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being that entitled “A Discovery of the ing the play in its structure, shaping its Bermudas, otherwise called the Ile of parts to one high end, touching it everyDivels,” which was reinforced by several where with a kind of ultimate beauty, it pamphlets. According to these reports stands alone not only in Shakespeare's the island of Bermudas had never been work but in modern poetry. The noble“ inhabited by any Christian or heathen ness of conception is matched throughout people ;" it was reported “a most pro- with a kindred nobleness of style ; while digious and enchanted place," “ still the songs are full of the deep, spontaneous vexed ” with “ monstrous thunder-storms melody which issues out of the heart of and tempests.” On the night the ship the poet when sound and sense are perwas wrecked the Admiral himself “had fectly mated in his imagination. an apparition of a little, round light, like The profound seriousness of temper a faint star, trembling and streaming which pervades the play, the clearness along with a sparkling blaze, half the with which its ethical bearings are disheight above the main-mast, and shooting closed, the deep philosophy which undersometimes from shroud to shroud, tempt- lies it, convey an irresistible impression of ing to settle as it were upon any of the something personal in the theme and the four shrouds."

treatment. It is impossible to read “ The The stories of this marvelous voyage Tempest” without a haunting sense of were undoubtedly heard by Shakespeare, secondary meaning. Caliban, Miranda, and he certainly read these narratives and Prospero have been interpreted from before writing of the “still-vexed Ber- many points of view; a final and convincmoothes,” of the climate of the Island in ing interpretation will never be made, but “ The Tempest,” and of the spirits which the instinct of Shakespeare's readers and frequented it. Traces of the reading of lovers that in this last play from his hand other books of travel are found in the play. the poet was bidding farewell to his art is It is possible also that Shakespeare may probably sound. As a rule, critics err have heard from English actors, who had rather in diminishing than expanding the performed at Nuremberg a few years significance of great works of art. before this time, the plot of a comedy “The Tempest” appeared about 1611. writt'n by Jacob Ayrer, of that city, under Shakespeare was then forty-seven years the title “ Die Schöne Sidea." It is also of age, and had nearly completed his possible that there may have been an work. When he set the noble figure of earlier play or novel of a somewhat similar Prospero on the unknown island, and made plot, which has entirely disappeared. him master of spirits and of men, with The famous description of an ideal com- a knowledge of life which was so great monwealth which is put in the mouth of that it easily passed on into magical art, Gonzalo was suggested to Shakespeare he could not have been oblivious of the by an essay of Montaigne's which he read spiritual significance of the work, nor of in Florio's translation ; while the Invoca- its deep and vital symbolism in the tion of Prospero may owe something to development of his own mind and art. one of Ovid's “Metamorphoses,” with The success of “ The Tempest ” apwhich the poet had long been familiar. pears to have been great ; it was presented

After recognizing his indebtedness for at Court, and was one of the plays percertain details to various earlier and formed during the marriage festivities of contemporary sources, “The Tempest" the Princess Elizabeth in 1613. One remains pre-eminently the creation of source of this popular interest was probaShakespeare's imagination. In certain re- bly the charm of the songs which gave spects it is his masterpiece. As a drama it the movement pause and relief. There is falls far below his earlier work; as a poem, good reason to believe that these songs cast in a dramatic form, it is one of the were set to music by Robert Johnson, a most beautiful creations in English poetry. popular composer of the day, and that two

