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seventeenth century Shakespeare took tition very keenly; and for a time, so no active part ; he was by nature free marked was the popularity of the boys, their from the narrowness of partisanship, and prospects and those of the art of acting there are indications that he was were dark indeed. friendly terms with men of all shades of Shakespeare was at work on “Hamlet” literary opinion. In “Hamlet,” however, in this crisis in his own fortunes and those he distinctly takes sides with the adult of the theater, and stated his position in actors against the growing prominence of the controversy with entire clearness. In boys on the stage. The relation of boy answer to Hamlet's question why the choirs, and especially that of the Chapel tragedians travel when it was better Royal, to the theater in Shakespeare's both for reputation and profit that they time was pointed out in an earlier chapter. should stay in the city, Rosencrantz replies These choirs were, in an informal way, that their retirement into the provinces training-schools for the stage at a time has been caused by the “late innovation :" when all women's parts were taken by

Do they hold the same estimation they did boys, and there was, in consequence, con- when I was in the city? Are they so followed? stant need of their services. About the No, indeed, are they not. time of the appearance of “ Julius Cæsar”

How comes it [continues Hamlet]? do they there was a sharp rivalry between adult grow rusty?

Nay, their endeavour keeps in the wonted and boy actors, the public espousing pace; but there is, sir, an aery of children, warmly the performances of the boys. little eyases, that cry out on the top of the The development of this rivalry cannot question, and are most tyrannically clapped be traced, but in 1601 the theater-going rattle the common stages-so they call them,

for 't: these are now the fashion, and so bepublic had become partisans of the boys that many wearing rapiers are afraid of gooseand were deserting the theaters in which quills and dare scarce come thither. adults held the stage. This preference 'em? how are they escoted? Will they pursue

What, are they children? who maintains had become so pronounced that Shake- the quality no longer than they can sing? will speare's company was driven into the they not say afterwards, if they should grow provinces. In their travels the members themselves to common players—as it is most of the company appeared at Cambridge, like, if their means are no better-their writers and it was probably on this visit that the

do them wrong, to make them exclaim against

their own succession? new play of “Hamlet” was presented. Faith, there has been much to do on both The popularity of the boys not only jeop- sides; and the nation holds it no sin to tarre ardized the fortunes of the regular com- them to controversy; there was, for a while

, panies, but seriously impaired the quality and the player went to cuffs in the question. of the performances. When the Children Is 't possible? of the Chapel were able to secure for their O, there has been much throwing about of own use the new theater in Blackfriars,


Do the boys carry it away? which Burbage had recently built, the

Ay, that they do, my lord; Hercules and Globe company began to feel the compe- his load too.

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From a print by I. Houbraken, 1738. This conversation between Hamlet and gular sweetness and devotion which irradiRosencrantz is significant of the close ate her whole course. Coleridge thought touch with the realities of life which her Shakespeare's loveliest creation. The Shakespeare never lost for a moment, even portraiture of her character is touched when dealing with the greatest themes or throughout with exquisite delicacy and creating works of pure imagination. skill. Helena suffers, however, from the

To this period, in its final form at atmosphere of the play, which is distinctly least, belongs the play of “All's Well that repellent; it is difficult to resist the feel- . Ends Well,” to which Meres, in his “Pal- ing that, conceding all that the play deladio Tamia," probably refers when he in- mands in concentration of interest upon cludes among the plays ascribed to Shake- the single end to be achieved, Helena speare “ Love's Labour's Won." It was cheapens the love she finally wins by a probably sketched and perhaps fully sacrifice greater than love could ask or written at a much earlier date than its final could afford to receive. And when the revision. The plot is derived from a group sacrifice is made and the end secured, of stories in Boccaccio's “Decameron” the victory of love is purely external; which narrate the fortunes of lovers who there is no inward and deathless unity of surmount obstacles and gain the rewards passion between the lovers like that which of love only after great or persistent united Posthumus and Imogen in life and effort; a phase of experience which is Romeo and Juliet in death. beyond doubt the keynote of the play. The play must be interpreted broadly The story was translated by Paynter, and in the light of Shakespeare's entire work; appeared in English in “ The Palace of in this light it finds its place as the exPleasure" in 1566 or 1567. Shakespeare pression of a passing mood of deep and departed widely from the story in its almost cynical distrust; it is full of that earlier form by the greater prominence searching irony which from time to time given to the part of Heleną and the sin- finds utterance in the poet's work and

