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From New York Hubard was taken to Rev. Augustin Gaspard Edouart, of Boston, and thence to Philadelphia, where Nyanza Villa, Grange Park, Ealing, Enghe exhibited silhouettes at the Pennsyl- land. Some idea can be formed of Edouvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1826, art's success and the prevalence of the 1827, and 1828—a pretty good evidence mania for these black profiles from the of their merit. Dunlap, the censorious, fact that in the ten years preceding the says: "He was brought to this country a publication of his book Edouart cut more boy by some persons who made money than fifty thousand portraits. by his ingenuity as cutter of profiles in In 1838 he came to the United States, paper, at which he was uncommonly clev- where he remained nine years, cutting er.” While in Boston Hubard was emu- innumerable silhouette likenesses, some lated to higher walks in

of which he groped into art by a sight of the works

compositions of domestic of Stuart, and in Philadel

life, with elaborate lithophia, under Sully's guid

graph backgrounds. He ance, essayed oil-painting,

preserved a duplicate of exhibiting a portrait at

every portrait he took, the Academy in 1829.

which he pasted into large From this time on Hubard

books, writing the necesceased his early vocation,

sary information for idenand became known as an

tification and reference. adept painter of small

These books would be whole-length portraits in

invaluable to-day, containcabinet size. He migrated

ing portraits of “ numerous to Baltimore and thence

somebodies among innuto Richmond, where he

merable nobodies,” but, died February 15, 1862,

unfortunately, only a few from the explosion of a

damaged volumes, from shell he was filling with a

about fifty perfect ones, compound he had con

survive. On Edouart's cocted for the use of the

return voyage from Confederacy. But few of

America, in 1847, he his silhouettes are kuown,

was shipwrecked off the although many doubtless

island of Guernsey, and exist unidentified as of his

his entire collection went authorship.

to the bottom of the sea, We do not know if

only a few volumes being Hubard's success in Eng

recovered, and those badly land led Edouart, who was

injured by the salt water. born in France in 1788

The loss so preyed upon and found refuge in Lon

his mind that he gave up don in 1815, to take to

cutting silhouettes, resilhouette-cutting as a pro- JOHN RANDOLPH OF ROANOKE turned to his native fession, but it was the year As he appeared when embarking for Russia France, and died at

in 1830. following Hubard's emi

Guinnes, near Calais, gration to this country that Edouart December 14, 1861. He was surely a began his career. In 1835 he published man of great ability in his line, putting a modest volume entitled “A Treatise the characteristics of the individual into on Silhouette Likenesses by Monsieur his likenesses, which quality is the ruling Edouart, Silhouettist to the French Royal one in the work of the last of the silhouFamily, and patronised by His Royal ettists, William Henry Brown. Highness the late Duke of Gloucester, In the summer of 1874 the writer and the principal Nobility of England, sought rest on the tableland of the ridge Scotland, and Ireland." This book 1 of mountains where is now built the flourhave not been able to find in any ishing town of Kane, Pennsylvania. The public collection, and the only copy I air was delightful, the trout streams atknow is owned by the author's son, the tractive, the deer-licks not dangerous, and



· A celebrated chemist of South Carolina ; the friend of Priestley. the gas-wells wonderful. It was essen- inclination for the work in which he was tially a quiet place, where ennui dwelt destined to make his mark, and in his securely and came nigh to being over sixteenth year produced his first imporwhelming but for a man considerably tant silhouette, a likeness of Lafayette, past middle life who loomed up as one of cut when that distinguished Frenchman the characters of the scant settlement paid his farewell visit to this land. His He was of fair height and massive frame, last notable portrait (which, however, disbut these failed to conceal the unusual tinctly shows the decadence of his powers) magnitude of his head, which put to shame was a profile of President Lincoln cut at Daniel Webster's famous “size 8" hat. Washington about the time of the first One feature of his face was noticeable to inauguration. Besides portraits he cut even an ordinary observer, and that was elaborate historical compositions, two the abnormally wide distance between his of which were widely known for many two eyes, which was, as he said, his one years without their author being so point of resemblance to George Washing- well known, one incorrectly called the ton. Upon making his acquaintance I first locomotive and train of cars run found him a most companionable and in- in the United States, and the other the teresting man, for he was William Henry funeral cortège of John C. Calhoun. In Brown, the last of the silhouettists.