The profound meditativeness and rich of them had been preserved in Wilson's intellectual quality of “Hamlet” are fused “Cheerful Ayres and Ballads set for Three in it with the lovely fancy of the “ Mid Voices." summer Night's Dream,” while in deep Shakespeare completed no more plays and sustained play of imagination, fashion after the appearance of “The Tempest,"

but he had a shaping hand in “ Henry The first play was written by a superior, VIII.,” which appeared about 1612 and is thoughtful man, with a vicious ear. I can included among his works. This very mark his lines, and know well their ca. uneven and very spectacular drama is dence. See Wolsey's soliloquy, and the based upon material found in Hull and following scene with Cromwell, where, inHolinshed, in a life of Wolsey by George stead of the meter of Shakespeare—whose Cavendish, then in manuscript, and in secret is that the thou 'ht constructs the Fox's “ Acts and Monuments of the tune, so that reading for the sense will Church.” Its performance on June 29, bring out the rhythm-here the lines are 1613, led to the burning of the Globe constructed on a given tune, and the Theater-an event of which there are verse has even a trace of pulpit eloquence. several contemporary accounts. The play But the play contains through all its length was presented with unprecedented elabora- unmistakable traits of Shakespeare's hand, tion in scenery and dress-a first attempt, and some passages, as the account of the apparently, in the direction of the splendor coronation, are like autographs." of appointments which characterizes the The view, presented with great skill by modern stage. “Now King Henry making Mr. Spedding, that Shakespeare intended a Masque at the Cardinal Woolsey's to make a “great historical drama 'on the House," writes Wotton, "and certain subject of Henry VIII., which would have Canons being shot off at his entry, some included the divorce of Katharine, the of the paper or other stuff wherewith one fall of Wolsey, the rise of Cranmer, the of them was stopped, did light on the coronation of Anne Bullen, and the final Thatch, where being thought at first but separation of the English from the Roman an idle smoak, and their eyes more atten- Church ;' that he worked out the first tive to the show, it kindled inwardly, and two acts, and that, for some unknown ran round like a train, consuming within reason, the manuscript was passed on to less than an hour the whole House to the Fletcher, who expanded it into the play very grounds. This was the fatal period as we now have it, has been accepted by of that virtuous fabrique; wherein yet many students of the play. The three nothing did perish, but wood and straw chief figures—the King, Queen Kathaand a few forsaken cloaks.” And the old rine, and the Cardinal-are unmistakably chronicler of this first of many similar Shakespeare's in conception; and the catastrophes adds with naïve humor: trial scene is certainly his. "Only one man had his breeches set on There are distinct traces of Shakefire, that would perhaps have broyled him, speare's hand in the “ Two Noble Kinsif he had not by the benefit of a provident men,” which the title-page declares was wit put out with bottle ale."

written by “Mr. John Fletcher and Mr. Attention was directed in the last cen- William Shakespeare, Gentlemen," and tury to certain peculiarities of versifica- the play appears in some editions of the tion in “Henry VIII.,” but it was not poet's work. It is impossible, however, until the middle of the present century to decide with any certainty the extent of that Mr. Spedding set forth at length the Shakespeare's contribution to a drama theory that the play was Shakespeare's in which in many parts is clearly the propart only, and that many passages were duction of another hand. It is not imin the manner of Fletcher. It is inter- probable, as has been suggested by some esting that these differences in style were authorities, that when Shakespeare withrecognized clearly, not by scholars, but drew from active work in his profession by two men of sensitive literary feeling, he may have left some preliminary Tennyson and Emerson. The English sketches for half-finished dramas behind poet first made the suggestion to Mr. him, and that it fell to the lot of Fletcher Spedding. Emerson's comments on the or some other contemporary dramatist to matter are full of insight:

work over and complete what the poet “In Henry VIII. I think I see plainly had begun. With the writing of “ Cymthe cropping out of the original work on beline ” and the “ Tempest” his work which his own finer stratum was laid. ended.

Books of the Week

This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. The absence of comment in this department in many cases indicates that extended review will be made at a later date. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published price. Adventures of the Pixies and Elaines (The), the eighteenth century. The story has charm.

