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forty thousand people uniess it was pre- no advertisements on its new cars. The pared to support its statement.

London County Council has now gone, ple of Omaha probably wish that the pre probably, as far as it can in the matter of ceding census had not given them such an regulating offensive advertisements until exalted pre-eminence in the matter of it has obtained special powers from Parrapid growth. Their actual gain in twenty liament similar to those obtained by Edinyears-from 30,000 to 102,000--is some burgh. Application may be made for a thing to boast of, but the reported loss of private act giving the Council power of forty thousand in one decade will compel control. Its æsthetic activity was recently real estate men to explain.

stimulated by the presentation of a protest, signed by more than three hundred

London architects, against the growing

Americans who fashion of disfiguring buildings with monOffensive Advertisements

have followed the strous letters and other devices. In this campaign of “Scapa,” the English soci- connection it may be interesting to add, ety against advertising disfigurement, will as some attention has been called to the be interested in the news of another matter apropos of the Paris Exposition, minor victory. Following its vote prohib- that in France no advertisements can be iting flashlight advertisements where they put on public property without a license, “cause danger to traffic”-noted in a and that all exposed advertisements are recent issue of The Outlook—the London subject to a small tax. An American who County Council has voted also to pro- has just returned from a year's residence hibit transparent advertisements upon the in rural France, during which he traveled windows of its own (the municipal) tram- extensively in the provinces, gives this cars. The setting of an example so testimony: “ There is in France no such greatly needed will commend itself on outrageous disfigurement of beautiful purely practical grounds to every Ameri- scenery for advertising purposes as one can visitor to London. Perhaps in no finds here at home. Such advertising is other big city is it so difficult to disentan- confined to the line of the railways, and gle the lettering of its destination from is much more noticeable as one approaches the maze of advertising announcements the city of Paris.” on a public conveyance as it is in the case of a London 'bus. Many objections were urged to the prohibition, some of them

The three weeks' sessions

The Northfield amusingly puerile. For instance, it was

closed August 20 with allcontended that London streets are so ugly

day meetings in the interest that people having occasion to ride of missions, foreign, home, and city. The through them do not wish to see any English preachers have gone home, and more of them than is absolutely neces- Mr. Sankey has sailed to meet a long list sary. Thus the transparent advertise- of appointments in Great Britain. Mr. ment upon the street-car window was a William R. Moody, as successor to his relief by what it shut out, a blessing in father in the chairmanship of the Conferdisguise. More seriously, it was urged ence, has fully justified his father's wisthat these advertisements brought in an dom in committing to him that position income of £1,500 a year, which the Coun- and overruling his natural hesitancy in cil was not justified in sacrificing to gratify accepting it.

accepting it. The attractiveness of the an æsthetic “ fad.” To this a conclusive young people's meetings has secured them practical answer was made. It has been a permanent place in the Conference profound on actual trial that wherever the gramme. Of special interest are the stateæsthetic taste of passengers has been ments made of the Christian Endeavor considered, the popularity of the cars was work in prisons. Twenty-five Christian increased, as shown by the increase of Endeavor societies now exist among patronage. This has been the experi- prisoners in eleven States. In the State ence of Glasgow, Oldham, Blackburn, prison of Kentucky the Christian EnHull, Liverpool, Bolton, and Halifax- deavor Society reports 400 members facts which have convinced Sheffield, among a total of 1,300 convicts. The whose corporation recently voted to allow reports of prison charlairs set high value


upon the results of this work in perma- less; there are none who can assume nent reformations of character. The control.” An important despatch is that “ Tenth Legion," the designation of that received by the Presbyterian Board of group of Endeavorers who have joined in Foreign Missions in this city. It is dated devoting one-tenth of their income to the Peking, August 20, and reads as follows: various interests of Christian benevolence, "North China Christians surviving slaughnow numbers 17,000. Another group, ter destitute, homeless; send immediate known as the “ Macedonian Phalanx ” (in help, thank offering, Peking.” It is allusion to the call in Acts xvi., 9, 10, for signed by Dr. Wherry, of the Presbyterian missionary work in Macedonia), aiming Mission, Mr. Hobart, of the Methodist to promote individual interest in missions, Mission, and Dr. A. H. Smith, of the has sprung up and made promising prog- American Board. In response to this ress during the past year. The Post- touching appeal a special call for funds Conference began its supplementary series will be widely circulated among the of meetings August 21, under the lead of churches; and it is urgently hoped that Dr. H. G. Weston, of Crozer Theological Ainericans, without regard to church Seminary, who lectured during the week affiliations, will come quickly and liberally on Biblical interpretation and the four to the aid of those who have suffered and Gospels. The attendance continues to are still suffering so much in the cause of be large.