was inevitable in a mind of such range of poem “ The Statue and the Bust." It is vision. It is well to remember, also, that always a perilous experiment, because it in this play the poet, for the sake of involves so much intelligent co-operation throwing a single quality into the highest on the part of the reader. It is a triumph relief, secured entire concentration of of Shakespeare's art that Helena's purity attention by disregarding or ignoring not only survives the dangers to which other qualities and relations of equal inn- she exposes it, but takes on a kind of portance and authority. This was what saintly whiteness in the corruption in Browning did in his much-misunderstood which she plays her perilous part.

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The house immediately adjoining New Place, Shak

are's later home

Books of the Week


This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. The absence of comment in this department in many cases indicates that extended review will be made at a later date. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published price. Açvaghosha's Awakening of Faith in the subject of an experiment by an Eastern scien

Mahâyâna. Translated by Teitaro Suzuki. The tist, and is transformed into the most beautiful Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago. 5x8 in. 160

young woman in the world! pages. $1.25. Açvaghosha, who lived nearly two thousand

Bennett Twins, The. By Grace Marguerite years ago, is the philosopher of Buddhism. His Hurd. The Macmillan Co., New York. 5x734 in. principal work, here translated by a Japanese

313 pages. $1.50. scholar, is used to-day in its Chinese version A vivacious, wholesome story of the advenas a text-book for the instruction of Buddhist tures of two young people—a brother and priests. The form of his thought is so alien sister—who are bent on becoming artists, and from that of the Western mind as to require who are permitted, very much against the will patient endeavor to get at its substance. In of their guardians, to make the experiment of this Dr. Carus finds his own interpretation of coming to New York and setting up for themBuddhism fully justified. The translator hopes selves. Arriving in the city, they begin bohethat his labor will result in removing miscon- mian housekeeping in a studio building which ceptions and relieving Buddhism of unjust is crowded from morning until night with a criticism.

group of rollicking art students, and in which

life rises at times to a feverish height. The Areopagitica, and Other Tracts. By John description of life in the studio of a teacher of

Milton. (The Temple Classics. Edited by Israel Gollancz.) The Macmillan Co., New York. 4x6 in. painting is evidently done from first-hand 155 pages. 50c

knowledge. The book has no marked literary Art of Optimism, The : As Taught by Robert

skill, but it is fresh, breezy, and full of spirit. Browning. By William De Witt Hyde. 5x714 in.

Black Gown, The. By Ruth Hall. Hough35 pages. 35c. Some Ideals in the Education of Women. By Caroline Hazard. 5x714 in. 31 pages.

ton, Miffin & Co., Boston. 434X734 in. 318 pages. 35c. The Problem of Duty. By Charles F. Dole.

$1.50. 5x794 in. 38 pages. 35c. Spiritual Lessons from A story of Dutch life in Albany about the time the Brownings. By Amory. H. Bradford, D.D. of the outbreak of the French and Indian 5x74 in. 38 pages. 35c. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., New York.

