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not only made no protest, but showed him. tion an agreeable one in London, being acself, on the other hand, rather conciliatory. credited to a Protestant court, so an English He did not wish to stir up bad feelings in Ambassador could hardly find a post at the France; he feared lest his own interna- Vatican a proper one. This check, nevertional influence might be endangered by theless, made no difference in the unceasthe grave consequences which would in- ing efforts of the Pope to maintain the evitably follow any rupture with the best possible relations with England, even “ Eldest Daughter of the Church.” though he had to stand by his guns when

Leo XIII. has shown himself also nota- the question of a tentative union between bly conciliatory with England. While his the High Church and Ritualistic party of predecessor, Pius IX., never made a secret the Anglican Church with the Roman of his own sympathies for the success of Communion came up. The great ability the Nationalist movement in Ireland, Leo manifest in every line of his letter "Ad endeavored to induce the Irish Bishops, Anglos ” will not be forgotten. whom he frequently called to Rome, to The same conciliatory policy was also abstain from a hopeless contest. When shown to the Austro-Hungarian Governthese councils were not sufficient, the Pope ment. When the Hungarian Chamber of did not hesitate to publish a decree of Deputies approved certain laws, among excommunication against those belonging them those providing for purely civil marto the Irish National Leagues, against riages, the Hungarian Bishops began a authors of boycotts, and against any one violent contest with the Government. In who became a member of any secret principle the Pope sustained them, but society. By this policy the Pope hoped when they endeavored to extend their to arrive at an end which would redound fight, even to the breaking off of diploto the glory of the Church, namely, the matic relations, he checked them, and establishment of a concordat, providing counseled rather a temporary submission for the resumption of diplomatic relations to hostile laws which had received the with Great Britain. The British Govern- sanction of the Government. In the end ment, however, while not refusing to con- this conciliatory policy brought its own sider such a proposal, declared that, as a reward. Pontifical Nuncio could not find his posi- With Spain, Leo XIII. adopted precisely the same course, recommending to which would have been and which are the Bishops and to the faithful an entire incompatible with the political programme abstinence from participating in any Car- of Italian Liberals. list or revolutionary movement whatever.

Even with Russia the Pope came to a Who will be the next Pope, and what good understanding. The Polish lan- will be his policy? Here are two quesguage and the Roman Catholic clergy in tions which do not lack a certain interest. Poland are, of course, symbols of nation- At present the Sacred College is comality. They were sacrificed to political posed of fifty-nine Cardinals. The full exigencies. Nevertheless, the Pope did membership is seventy, hence the vacant not succeed in inducing the Czar's Peace posts number eleven. Only three of the Conference to receive a Papal representa- Cardinals created by Pius IX. are now in tive, nor was he

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dinals are divided Church and of the Vatican in Italy. Even into three distinct parties. The first, and so late as the proclamation of Holy Year, the party largest in number, desires the 1900, he alluded to the sad conditions still election of a Pope who will continue the imposed upon the Vatican by the new ré- policy of Leo XIII. The second party gime in Italy. It is true that several times is composed of those who would like to there have been tentative efforts toward see the new Pontifex interested less in the conciliation between the Vatican and the burdens of State and more in those of Italian Government. Any conciliation was religion, pure and simple. The third impossible, however, since the Pope per party is composed of those who wish to sisted in his claims for temporal power. introduce such reforms into the governIn this, Leo XIII. continued the policy of ment of the Church as shall lead the his predecessor. The Vatican did not Church and the Papacy back again to the abate one bit of its claims for concessions purer sources of inspiration. These three






diverse tendencies will seek each one to prevail at the Conclave which will choose Leo XIII.'s successor.

In addition to the Cardinals of the Curia, there are the “foreign ” Cardinals to be considered, and the latter are so numerous that they may turn the balance in favor of any one of the three parties which they favor. It is believed, however, that the foreign Cardinals are at one in regard to the propriety of electing an Italian Pope. Perhaps, following the example of the election of Cardinal Pecci (Leo XIII.), they may propose a Cardinal who is not a member of the actual Curia.

Among the prelates outside of the Curia, those who have been spoken of as possible candidates of the Papacy are Cardinal Celesia, Archbishop of Palermo ; Cardinal Capecelatro, Archbishop of Capua; Cardinal Sarto, Patriarch of Venice ; Cardinal Prisco, Archbishop of Naples; Cardinal Ferrari, Archbishop of Milan, and Cardinal Svampa, Archbishop of Bologna.

It is believed that the advanced age of Cardinal Celesia may prevent consideration of his name.

Cardinal Capecelatro is of a mild and conciliatory disposition, and hence is not looked upon favorably by either the party of Intransigents or by that of the Idealists. Since his own ideals are not those which to-day prevail in the policy of the Vatican (that is to say, they are better and more independent than those ideals—see Outlook for 10th March, 1900), he may fail in his candidacy.

Cardinals Sarto and Svampa seem to have a greater chance.