Christianity. Contributions may be sent

to Mr. Charles W. Hand, 156 Fifth Avenue, The Missionaries in China. The relief of Pe- New York City.

king and the opening of some other sources of information now make it possible to obtain informa

Those who saw the let

Dr. Hale's Associate tion about the foreign missionaries who

ter from Dr. Edward have been in serious danger in different Everett Hale printed in last week's parts of China. There seems to be no Outlook will not need assurance that he question that the reported massacre ai is still abounding in activity, in wide inPaotingfu (about seventy miles southwest terest in human affairs, and in singularly of Peking) actually took place. At this attractive originality in the “ art of putting town were missionaries of the American things." The appointment of Professor Presbyterian Board and several other Edward Cummings, of Harvard, to the organizations. It is not absolutely certain associate pastorate of the South Church which of the missionaries were in Pao- in Boston does not mean that Dr. Hale tingfu and which of them had escaped retires from active work, but that he is to before the massacre took place, but there have efficient aid where it will best enable is great reason to fear that when full him to continue his efforts for human betaccounts reach this country they will show terment in the large sense. Dr. Hale will a lamentable loss of noble lives. A letter remain with the South Church, over which from Chifu to Dr. Judson Smith, of the he has been minister for nearly forty-five American Board, recently received from years, as pastor emeritus. Professor CumMr. Henry D. Porter, gives an interesting mings has had a training which particuview of the recent occurrences in China. larly well fits him for joint work with Dr. Mr. Porter says that the Presbyterian Hale; he was graduated from Harvard Christians (natives) in the Eastern dis- and entered the Divinity School, but left tricts are being horribly persecuted, and the formal course uncompleted in order that it is a great mistake to suppose that to pursue special studies in social science, the outbreak is “simply a Manchu frenzy." and spent three years in Europe reading He says that the native Chinese are as and gathering facts on sociological topics. bigoted as the Manchurians, and that not In 1891 Mr. Cummings became instructor the slightest confidence should be placed in sociology at Harvard, and, later, proin the men governing the provinces. He fessor of sociology and an editor of the adds: “Li-Hung-Chang and Chang-Chi- “ Quarterly Journal of Economics.” An Tung are men incapable of sincerity. illustration of the practical character Their sole purpose can be to prevent dis- of his work in social economics is seen solution. The vast Government is worth in the fact that it was through his suggestion that Massachusetts adopted what specific points of the Confession the the advanced plan of allowing prisoners explanation should cover. of the class usually confined to work out their fines, to work, instead, at home or at shops, under suitable inspection and


The recent annual meet

British Wesleyans probation. An account of this system

ing of the Wesleyan was given in The Outlook for December Conference shows as vigorous life in Brit16 last.

