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the mine is being rushed, his pay may run v misstated the situation at all, for the wages to seventy-five dollars. One Hungarian paid them are not net wages. They have to miner brought me his pay slips for a couple provide their own tools and pay for sharp of years, in a mine where he no longer ening them ; they have to provide their worked, and from whose boss he had noth- own oil; and, above all, they have to pay ing to fear. The slip published below is for their own powder. The State report for one of his best months :
showed that, on the average, one keg of No......
Hazleton, Pa., Nov. 30, 1897. powder was used for every fifty tons of coal M
mined. As the miner is compelled to pay
$2.75 a keg for his powder, this item alone IN ACCOUNT WITH A. PARDEE & CO.
covers a reduction of six per cent. in the By Balance :
average wages. • 69 Cars at $1.18 C R........
The overcharge for powder, as has been
$81 42 previously stated in these columns, conTo Balance :
stituted a grievance second only to low " Powder ................. $13 75
wages. The very powder for which the 46 Cutting Timber........... "
anthracite operators were charging $2 75 Smithing.......... * Labor .........
a keg was sold to the bituminous coal Rent........
miners for $1.25—even this price giving
a liberal profit to the operator. The so* Merchandise... ... 7 49
called “ agreement” of 1874, fixing the “ Board...... " Doctor ......
price at $2.75, was an agreement with 57 37 organizations long since dead, with refer
ence to conditions long since past.
$24 05 The men in the Miners' Union simply AN OPERATOR'S GRIEVANCES ridiculed the widely published statement The first day I spent with the menthat they were receiving an average of the morning at Hazleton, the afternoon at forty or fifty dollars a month. Upon McAdoo and Silverbrook, and the evening this point their position received authori- at Jeddo. I was especially interested to tative support from the report published see McAdoo, as it has the name of being that very day by the Pennsylvania Bureau the worst hotbed for trades-unionism and of Mines and Mining. During 1899, says strikes in the whole district. When I this report, there were 140,000 persons visited it. I found that its distinguishing employed in the mines, who produced peculiarity was that nearly all the miners 54.000.000 tons of coal-or less than 315 owned their homes—having secured them tons per capita. Operators nowhere through years of punctual payments to a claim that the total wages aggregate a building and loan association. Owning dollar a ton. In fact, a dollar a ton was their homes, they had a sense of independthe estimate made to me by an official ence not possessed in the other towns of the Lehigh Valley Company when he where the companies owned mines, stores, was stating his side of the case as strongly and houses, with the power to cut off credit as possible. Another operator told me that at once and evict on a few days' notice. his wage bill averaged sixty cents a ton. All through these districts, wherever the Ninety cents would be a high estimate of the men are best off they are the most ambitious average cost of mining coal of all sizes, and and determined to better their condition, if the average product per employee is 315 and wherever they are most ground down tons, the average wages would not exceed they are least disposed and least able to $285. The claim of the Miners' Union protest. The only partial exception to that their wages did not average more than this rule was where kindly personal rela$240 a year was a great deal nearer the tions with the employers modified the truth than the statement of the operators disposition of well-paid men to demand that they had been paying forty and fifty better pay. The conspicuous illustration dollars a month. In fact, the miners hardly of this was at Teddo-the mining town
belonging to the firm of G. B. Markle 1 Since writing the above the writer finds in the census of 1880 the statement that wages per ton averaged 79 cents in the anthracite fields. If this average still holds, the mine employees in 1899 averaged but $250 a year gross. causę i nag peça ne scene di uc now
famous debate between the head of the ings which were in good order. When company and President Mitchell, of the any of the employees were sick, said Mr. Miners' Union. I reached it at the close of Markle, they were cared for by trained another and much smaller meeting of the nurses—a force of three being constantly miners at the village school-house. The employed at his wife's instance. In each miners who remained in the building talk- village there were club-rooms-one of ing over prospects were young men and which I afterwards visited—where the boys-all full of strike. Never have I men could meet for any kind of social heard striking employees speak so well of enjoyment, gambling and drinking being their employer. “Markle is a gentleman,” the only things prohibited. In the schools said one of them. “His is about the only also Mr. Markle took justifiable pride, and company store that doesn't rob the men,” when I visited one of these I found that said another. So far as he was concerned, the spirit of the school was good, and they hated to join the strike, but they that there was not the overcrowding wanted to stand by the other miners so as customary in the mining region. In to get better conditions for the whole short, local conditions were better than district. Only when questioned about I had seen elsewhere, either during the the contract with Mr. Markle to submit present visit or during a longer one two all grievances to arbitration did his men years ago. I did not wonder that Mr. show any resentment. The contract, Markle was ready to have them thoroughly they said, was made fifteen years ago, investigated, or that news-gatherers who and though it was in the book where are hostile to the miners have tried to all employees registered, most of them concentrate public attention upon the sithad never read it. At the time of the uation at Jeddo, and ignored the fact that Lattimer massacre, they said, three years the Markles employ but 2,800 miners before, they had presented grievances, and out of 140,000. When Mr. Markle spoke Mr. Markle had said nothing then about of his agreement with the men to submit arbitration. He had merely said that he all differences to arbitration, he stated would furnish powder at cost if the men that when his firm submitted it in 1885 it would accept a cut of nearly ten per cent. took a long and perhaps unprecedented in wages. They did not feel that this step toward the preservation of peaceful agreement was binding. It was merely and just relations between coal operators pushed to the front to disorganize the and their men. “When President Mitchell strike. If the strike failed, Mr. Markle advised the men to break that agreement, himself could not give them much better he advised them to confess that the conwages than his competitors.