Opinions concerning Cardinal Ferrari have somewhat changed since his article was published against the State and the monarchy. The Cardinal certainly represents the militant party with a vengeance.

To return to the Cardinals of the Curia, those who have hitherto been considered more probable candidates for the Papal succession than have any prelates outside of the Curia are Cardinals Oreglia, Parocchi, Vannutelli, Rampolla, Satolli, Gotti, Agliardi, and Di Pietro.

Cardinal Parocchi is much esteemed by the foreign Cardinals, and it is believed that they consider him quite worthy to ascend the throne of St. Peter.

Cardinal Vannutelli comes from the diplomatic service, and is looked upon with a favorable eye by the governing cliques at the Vatican. They judge him to be one who would not disturb the present situation.

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Cardinal Rampolla, the author of the present hostile policy toward Italy, will seek the ascendency of his own ideas and aspirations toward a condition of affairs which will continue indefinitely the present state of things.

Cardinal Satolli recently completed a special mission as Delegate Apostolic to the United States of America with great distinction. He is a disciple of Leo XIII., and was much esteemed by him. Cardinal Satolli would undoubtedly continue the conciliatory policy of his master, who in 1900 raised him to the important dignity of Prefect of the Propaganda Fide.

A description of the other and less probable candidates may be omitted in order to focus our attention upon one who is deservedly the subject of much talk, namely, Cardinal Gotti. It has been long and persistently rumored, nor is the rumor contradicted, that Leo XIII. had a preference for this prelate as his successor. Cardinal Gotti has a sympathetic countenance; one recognizes that it is the outward sign of a high spirit, of exalted character, and of a reflective mind. In the Congregation to which he belongs he seeks the ascendency of the right at all times, without ever allowing himself to be swayed by any political passion. These eminent qualities have fastened upon him the attention of those Cardinals who do not find their own candidatures gaining in strength, and, with their united support, Cardinal Gotti may become himself the most serious candidate. He was born at Genoa on the 28th of March, 1834, and he was created a Cardinal at the Consistory of the 29th of November, 1895. He belongs to the Order of the Carmelites. After having been a lecturer.in philosophy, he taught mathematics and the natural sciences until 1869. He took part in the Council of the Vatican in the following year in his title of theologian. In 1871 he was nominated Procurator-General of the Carmelite Order, and he fulfilled the duties of this order for a decade. In 1881 he was elected General of the order. He was also made a consulting member of various Congregations. In 1892 the Pope sent him on a mission to Brazil, giving him the nominal title of Archbishop of Petra and of Nuncio at Rio Janeiro. The success of this mission is well known, and at its close he was made Cardinal.

We believe that it will be almost impossible to make prophecies as to the choice of the next Pope. Anyway, if we look back over the history of such elections, we see that the strangest prophecies have been verified. It is

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possible that, in case of a deadlock among during the

during the nineteenth century, has the Cardinals, some one may be nomi- through him avoided a combative policy. nated of whose Papal probabilities no one In another respect the future Papal had thought, as happened in the election policy must follow that of the present Pope, of Pius IX.

who has worked hard to attract the Oriental One thing is certain. Whoever is Catholic Church to the Roman Catholic, elected as successor of Leo XIII., the and from this, as a standing-ground, Vatican policy must needs remain practi- hoped to regain the Anglican Church. cally the same. The next Pope will have While his efforts in these directions have to continue the line of conduct of his prede- not meet with hoped-for success, the next cessor, seeking to maintain himself in good Pope must seek to reunite these churches relations with all the Powers, Catholic or in the interests of the Roman Catholic non-Catholic, with the exception, naturally, communion ; his scope must be the same, of Italy. It is true that in not a few namely, to absorb the churches separated States laws have been introduced which from Rome with Rome. have caused alarm in Vatican circles and The Roman Catholic Church stands in have even evoked a policy of resistance. absolute contradiction with the movements But under Leo XIII, nothing of the sort has of modern thought, and hence, also, with happened. Roman Catholic nations, like Protestantism, which has found and which France and Austria-Hungary, have not felt follows an entire union and an entire themselves called upon long to insist upon reconciliation between religion and liblaws which were in absolute opposition erty, between faith and science. The with the spirit and with the tendencies of election of a new Pope will have, therefore, the Church. Leo XIII. has done much to for the Protestant Church, importance, but this end, far more than did his predecessor, now only a relative importance. Hencewho apparently limited himself to protest- forth Protestantism is strong enough to ing with a weak voice and to shaking his hold its head up against the aggressions head at deeds done in dissonance with of Roman Catholicism in every field of his policy. Evidently Leo XIII. did not social activity. During the nineteenth believe that it was to the interest of the century the Roman Church has lost Church and of the Papacy to enter upon ground, while, on the other hand, Protan obstinate fight with Catholic countries. estantism has been continually developThe Church, already grievously wounded ing even in Roman Catholic countries.

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