By Carrie E. Morrison. Illustrated. Dana Estes St. Denis is a brave, courtly, and striking & Co., Boston, 6x8 in, 125 pages. $1.25.

figure, of whom authentic history has said Mr. Birch's beautiful drawings illustrate

many good things. With a brilliant historic charmingly these fairy tales of the Elaines, the

period to deal with, and such personages as rainbow fairies, and the Pixies who live in the

King Louis, Madame de Maintenon, the Duke wood.

de Lanzan, La Mothe Cadillac, Governor of Afterglow. By Julia C. R. Dorr. Charles New Orleans and founder of Detroit, to

Scribner's Sons, New York. 4%*7 in. 84 pages. handle, the author presents a novel of un$1.25.

usual interest and very well written. Reserved for notice later. Alice of Old Vincennes. By Maurice Thomp

Church of the Fathers (The). By John Henry

Newman (afterwards Cardinal). John Lane, New son. Illustrated. The Bowen-Merrill Co., Indian

York. 524X719 in. 313 pages. $1.25. apolis. 434X74 in. 419 pages.

Some of the earliest writings of the Oxford Notice of this will be included in an article on

Tractarian school are here reprinted from the the novels of the season, in next week's issue

edition of 1842, with trivial alterations. They of The Outlook.

were intended to illustrate for an anti-ProtAmong the Great Masters of Music and estant purpose the thought, habits, and man

Among the Great Masters of Literature. By ners of the early centuries of the Church, sub-
Walter Rowlands. Illustrated. Dana Estes & Co.,
Boston. 5x714 in. 225 and 233 pages. $1.50 each.

* pages. $1.50 each. sequent to the sub-apostolic age. It must be confessed that Mr. Rowlands's

Colonial Days and Ways: As Gathered from text is hardly as interesting as is the repro Family Papers. By Helen Evertson Smith. Decduction of peculiarly noteworthy paintings in orations by 'T. Guernsey Moore. The Century Co., the illustration to each of these volumes. His

New York. 594x899 in. 376 pages. illustrations are sixty-four in number, all told,

This well-made and handsomely illustrated and well merit examination. Mr. Rowlands's

volume will hold a very prominent place in range is wide: in the one case from Homer

the growing literature which illustrates the life to Goethe; in the other, from St. Cecilia to

and habits of the founders of civilization on Liszt.

this continent. Miss Smith has attempted a

more comprehensive work than any of her · Armed Ship America (The). By James Otis.

predecessors. She includes in her study of Illustrated. Dana Estes & Co., Boston. 6x8 in.

the beginnings of social life the five different 150 pages. $1.25. A rousing story, dealing with the privateers of

stocks-Puritan, Dutch, Huguenot, Cavalier, 1812. The author claims to have constructed

and Palatine-and presents the results of a the story from the private records of Nathan

careful comparative study of these different Crowninshield, nephew of Captain George

types and of the evolution of social life in Crowninshield, of Salem, Mass., who owned

different parts of the country during different the ship America. By way of preface the

periods of the colonial epoch. The story is book is adorned with an extract from a speech

one of very great interest, and is told in an by Thomas Jefferson in encouragement of

entertaining fashion, with the illustration, not privateering at that period.

only from architecture, but also from the

minutiæ of furniture and of social habit. The Art of Writing English (The). By J. M. D.

book betrays careful study and ample knowlMeiklejohn, M.A. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 5x7 in. 334 pages. $1.50.

edge of the whole period. This is a thoroughly good book. We know Cruise of the Pretty Polly (The). By W. Clark of no better on its subject, and none that Russell. Illustrated. The J. B. Lippincott Co., covers all important ground as well—an all Philadelphia. 544X8 in. 324 pages. $1.50. round book, instructive for men of affairs as A good sea-story. Mr. Russell again shuffles well as those intending literary work.

the possible adventures at sea into a new com

bination. The result is a hearty, wholesome, Beckonings from Little Hands. By Patterson

entertaining tale. Du Bois. (Fourth Edition.) Dodd. Mead & Co., New York. 4x61, in. 166 pages. 75c.

Darlingtons (The). By Elmore Elliott Peake. Chatterbox. Edited by J. Erskine Clarke, McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. 5x74in, 416 M.A. Illustrated. Dana Estes & Co., Boston. 7x 10

pages. $1.50. in. 412 pages. $1.25.

