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level of present Scriptural knowledge, ard needs. It is affirmative, not controversial. at once evangelical and irenic. The Con- It opens the door toward other churches gregational document of 1883 is an ap instead of closing it against them. It proach to it, though too long, and in some reduces instead of multiplying the number points too elaborate. The Free Church of points of difference among Presbyteri Catechism of 1898 is a nearer approach, ans themselves. It can be put into the and in toge and method almost ideal. hands of men without a labored explainWitness a single question and answer: ing away of its meaning. It can be used 11. Q. How did the Son of God save His

mis on the Foreign Mission field, where the people from their sins ?

present symbols are entirely out of place. A. For our salvation He came down from It is a fit preparation for that united, Heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost

aggressive work to which the Providence of the Virgin Mary, and was made man, and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate.

u of God is signally calling the Church of He suffered and was buried, and the third day to-day. It would lift many heavy burdens; He rose again according to the Scriptures, relieve many sensitive consciences; clear and ascended into Heaven, and sitteth on the many bewildered minds. It would remove right hand of the Father.

the embarrassing and hindering need of After such a pattern of clear, succinct constant apology. We shall hope that definition, in the words of Scripture, affirm- the first step so happily taken at St. Louis ing the Christian facts, the Presbyterian will in due time lead to the adoption of a Church should construct a creed, based brief, irenic, evangelical creed to be subupon the sovereignty of God, and declaring 'scribed instead of the Westminster symbols, how he wields that sovereignty in infinite and to which every Presbyterian may love for human salvation.

heartily prefix his “ Credo." This is what the Church of to day Washington.

Some Modern Philosophy'
THE earliest works of philosophy times appear that we are returning to the

were apparently written for the methods of the ancients; that our modern I public; certainly it does not re- writers have in mind, not the experts only quire special training to understand and or chiefly, but the 'ordinary educatei be interested in them. Job, Proverbs, reader, and write for him. The four books and Ecclesiastes are all included in the mentioned in the note below are popular Wisdom Literature of the Hebrews, and in this sense, that they are written for the are the nearest approximation to philoso- people, though not written down to them. phy in their literature. The first is a quasi. To read and understand them requires drama; the second a collection of apho- thought, but it does not require scholastic risms which were the current coin of the attainment. realm ; and the third a philosophy of life Principal Caird's work, “ Fundamenin the terms of a realistic, though prob- tal Ideas of Christianity," is preceded ably not real, human experience. If we by a memoir of John Caird, the author, pass from the Hebrew to the Greek world, by his brother, the Master of Balliol it is quite safe to say that no interpreter The one criticism we have to make upon of Plato has ever written with greater the book is a criticism of the thing which, lucidity than Plato himself, and none has it seems to us, the author has attempted approximated him in interest. The only to do. This is to translate Christianity conceivable advantage of reading the into terms of theology. That this is his interpreter is that he puts the Platonic object is indicated, not only by the alt philosophy in less space. It would some biguous title of his book, but also by the

unambiguous titles of his chapters: “Nar__? Fundamental Ideas of Christianity. By J. N. Caird. ural and Revealed Religion.” « Faith and The Macmillan Co., New York. $3.50.

The Conception of Immortalıy. By Josiah Royce. Reason,” “ The Origin and Nature of Houghton, Miffin & Co. $1. The Divine Pedigree of Man. By T. J. Hudson.

Evil,” “ The Idea of the Incarnation." A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. $1.50.

“ The Idea of the Atonement," etc., etc. The Map of Life. By W. E. H. Lecky. Longmans Green & Co., New York. $1.50.