tract of Jeddo miners was not worth the The next morning I drove out to Jeddo paper it was printed on.” to meet Mr. G. B. Markle, and, fortunately, Mr. Markle believed that President found him disengaged. His personal in- Mitchell had virtually confessed that his fluence with the men had brought a good demand for general arbitration was insinmany of them back to work, and he was cere. “A general agreement,” he said, naturally in good spirits over the situation. “is as impossible as for water to flow up When I tried to talk with him about gen- hill. ... The conditions at the different eral conditions in the mining regions, he mines are too different to permit it.” When said that he was concerned only with con- I asked how, then, it had been possible for ditions about Jeddo, and regarding these the bituminous coal miners to make an he was glad to tell me and show me all agreement with operators covering all the he could. This was manifestly a sincere fields from western Pennsylvania to the assertion-his sincerity being illustrated Mississippi, he said that the mining of by his bringing me the August pay-rolls bituminous coal was altogether different for me to examine at my leisure. About from the mining of anthracite. The only fifty dollars net seemed to be the ordinary point made by President Mitchell to which figure for that month. As to the excep- he conceded any force was Mitchell's tionally good condition of his houses I declaration that extortionate freight rates did not need his statement, as I had seen were at the bottom of the anthracite coal that for myself as I had driven up. Most difficulties. Mr. Markle did not admit of the families occupied four-room dwells the full truth of this declaration, but he did admit that the freight rates I cared most to learn when I got back on anthracite were unreasonably heavy., to Hazleton was the miners' reply to As regards company stores, he would the assertion that a general agreement not discuss their operations elsewhere, by arbitration is impossible. Upon this but pointed out that his store received point the Secretary of the Miners' Union orders from men not employed in his admitted that such an agreement was mines. Although he conducted a com- more difficult for hard-coal fields than for pany store, he did not violate the law, since soft-coal fields, but urged that the differthe Pennsylyania statute only forbade ence was simply one of degree and not of mining "corporations”to operate company kind. When a certain vein is taken as stores. His company was merely a firm. a standard, he said, the payment in other As to the semi-monthly payment of em- veins could be graded according to their ployees supposed to be required by law, relative thickness and the time required Mr. Markle pointed out that the law sim- in getting out the toal. The agreements ply required such paymenis “on the which the miners have had for the last three demand” of the men. None of his men years in the soft-cor; States have involved ever demanded to be paid twice a month, individual instances of hardship, but it has and he denied that they would have been always been easy to settle these local disdischarged if they had made such a du putes by mutual concession and arbitration. mand. This last point was the only one The same thing could be done in the hardmade by Mr. Markle in reference to local coal fields if the railroads would agree to conditions which any of his men after- arbitration. wards disputed. All the men, they said, ķThe conflict centers in the attitude would like to be paid twice a month, but taken by the railroads. These, the men no one dared demand it.