A railroading daughter of a railroading father Chevalier De St. Denis (The). By Alice Ilgen

is the heroine of this sprightly book. The fritz Jones. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 48.71 father is president, the daughter traffic-manain. 87 pages. $1.25.

ger, of a small railroad, and both are strong A historic romance the scenes of which are and entertaining characters, much more so laid in France and America, at the opening of than the manly clergyman whose somewhat

$1.50.

theatrical virtue and ability are supposed, Heart of the Ancient Wood (The). By Charles together with a most unlovely drunkard, to G. D. Roberts. Illustrated. Silver, Burdett & Co. afford the “problem” character to the book..

New York. 5x734 in. 276 pages. $1.50. Much of the dialogue is amusing, some of the Reserved for notice later. incidents arouse attention, but the plot is. Histoire de France. By O. B. Super. Henry rather “ramshackle" in its construction and Holt & Co., New York. 4?4X694 in. 214 pages. development. In short, while this is an Historic Towns of the Southern States (The). American novel, it is not the American novel. Edited by Lyman P. Powell. Illustrated. G. é. Eagle's Heart (The). By Hamlin Garland.

Putnam's Sons, New York. 6x842 in. 604 pages.

$3.50. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 5x799 in. 369 pages.

The third volume in a very interesting series,

written in a pleasantly descriptive manner, Reserved for notice later.

but with good sense of historical perspective, Eleanor. By Mrs. Humphry Ward. 2 vols.

and furnishing a series of sketches of historic Illustrated.' Harper & Bros., New York. 5x8in. $3.

towns in New England and the Middle States. This well-printed two-volume edition of Mrs.

Among the cities described in this volume Ward's novel has fourteen of Mr. Steiner's

are Baltimore, Annapolis, Washington, Richcharming pictures printed with the story in

mond, Williamsburg, Charleston, Savannah, its serial appearance. The edition is in good

Mobile, New Orleans, St. Louis, and the cities form for holiday purposes.

of the Central Southwest, and among the Elizabeth and Her German Garden and The contributors to the volume are Miss Grace

Solitary Summer. Illustrated Edition. The Mac- King, Mr. Tyler, President of the College of millan Co., New York. 529*81in. $2.50 each.

William and Mary, Mr. William Worth Henry. One of the most charming holiday appear and Miss Sara A. Shafer. Like its predecesances is that of an illustrated edition of those

sor, the volume is illustrated, and is a very delightful and deservedly popular books,

interesting foot-note to the larger and more “Elizabeth and Her German Garden," and

formal histories of the country, “ A Solitary Summer.” The illustrations consist of photogravures taken from photographs

History of Modern Italian Art By Ashton of the author's country house, garden, and

Rollins Willard. Illustrated. (Second Edition)

Longmans, Green & Co., New York. 584x91. in $5. children.

Reserved for later notice.
Friend or Foe? By Frank Samuel Child.
Illustrated. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.

House Behind the Cedars (The). By Charles

Ho 5x7 in, 328 pages. $1.50.

W. Chesnutt. Houghton, Mifflin & Co, Boston.

5x734 in. 294 pages. $1.50. Reserved for notice later.

Reserved for notice later. Golden Gate of Prayer (The). By J. R. Mil

ler. D.D. Thomas Y. Crowell' & Co New York. In Aelfred's Days: A Story of Saga the Dane. 4 68, in. 218 pages. 75c.

By Paul Creswick. Illustrated. E. P. Dutton & Co The publishers have given a beautiful form New York. 512X8 in. 304 pages. $1.50. to this richly devotional bock by a well-known

Saga, a little Danish child, is captured by author.