the days of the old volunteer fire comWilliam Henry Brown was born in panies it was their ambition all over the Charleston, South Carolina, May 22, 1808, land to be cut by Brown, and the “boss and died in the city of his birth September one " for size, cut in St. Louis, was twenty16, 1883. His parents were Quakers of five feet long, and contained an engine, Abbeville, S. C., and he was the fifth of two hose-carriages, and sixty-five members, twelve children. He early showed his each being a veritable likeness. He was also very clever at cutting ships under tograph upon his brain any object presail, cleaving the billows or becalmed, sented to him. He was thus enabled not tossed on the stormy wave-crests or riding only to cut silhouette likenesses unknown securely at anchor. In these designs the to the subject and without a “ sitting,” but delineation of the varied motions was to repeat and reproduce them years afterexecuted with uncommon skill.

ward with absolute accuracy. Brown possessed in a noted degree the For several years Brown carried on a gift of memory, and was a fluent and lucrative business in the practice of his agreeable talker : indeed, he was such a interesting profession, and during that charming conversationalist that he was time visited all the principal cities of the admitted into close companionship with Union. His first object on visiting a new the prominent men of his day, most of place was to notice prominent and wellwhom were cut by him; and his reminis- known citizens as they walked upon the cences were highly entertaining. Brown's streets, and from his mental photograph most remarkable trait, not known to have to reproduce their likenesses in black been possessed by any other follower of paper, which would be exhibited to the the art of silhouette-cutting, was his mar- surprise and wonderment of the subjects velous faculty of memorizing forms and and their friends. Success was sure to faces, so that a single glance of the eye, a attend such exhibitions, and Brown accuveritable snap-shot, was sufficient to pho- mulated money easily and rapidly, and

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Henry Clay wrote to Brown : “ It is the very perfection of your art." And Calhoun says: “I take pleasure in bearing testimony to your great aptitude in taking likenesses in your way, and the fidelity with which they are executed." The results indorsed by these three great leaders were gained with no other contrivance than a pair of „mall scissors and a piece of black paper; for while Brown was so facile with this housewife's implement, he had no command of the pencil or the brush.

The common introduction of the camera put an end to the silhouettists' occupation, and in 1859 Brown gave up this pursuit and entered into the employ of the Hunt



Taken in Washington in 1829. spent it in the same way, so that he was often penniless. He was gifted but improvident-qualities that seem to be not seldom complementary to each other.

It was Brown's rare power in catching the individual characteristic of his subject that made his likenesses “recognizable at a glance," as Daniel Webster wrote to him, adding, “ My friends unite in saying that the one you took of myself is a striking likeness. I cannot, however, see its resemblance to the original, as I do in all the others. It is an old and very true saying that if we could see ourselves as others see us,' etc.” Concerning the likeness of his old antagonist, John Randolph,


ington and Broad Top Railroad, in Penn- tive built in this country, at Kemble's West sylvania. While in this position his atten- Point foundry, for the South Carolina Railtion was called to a reproduction of his road, and first used there January 15, cutting of many years before entitled 1831. “ The First Steam Train of Cars in Amer- This important book was Brown's secica ;” and he at once went to work to ond literary venture, for in 1844 he pubgather material to refute the commonly lished at Hartford, with lithographs by accepted dogma that the first locomotive Kellogg, “Portrait Gallery of Distinand train of cars were of home manufac- guished Men,' nearly the entire edition of ture and run in New York on the Mohawk which was destroyed by fire, so that copies and Hudson Railway, August 9, 1831. are rarely to be met with. It consisted This resulted in his “ History of the First of reproductions of his silhouettes and Locomotives in America,' which was pub- facsimile letters from the subjects, certilished by Appleton in 1874, and in which fying to their satisfaction with their own Brown shows that the first locomotive in and their neighbors' likenesses. America was the “Stourbridge Lion," In the revolution of time and fashion, imported from England by the Delaware black profile likenesses à la silhouette are and Hudson Canal, and put upon its road again coming to the fore; only now their at Honesdale, August 8, 1829; and that old enemy, the camera, is doing the work the “Best Friend" was the first locomo- of the scissors.

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