but the battle before Prince Ching (a man of high standing with Machadodorp, which of late has been the Chinese Government, and one favor- the Boer headquarters, resulted in a disably disposed toward foreigners) was ex- tinct and serious defeat for the Boers, pected at Peking soon; and there are and was followed by the evacuation of other indications that at least a part of Machadodorp and a retreat toward the the members of the Tsungli-Yamen (For- north in the direction of Lydenburg, eign Office) are assembling in Peking. General Buller's column had the brunt No definite news of the Emperor and of the attacking movement, and acquitEmpress Dowager has been received. ted itself with credit. Scouting parties The forces of the allies in Taku, Peking, sent out by the British report that the

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