Alfred in one of his encounters with the Danes,

and is taken home to the palace at Wantage Golf Don'ts. By H. L. Fitzpatrick, Double

and grows up with the king's family. Later day, Page & Co., New York. 49 x64 in. 114 pages.

he requites this care by his rescue of the This is an amusing book to the mere reader

king's son, Eadward, and the story of his youth as well as a helpful book to the serious golfer. and adventures is interwoven with the raids Following its hints, even a frivolous golfer

of the Northmen and their savage attacks, as should be able to reduce his score.

was the reign of Alfred and the life of England

in those old wild days. Golliwogg's Polar Adventures (The). Verses

The book is beautiby Bertha l'pton. Pictures by Florence K. L'pton.

fully illustrated and bound; it is a pity it is so Longmans, Green & Co., !ew York. lix8, in.

heavy. w pages. $2.

In and Out of the Nursery. By Eva Eicke A further installment of the Golliwogg family,

meyer Rowland. Illustrated by Rudolf Eickemeyer, who move this time from the dangers of war Jr. R. H. Russell, New York. " 15x91, in. 56 pages to those of the Polar regions without losing $1.50. their peculiarities of aspect or their genius for In the Hands of the Cave-Dwellers. By G. A. getting into trouble.

Henty. Harper & Bros., New York. 4X6, in Grey Fairy Book (The). Edited by Andrew

205 pages. $1. Lang. Illustrated. Longmans, Green & Co., New

In this story of adventure Mr. Henty takes York. Sv. in. 8 pages.

his young readers into untrodden paths introLovers of fairy tales have come to look for a ducing them to lands and scenes of cave new collection, edited by the skillful and dis- dwellers and aborigines. The characters wbo criminating hand of Mr. Andrew Lang, every talk and act before the reader are, however, year. They have not been disappointed in the all modern, Americans of English or Spanish Blue, the Red, the Green, the Yellow, or the descent, and with their doings and achieve Pink Fairy Books, and they are not likely to ments much to enchain the attention is woven be in the publication of this year. The Grey Fairy Book contains tales derived largely from

Introduction to the New Testament (Anl. By out-of-the-way countries like Lithuania, various

Benjamin Wisner Bacon, D.D. The Macmillan Cam sections of Africa, Greece, with a few stories New York. 572. in 35 pages &c. from France and Germany. The book, like In close relation to Professor Vash's volume its predecessors, is very attractively bound on " The History of the Higher Criticism of and illustrated.

the New Testament," the present volone sets

Crey

in

forth the results of that criticism as they Roosevelt's biography is not the work of a appear to the author. We note first that Dr. specialist, as is Lord Rosebery's. It abounds Bacon regards a certain part of the miraculous with evidences of that sort of familiarity with narratives, apparently including that of the his theme which characterizes the best of Mabirth of Jesus, as " apocryphal and legendary ” caulay's historical essays, and has something (page 198); next, that he is rather more con- of Macaulay's brilliance of style coupled with servative than leading critics in discussing the a much soberer judgment. Its interpretation writings which name their authors, e.g., hold- of character would be impossible except to ing to the Pauline authorship of Ephesians one who was not only familiar with the facts, and Colossians; and, again, that he almost but had meditated on them and on their closes the chasm between the parties in dispute psychological significance. The book is, about the Fourth Gospel by approaching very indeed, a portrait gallery of singular value of nearly to the negative side. He has written Napoleon's companions at St. Helena-Las as lucidly as the general reader requires, and Cases, Gourgaud, Sir Hudson Lowe, and othin the fullness of scholarly freedom, with re- ers and pre-eminently of Napoleon himself. markable skill in the condensation of volumi. We have some familiarity with the analyses of nous material. He has aimed not merely at Napoleon's character which have been atstating the now accepted results, but at indi. tempted, and we recall among them all none cating the probable results toward which sober which seems to us more truly to recognize the criticism seems to him to be now tending. enigma, its conditions, and its solution than Jukes-Edwards : A Study in Education and

the portrait here given by Lord Rosebery. Heredity. By A. E. Winship, Litt. D. R. L. Napoleon was neither a demigod nor a demon.