ish as in American Methodism. For the third successive year over two million

dollars are to be expended in churchIt will be remembered Presbyterian Revision

building. Ninety-five new chapels are to that at the last Gen- be erected, forty-five of them in places eral Assembly, held at St. Louis in May where there have been none of the Wesof the present year, a Committee of Fif- leyan order. The Twentieth Century teen was appointed by the Moderator, Fund for the promotion and enlargement consisting of eight ministers and seven of church enterprises has already reached elders, for the purpose of inquiry into the the sum of $4,000,000-nearly four-fifths sentiment of the Church with regard to of the proposed amount of a million guinthe entire subject of the proposed restate- This Conference, which includes ment of the doctrines embodied in the the whole of the United Kingdom except Westminster Confession of Faith. This Ireland, closely resemb's the Annual Committee has been holding sessions in Conferences of American Methodists in Saratoga during the present month, and its regulation of local matters, while also has prepared a statement on the subject legislating for the whole body, like the which will be submitted to all the Presby- General Conference. Most of a day was teries to consider at their autumn sessions. given to the scrutiny of a list of 114 canIt was part of the design of the General didates for the ministry, twenty-seven of Assembly, as shown by its resolutions, whom were declined, one withdrawn, and that the Presbyteries should individually the rest ordained. A marked contrast to take action on the matter, and should re- the sentiment of American Methodists port that action to the Committee of the appears in the refusal again given this General Assembly. The statement now year to the repeatedly presented proposiput forth by that Committee asks certain tion to exclude from office in the Church direct questions, the replies to which will persons connected with the liquor traffic. put the whole matter in clear form so far There were but nine votes against a as the opinions and wishes of the Presby- motion to side-track it by taking up the teries go. They are asked whether they order of the day. The Sacraments redesire a revision of the Confession of ceived special attention. The report of Faith, or wish to dismiss the whole sub- a special committee on the better adminject, leaving the Confession as it is, with. istration of the Lord's Supper issued out change of any kind. If, however, in a resolution to prepare for general the Presbyteries desire some change, they circulation, and especially for new memare asked to state whether they wish, bers coming into the Church, a cheap first, a revision ; second, a supplemental popular treatise on the subject. The and explanatory statement ; or, third, a preparation of it has been intrusted to supplement in the way of a briefer state- Professor W. T. Davison. The report of ment of the doctrines “most surely be- another committee on the relation of baplieved among us," expressing in simple tized children to the Church gave rise to language " the faith of the Church in loy- an animated discussion. While this was alty to the system of doctrine contained precluded by the time-limit from reaching in Holy Scripture and held by the Re- a clear conclusion, preponderant expresformed Churches." Those of the Presby- sion was given to the opinion that all teries which desire some action are also children should be claimed for Christ as requested to state definitely in what direc- the Saviour of all, and that “all should tion and to what extent revision should be baptized in his name.” In this the be undertaken, if revision is favored, or, Wesleyans are true to their Anglican exif an explanatory statement is desired, traction. The late Dr. Dale adopted this view, though not without strong dissention dollars' worth of hemp were exported, among his Congregational brethren. The and about one and a half million dollars' “ Wesley Guild " shows, like its American worth of sugar and tobacco. During the congener, the Epworth League, a vigorous last six years the imports into the islands growth, so that a permanent secretary has have increased about one-third. been appointed for its management, but not without criticism of its alleged overemphasis on social and recreative as

The Real Peril compared with spiritual interests. The decadence of the class-meeting is in Eng- It is not a matter of regret that the land, as here, a subject of increasing per- political campaign shows so little evidence plexity. Accordingly, a special committee of general excitement and such marked has been raised to consider the best means absence of bitterness of feeling. It is of providing for the training and equip quite customary to judge of the importance ment of class-leaders, and augmenting of political campaigns by the amount of their number.

electricity in the air, although, as a matter of fact, the accumulation of heat is rarely

turned into light. As a rule, the more The War Department has Commerce of

heat in a campaign the less light; and the Philippines issued a carefully prepared what is needed is light and not heat. The

statement of the commerce of the Philippine Islands with various great departure in the evolution of the nations during the seven months ending The Outlook of last week to be the para

American system which was declared in with January, 1900. During this period

mount issue needs clear discernment of the aggregate of imports wasover $14,000,- fact and cool and dispassionate thought. 000, and the aggregate of exports was less Nothing would be gained, and much than $10,000,000--the excess of imports would be lost, if there were widespread being due, in part, to the foreign goods excitement and the air were full of used by our soldiers. Classified by the

clamorous outeries. Four years ago The countries from which the imports were

Outlook declared that it was futile to received and to which the exports were sent, the aggregates for the more impor- opprobrious epithets to his name; it is

attempt to defeat Mr. Bryan by fastening tant countries were as follows:

equally futile in this campaign to denounce Imports from. Exports to.

Mr. McKinley as a tyrant, a usurper, an China..

$5,674.000 $2,511,000 United Kingdom. 2,316,000 2.355.000 unscrupulous self-seeker, who is slowly United States..

888,000 2,155,000 but surely consolidating his power by enSpain....