The author knows a great deal about A series of small volumes of less than forty the peculiar social customs of the American pages each which have a high educational Dutch of that time, and in this respect the value, and which are extremely profitable read story is decidedly interesting. But both in ing for all those who wish to know how to get construction and in style there is something the best and the most out of life.

lacking which prevents this book from being As You Like It. By William Shakespeare. abruptness and roughness in the narration be

à thoroughly satisfactory story; a certain Mlustrated by Will Low. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. 6x9 in. 130 pages. $2.50.

come monotonous. The general impression Mr. Low's art readily lends itself to decoration, left is that the material is excellent, and that and he has been very successful in giving

the author is capable of doing better work than books of the imaginative and idealistic temper

is here offered, an appropriate and taking dress. His treat- Bob Knight's Diary at Poplar Hill School, with ment of Mr. Mabie's “ The Forest of Arden Sketches by Bob. By Charlotte Curtis Smith. has met with a popular approval which it Illustrated. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. 342x51% well deserves, because of its poetic quality.

in. 242 pages. $1.50. In Shakespeare's beautiful comedy “ As You Brethren of the Coast: A Tale of the West Like It” he had a subject which affords the Indies. By Kirk Munroe. Illustrated. Charles fullest play for his poétic insight and artistic

Scribner's Sons, New York. 5x794 in. 303 pages.

$1.25. instinct, and he has made a very charming Certainly an exciting if not always an entirely volume. Probably no artist can sketch the ideal Rosalind, but Mr. Low has been very crime, from wh.ch the boy hero of course

credible story of West Indian piracy and successful in presenting the characters of the play; his figures are vivid, characteristic, and

emerges triump.ant and prosperous. spirited. The text is handsomely printed with Carlyle's Essay on Burns. Edited by Willard decorated borders in red, and the volume is C. Gore. The Macmillan Co., New York. (Pocket one which any lover of Shakespeare or of

English Series.) 4x534 in. 186 pages. 25€. good artistic book-making work will appreci- Dictionary of the Bible, A. Edited by James ate.

Hastings, M.A., D.D. With the Assistance of John

A. Seibie, M.A., and Others. (In Four Vols.) Charles Bacillus of Beauty, The. By Harriet Stark. Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. III. 7x104 in.

The Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York. 5x744 in. 896 pages. $6 per volume. 340 pages. $1.50.

Last week the third volume appeared of that In plot this novel may well claim freshness and new and monumental work, * À Dictionary of originality. A young Western girl is made the the Bible," edited by Drs. Hastings and Selbie. Despite some dry and unclear if not uncertain in one convenient volume the two volumes statements, we think that the clergyman who previously published separately. has no Bible Dictionary can probably find none which, on the whole, will be as good as

Frederic Lord Leighton, P.R.A.: His Life

and Work. By Ernest Rhys. Illustrated. The this.

Macmillan Co., New York. 5x8 in. 144 pages. $3. Dr. Dumany's Wife. By Maurus Jókai.

This is the third edition of Mr. Rhys's capital Translated by F. Steinitz. Doubleday & McClure biography of Lord Leighton, and is published

Co., New York. 434x712 in. 312 pages. $1.25. in a smaller form.
The latest translated novel from the great
Hungarian romancer is hardly equal in point

Golden Legend; or, Lives of the Saints. As of dramatic unity or clear characterization to

Englished by William Caxton. The Macmillan Co.,

New York. (The Temple Classics. Edited by F.S. his “ Poor Plutocrats,” but, like all his many Ellis.) Vols. III. and IV. 4X6 in. 274 and 306 novels—and who has ever published so many?

pages. 70c, each. -“Dr. Dumany's Wife” could not be other Gulliver's Travels. By Jonathan Swift. Illusthan picturesque. Of course it deals with a trated. The Macmillan Co., New York. (The remarkably labyrinthine plot; this particular Temple Classics : For Young People.) 4X6 in. 363 one is that of a marriage under a misappre

pages. 50c. hension not dispelled until years afterwards. Half a Dozen Thinking Caps. By Mary F. The lively opening scene of a railway wreck,

Leonard. The Play Lady. By Ella F. Pratt. due to a landslide in Switzerland, and the de

Playground Toni. By Anna C. Ray. Thomas Y.