Myers & Co., Harrisburg, Pa. 4-AX74 in. 88 pages. He was neither as black as Lanfrey painted Jumping Kangaroo and the Apple-Butter Cat him, nor as devoted a patriot and friend of

(The). By John W. Harrington. Illustrated by humanity as John S. C. Abbott painted him. J. W. Condé. McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. One of his valets can see nothing good in him, 4x942 in. 130 pages. $1.

the other nothing evil, for familiar acquaintMr. Harrington tells grotesque little animal

ance with him did not clear up the mystery of tales; Mr. Condé makes amusing pictures of

his character. We do not say that Lord Rosefrogs and elephants, cats and rabbits.

bery has done so, but he has recognized and Life and Works of Jesus According to St. presented the antitheses in Napoleon's charac

Mark (The). By William D. Murray. The Inter ter more clearly than we remember ever to have national Committee of Young Men's Christian

seen them presented elsewhere. Napoleon was Association, New York. 6x84 in. 183 pages. This is a course arranged for twenty-six weeks

a bundle of contradictions; as he was built of daily study with a purpose both devotional

on a gigantic scale, his contradictions were and historical. Illustrative notes in prose and

gigantic. On one.day he is a devout defender

of the divinity of Christ, on another a mateverse are interspersed, together with occasional

rialist pure and simple; to-day an admirer of prayers.

the people, to-morrow a rank cynic; at once a Little American Girl in India (A). By Harriet revolutionist and a hater of revolution, a

A. Cheever. Illustrated. Little, Brown & Co., Bos despot and a destroyer of despotisms; at times

ton. 5x7% in. 281 pages. $1.50. A mischievous little American girl who has

an actor posing for effect, at others the franklived all her life in India prevails on her de

est of public men in his self-revelations. His voted Indian attendant to take her into strange

genius is not only akin to insanity, but at and forbidden places, and sees some of the

times, especially in his later years, he passes ·

wholly over into the insanity of a passionate .wonders of that wonderful land.

egotism. Lord Rosebery's volume makes us Littest One of the Browns (The). By Sophie wish that he would write the life of Napoleon.

Swett. Illustrated. Dana Estes & Co., Boston. He is liberal enough to understand the best

4X694 in. 102 pages. 50c. That is what she calls herself, since, if one

elements in the French Revolution, catholic lisps, “ Beatrice Brown" is not easy to say ;

enough to understand the best elements in the and this little brown book tells how she took

French character, and critical enough not to

be blind to the faults and follies of English care of the baby.

political life during the Napoleonic régime. More Famous Homes of Great Britain, and Their Stories. Edited by A. H. Malan. G. P.

Newest England. By Henry Demarest Lloyd. Putnam's Sons, New York.' 794x112 in. 337 pages. Doubleday. Page & Co., New York. 6x9 in. 387 Reserved for later notice.

pages. $2.50.

Brilliant in style and wonderfully suggestive Napoleon : The Last Phase. By Lord Rose

in subject-matter. We reserve Mr. Lloyd's bery. Harper & Bros., New York. 576x84 in. 283 pages. $3.

volume for future notice. . Why is it that American statesmen can never be Observations of Jay (A Dog) and Other Stories. found to write such a volume as this? We have By Morgan Shepard. D. P. Elder & Morgan Shepfrom Disraeli novels which put him in the ard, San Francisco. 6x8 in. 142 pages. $1. second rank of English novelists, from Glad. These confidences of a dog upon the wags and stone essays on literature and theology which the smells and the ways of dog life will please would be creditable to an Oxford professor, all who have four-footed friends. Jay, the and here a history of Napoleon at St. Helena Dog, has fought his enemies, loved the Boy, which will easily take a place of importance played with Goats and Roosters, and lived as in the Napoleonic library. Except Governor as honorable dog should, and it is good to Roosevelt's “ Cromwell," we recall nothing hear him tell of it. Besides what the dog has analogous from any American statesman; and to say, there is a story a little girl tells about

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