know, own 72 per cent. of the anthracite
fields, and by charging for the shipment THE ROOT OF THE DIFFICULTIES
of hard coal three times as much as railOn my way back to Hazleton I drove roads usually charge to ship soft coal, through another town in which the oper- the roads make it impossible for any of atives seemed to be exceptionally well the operators to grant their employees cared for. This was a place called Drif- the advances which the union has ton, and here also the owners of the mines secured for the soft-coal miners in the
-the Coxe family-still reside. There West. The strike, therefore, is a strike is a great difference between a mining against the extortion of the railroads, town owned by residents and towns owned and the miners wish public attention by absentee landlords and managed by concentrated upon this point. Here the agents. In the foriner human relation- facts which they put forward are absoships enter, while in the latter commercial lutely incontrovertible. The Lehigh, the relationships absolutely control. The Reading, and the other hard-coal roads town of Lattimer, which I also passed charge twice as much for hauling anthrathrough on my return, was an extreme cite as the soft-coal ruads such as the illustration of the commercially managed Columbus and Hocking Valley or the town. In another place where I stopped Chesapeake and Ohio charge for freight of on my way back, I found a former tax- all classes. Coal is notoriously the cheapcollector for the district, and learned the est kind of freight to handle. The charge truth of the miners' assertion that all for hauling anthracite could be reduced through these regions the propertyless one-half and still leave an excessive marclasses pay a considerable part of the gin. The reduction of one-half would direct taxes. Even in Jeddo the absolute- mean 70 cents a ton to be divided between ly propertyless miners and laborers pay producers and consumers. This would about one-third of all the direct taxes, their mean that hard coal would find an inyear's wages being assessed as property; creased market at lower prices, and that and at Lattimer the propertyless miners the miners in the anthracite regions could pay about two-fifths of all the taxes. find steady employment at wages as high These relics of feudalism, however, hardly as have been secured for their organized deserve attention in trying to get a fellow-workers west of the Alleghanies. view of the general situation. What
C. B. S.
By Th. Bentzon
NE may say that, at the Exhibition pavilion bring you tea, and the Algerians
of 1900, woman, both as inspirer prepare houskouss behind the overhang
and executor, is admirably rep- ing draperies of Moorish houses. Carpetresented in the arts and industries and weaving is carried on before your eyes by makes herself felt in every manifesta- other Orientals, crouching down by their tion, whether great or small, of modern looms; and in the Swiss Village you see progress. From the threshold she in- the women of St. Gall, Berne, etc., making vites you, in the form of that gigantic embroideries and laces. Sometimes the Parisian who, placed a jove the gate of foreign and provincial visitors seem to honor at the Place de l, Concorde (where contribute to this exhibition of women there are thirty-two en inces), extends a from all countries, as in the case, for exwelcome to visitors. Dicssed in the latest ample, of two hundred Boulognese who fashion, coiffed with a small cap which landed together one morning at the foot is nothing more than a copy of the ship of the Eiffel Tower, with their white caps that appears on the arms of Paris, she like halos, their immense earrings, their rises to a height of one hundred and fifty gold chains, and their closely folded feet from the ground, greeting the whole fichus. Two generous ship-owners of world with an untiring gesture which, Boulogne wanted to assure these sailors' when the sunshine fades, is illumined by wives and daughters a holiday from the the varied reflections or electric light. factories where they make nets and salt
Enter! Throughout the vast extent of and pack the fish. Our famous “ James," the Esplanade, the Champs de Mars, the of the Halles, gave them a welcome; they Champs Elysées, and the Trocadéro, you were offered bouquets, toasts, a fine lunchwill not find one spot where woman has eon, which the poor fisherwives, who had not added in one way or another to the never traveled before, and who found brilliancy and the interest of the fête. themselves suddenly transported among From a picturesque point of view alone, the united wonders of the entire earth, all the old costumes (now, unfortunately, will remember for a long time to come. seldom to be found in the various prov- Queens and princesses have played inces) worn by the attendants at the their rôle worthily in the Exhibition of counters and cafés enliven the great 1900. The amusing collection of smaller galleries of the Palace of Agriculture national Russian industries, objects manuand Food, where the different products factured for the most part by the peasants of France are classified according to the in their homes—was this not organized regions they come from. Hebes in Nor- under the patronage of the Grand Duchess man and Breton coifs pour out the cider Elizabeth ? The name of the Queen of and poiré. Peasants from the respective Roumania, Carmen Sylva, is attached, in localities serve at the Flemish dairy, at the pavilion of her people, to a magnificent the hostelry of Poiton, etc. ; and, in the illuminated manuscript Gospel, the work of same way, Japanese women, in their own this sovereign, writer, and artist. In the especial domains, offer you saké, the rice monument of fifteenth-century style which wine, while Cinghalese at the Ceylon shelters the Italian products there are
some admirable samples of the lace indus
try, whose brilliant revival is due to the Outlook for September 8. t dealt with the Industrial
patronage of Queen Marguerite; and if the Donald, editor of the London “Municipal Journal." * Religious Aspects of the Exhibition," by Charles
Spanish Pavilion surpasses all others in Wagner, was published in the issue of September 15.