Crowell & Co., New York. 544X74 in. 50c. each. scription of stock speculation during the A group of three attractively printed stories Franco-German War of 1870–71, are perhaps

for younger, if not the youngest, children. the most notable scenes and themes in the “ Half a Ďozen Thinking Caps" may be taken book.

as representing the three, and is very well Evangelization of the World in This Generation, told, with a sympathetic insight into child life,

The. By John R. Mott. The Student Volunteer a dash of mischief to save it from monotony, Movement for Foreign Missions, New York, 412X744 and a good deal of good sense in dealing with

in. 245 pages. The title of this book is the watchword of

the high spirits of children. " The Student Volunteer Movement for For

Hidden Values. By Joseph the Writer. Steteign Missions," one of the most significant phe

tiner Bros., New York. 5x7 in. 148 pages. nomena in the Church history of this century. History of the Devil By Dr. Paul Carus. Originating in 1886, it has already sent forth Illustrated. The Open Court Publishing Co., Chitwo thousand well-educated missionaries, and

cago. 7x11 in. 496 pages. $6. a larger number are still preparing. By History of the First Presbyterian Church of “evangelization" is not meant the conversion Bellefontaine, Ohio, and Addresses delivered at

the Celebration of the Thirty-fifth Anniversary of the world, but the adequate presentation of of the Pastorate of the Rev. George L. Kalb, D.D. Christ's Gospel to the world. This does not The Index Printing and Publishing Co., Bellerondiscard educational, medical, and literary work taine, 0. 5x742 in. 278 pages. as auxiliary, but it emphasizes the work of Image Breakers, The. By Gertrude Dix. the evangelist. Nor does it regard his work Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York. 5x714 in. 392 as other than preliminary to the development This

remarkably realistic novel is a romance of the spirit of Christian service among the evangelized, until the life and laws of the na

of modern communistic ideas and life. Intitions shall be thoroughly Christianized. Thus

mate first-hand knowledge,presumably through interpreting, his “ watchword,” Mr. Mott pre

ctual experience, is evident on every page. sents the idea in various points of view, to Indian Club Swinging. By Frank E. Miller, show that it can be realized, and ought to be. Illustrated. The Saalfield 'Publishing Co., New A bibliography of important missionary pub

York. 5x792 in. 182 pages. $1. lications is appended.

In the Desert. By George Ebers. TransFive Books of Song By Richard Watson

lated by Mary F. Safford. Dodd, Mead & Co., New

York. 5x794 in. 329 pages. $1.50.
Gilder. , (Fourth Edition.) The Century Co., New
York. 5x734 in. 240 pages. $1.50.

The last of the novels of George Ebers to be This is a new edition, revised, of the single and insidious form of selfishness masking under

translated is a short sermon on that particular volume into which Mr. Gilder has put the five small books in which his poetry has appeared the impulse “ to live out your own nature." from time to time. In several cases he has Neither plot nor characters nor style seem to made additions to the text. The book is well

us so admirable as in the author's earlier made from every point of view.

romances. Foundations of French. By Fred Davis

In the Irish Brigade. By G. A. Henty. IllusAldrich, A.B., and Irving Lysander Foster, A.M.

trated. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 5x7% Ginn & Co., Boston. 419x749 in. 177 pages. 95c.

in. 384 pages. $1.50. Foundations of Knowledge. By Alexander Two other of Mr. Henty's books are mentioned Thomas Ormond. (In Three Parts.) The Macmil

elsewhere. This deals with the famous war lan Co., New York. 542X9 in. 528 pages. $3.

in Flanders and in Spain, and has the usual France. By John Edward Courtenay Bodley.

English lad placed in extraordinary situations Two Vols. in One. (New Edition.) The Macmillan

and exercising considerable influence on the Co., New York. 512X8 in. 504 pages. $2.50. events of the war. To American boy readers It is within the mark to say that this work is we suspect that Mr. Henty's style seems rather the most important and most philosophic pub- heavy; but his methods are always clean and lished in our time dealing with modern French not unduly sensational. The popularity of his political conditions. The present edition puts books is unquestionable.

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