1,436,000 765,000 croachment upon the privileges of the British East Indies.. 1,086,000 445,000

people whom he governs. These charges The principal exports from the islands are sa grotesque, in view of Mr. McKinwere raw materials, and the principal im- ley's well-known character, as to be ports were manufactured goods. Of the broadly humorous; they belong to the latter, cotton goods ranked easily first, illustrated newspapers, not to the domain over three million dollars' worth being of public discussion. imported. Next to cotton came drugs The fact of expansion and the policy of and chemicals to the value of half a mill- expansion are realities which are clear to ion ; glassware to the value of four hun- every intelligent American; but the thing dred thousand ; paper and books to the called Imperialism, about which so much value of three hundred thousand each; is being said at present, is a thing of the and wine, beer, spirits, and wheat flour to imagination; it has no reality, and for the value of two hundred thousand each. that reason it has failed to make any The only important agricultural product wide impression on the American people. imported was rice, of which nearly two Whatever may be the faults of the Amerimillion dollars' worth was brought in can people, they have an instinct for fact; from China. The exports of the islands and while they may be often deluded, and are made chiefly of three items—hemp, sometimes for considerable periods of time, sugar, and tobacco. During the seven they are rarely perplexed by specters. The months under review four and a half mill- question whether or not the army shall be increased to one hundred thousand men We need men who will not hesitate to put is debatable; there are good reasons to down a mob with a strong hand; men be urged against it; but to declare that whose first concern it is, with absolute the liberties of the country are to be indifference to friend or foe, to maintain endangered by such an increase is to take in New Orleans, North Carolina, New the discussion out of the realm of fact York, Akron, and St. Louis, that order into that of pure fancy. If the liberties the preservation of which is the first of this country, after a hundred and twenty- instinct of men of English blood and five years of national existence, and fifteen English political training. Nothing has hundred years of English political educa- brought greater reproach on American tion, are to be endangered by an army of institutions than the frequent outbreaks a hundred thousand men, it is time that of lawlessness in many parts of the country another basis were put under those liber- which have sometimes been met, as they ties. The real danger in this country is ought always to be met, with prompt and not from a conception of the Nation which stern upholding of the law by adequate spells it with a capital N, nor from a means, but more often by evasion, delay, strong government either in the State indecisic ! and sometimes cowardice. The capitals or at Washington; the real danger, real servant of the people is the executive as The Outlook said editorially several who is not „fraid of the men who elected weeks ago, is from weakness of govern- him when it comes to a question between ment. Lawlessness has been one of the order and disorder. So long as negroes chief vices of American life from the are hunted in great cities, voters are intimearliest times in our history. It was the idated in ancient commonwealths, streetprevalence of lawlessness and the extent car traffic is prevented in great cities, and of the lawless classes in the country that public buildings are blown up by dynamade Hamilton the advocate of a strong mite, it is idle to talk about the danger central government. It is the prevalence of too much government in the United of lawlessness that, more than anything States. else except the development of rings and bosses, has misinterpreted American pub- The Situation in China lic life and the American spirit to the peoples of Europe. A country in which The American position in China has the recent riots in New Orleans and New not changed, and so far no complications York, the forcible control of the political have arisen which have led in any way to campaign by armed men in North Caro- its modification. That position has been lina, the destruction of public buildings from the first so clearly defined that it by a mob in Akron, Ohio, last week, are could not be mistaken, and in the uncerpossible, is in far greater danger from the tainty and confusion which reigns in mob than it is from the army or the Peking and in China generally there need Executive. The peril to liberty in this be no uncertainty or confusion in regard country is real, but it does not come from to the purposes of the United States. We so-called Imperialism ; it comes from the declared that we would enter into no fear of the mob and the weakness of negotiations with the Chinese authorities executive officers in the presence of the so long as unrestricted communication mob. Among all the tyrants, none is with the American Legation at Peking more brutal than the mob; and in this was denied; we demanded, before opencountry the mob, even in old communi- ing negotiations, that the attacks on the ties, is often, for considerable periods of legations cease, that communication be time, the real ruler.

restored and order maintained. These The safeguards needed in this country ends secured, this Government is pledged are not safeguards against too much gov- to do what it can to maintain the integrity ernment, but against lawlessness. We need of China, and to enforce free and unresheriffs, mayors, governors, and presidents stricted commercial intercourse. who are not afraid of citizens who have The Chinese authorities failed to meet put them into office when those citizens are these conditions; they did not make free organized for the purpose of breaking the intercourse with the legations possible; law and committing deeds of violence. they did not cause the attacks on the

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