the Rue des Nations for artistic splendor, Other articles will be: The Social Economics Exhibition illustrated), by Dr. W. H. Tolman, Secretary of the it is because the Queen lent the incompaLeague for Social Service; Educational Aspects, by
rable collections of tapestry belonging to missioner-General of the United States to the Exposi the Crown; with the pieces of historic tion; The Historical Element, by the Rev. W.E. Griffis, D.D., author of "The Mikado's Empire," etc., etc.; armor from the Armeria of Madrid, they and The Pictorial Side of the Exposition, by Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith, illustrated by the author.
form an ensemble unique in its severe
1 The first article in this series was published in The
Side of the Exposition, and was written by Robert
Howard J. Rogers, Director of Education for the Com
and majestic beauty. It is a great and the Empire. A semi-obscurity, lighted by well-deserved success. When I said so to electric lamps, lends an appearance of a clever Spanish lady, she answered, with reality to the figures which compose it. a sigh, “ Yes, it is indeed the splendor of And if these manikins seem to be alive, the past; but as to the present, if we only one is surprised to find, on the floor above, want to find a writing-table, why, we must people in flesh and blood chosen among go to the pavilion of the United States !” the prettiest of women to play the same But this is a parenthesis.
rôle; they make real a reproduction of In the Rue de Paris, the street of amuse- the wooden galleries in the Palais Royal, ments and diversions, there are perhaps with the gay open booths that bordered even too many women peopling the innu- them. Milliners, perfumers, and other merable small theaters where native songs grisettes of the times are replaced by their are sung in different languages, with the modern sisters dressed to perfection. Not costumes, the decorations, the surroundings the least interesting part is the résumé of ad hoc, and where the long-ago dances fashions from 1867 to 1900, which repreof France alternate with comedies and sents all the transformations of beauty farces. At the Palais de la Danse proper, and dress during this still recent period. one can make a study of comparative The women laugh as they recognize themchoreography_Greek, Hindu, Spanish, selves, so different from what they now English; one can learn about all sorts of are. When you have completed the study dances—war dances, religious dances, begun at the Palais des Costumes by a Druidical dances, dances of the Renais review of what the Palace of Decorative sance, and I know not what; and the Arts and Furniture of All Times offersattractive history is embodied by a legion things borrowed from the most aristocratic of pretty women. Andalusia, with a collections, where one passes from a salon building faithfully copied from Cordova of the Second Empire to a Louis Philippe and Toledo, presents us with real gitanas; bedroom, from a Directoire apartment to the Egyptian women have made a furor the chamber of Talma, the famous actoron their own ground; a Parisian, Cléo de you will be better posted than by any Mérode, has glided in among the authentic amount of reading on the changes of taste Hindo-Chinese, and one would have diffi- in France. The most ancient things, culty in recognizing her under the dis- Louis XV. and Louis XVI. furniture, and guise that extends as far as her face; costumes as well, are those which have Loie Fuller has kept her prominent place; aged the least. and in the theater that bears her name we Woman's triumph is in the Petit Palais have been able to applaud the great Japan- on the Champs Elysées, which I may, ese actress Sada Yacco.
without fear of being accused of favoritThe fact is that no country, no epoch, ism, praise as the gem of the Exhibition. has been left without its women representa- The masterpieces of retrospective French tives ; and everywhere the peculiarity of art are heaped here, for the most famous the types, the strangeness of the costumes, collections have sent a tribute, and the add to the reality of the scene.
church treasures have journeyed from Speaking of costumes, let us notice all corners of France. How, in speaking briefly the Palace which has been dedi- of women, could one omit the hundreds cated to them on the Champs de Mars, of marvelous Virgins in wood, in stone, through the care of the great dressmaker in ivory, works of the thirteenth, fourFélix, who had as aids an archæologist, teenth, and fifteenth centuries, besides M. Gayet, and several well-known men which the vulgar religious imagery of our artists, together with a host of intelligent days suffers keenly by comparison? This women collaborators. It represents the is the first time the celebrated Virgin of history of dress throughout the ages, from Villeneuve-les-Avignon has faced any the Gallico-Roman times to the present public but that of her own province, and, day, with scenes borrowed from the Mid- religion aside, the least Catholic should dle Ages, feudal times, the Renaissance, feel tempted to kneel before this marvel the reigns of Henry IV., Louis XIII., of a naïve art inspired by faith. So near and Louis XIV. and their successors, pass- to it, although it is in reality at the antiping by the Revolution, the Directory, and odes, the delicate art of our eighteenth