We instinctively raise the question, Art any ideas, properly speaking, to be in- sive that no forms of reflective thought cluded in the fundamentals of Christianity? are “fundamentals of Christianity." We It is true that there are certain ideas con- need go no further into criticism of this cerning Christianity which are fundamen- work than to say that it constitutes a sort tal to a correct conception of it, but this of continuation of the “ Evolution of Redoes not appear to be the author's mean- ligion” by Edward Caird, and is coning; the whole tone of his book indicates, ceived in much the same spirit; it may in as bis fundamental conception, that Chris- general terms be described as Hegelian in tianity is, if not primarily, at least neces- its character; and for the student who sarily and fundamentally, a system of phi- desires to understand the intellectual philosophy. In this we cannot agree with losophy which underlies the so-called him; a man may be fundamentally a “New Theology” we know no book more Christian and yet in radical error in his worthy of study than this. fundamental ideas concerning Christian- To a certain extent the same judgment ity. An idea signifies an intellectual con- may be applied to Professor Royce's little ception; it is founded on a vital experi- monograph —it is less than a hundred ence; and the intellectual conception pages-on “ The Conception of Immorfollows on, grows out of, is built upon, that tality." Professor Royce, however, does experience. Doubtless this process of not assume to give the foundation of our intellectualizing the practical and spiritual faith in immortality, but only to put in experiences narrated in the Bible was, and intellectual form a statement of the phiis, a necessary process in the growth of losophy of that faith. There are two the individual, of the Church, and of the questions, in experience indistinguishable, race; but it appears to us a mistake to in thought different: one, Am I immorcall these intellectual conceptions, or any tal ? the other, Shall I be immortal ? The of them, a part of the fundamentals of one concerns man's present nature, the Christianity. Nor is this a mere hyper- other his future destiny. Philosophically criticism. One of the most serious errors it may be said that one cannot know that of our time, as it is one of the most wide- he will be immortal, but he may know that spread, is that which regards Christianity he is—that is, if he is. This faith in as a system of philosophy, like Platonism, present immortality, that is, in one's posfor example, as though it consisted in cer- session of a nature which transcends the tain ideas of God, immortality, redemp- evanescent and transitory, is primarily a tion, but differed from it in the character habit of mind; it depends largely, perhaps of the ideas. While, undoubtedly, we do entirely, upon whether the life really is need some reconstruction of the intellect- expended on the mortal and the transitory, ual edifice which has been built on those or on the immortal and the eternal. This experiences of God that find their clear is what Paul means by the phrase, “While est literary interpretation in the Bible, we we look not at the things which are seen, need still more a retranslation of the intel- but at the things which are not seen : for lectual conceptions into the terms of vital the things which are seen are temporal, experience. We need not so much a new but the things which are not seen are philosophy of the Trinity as an interpreta- eternal.” tion in terms of experience of that out of Professor Royce's object is to show which the doctrine of the Trinity has that personality is one of those things grown; not so much a new “idea of the which are not seen and are eternal. Supatonement" as a restatement of the expe- pose you had, he says--we condense his rience of forgiveness of sin and unity with illustration-a description of Abraham God which is itself the foundation of all Lincoln which was exact and exhaustive. theories of the atonement. Principal You cannot affirm dogmatically that it is Caird recognizes, in his chapter on Faith impossible-certainly it is not inconceivaand Reason, this truth that ideas are not ble—that there might be another man who fundamentals of Christianity. “Religion looked, felt, thought, and succeeded as exists," he says, “ and must exist as a life Abraham Lincoln. And yet he would and experience before it can be made the not be Abraham Lincoln-a consideration object of reflective thought," a sentence which makes it quite clear that the real which appears to us to be quite conclu- individuality does not consist in his looks, thoughts, feelings, actions, but in a mys- instinct or intuition, will-power, telepathy, terious and invisible something which lies natural emotions. This subjective mind back of all that he ever did or said or we might not unnaturally identify with thought, and which does not, therefore, that mysterious personality which Profespartake of the transitory character of what sor Royce makes it so clear is the ultimate we call his life, but is really only the out- fact in every consciousness. Concerning ward manifestation of his life. We can- Dr. Hudson's hypothesis, all we can say not follow the argument further; and we is that it is a possible although an unare conscious that our condensation does proved one-a statement which, however, it injustice-Professor Royce is not an might be made of more commonly accepted easy man to condense; but we have per scientific hypotheses, such as the wave haps given enough of his argument to theory of light. show that immortality, in the true sense, “ The Map of Life " has about the as signifying a nature not temporary or same relation to the preceding books that transitory, and personality, are indissolu- the Book of Proverbs has to the Book of bly connected. To deny the former it is Job. They discuss theories of philosophy; necessary to deny the latter.

this book discusses problems of conduct Mr. T. J. Hudson, in the “ Divine and character. Mr. Lecky's studies in the Pedigree of Man," reaches a similar con- history of Christian morals have given him clusion to that of Professor Royce, though that wide survey of ethics in practice and by a longer road. His volume refers to their development in history which fits and is based upon his preceding volumes, him admirably to prepare such a volume “ The Law of Psychic Phenomena ” and as this. In the themes considered it “A Scientific Demonstration of the Future might be compared with Samuel Smiles's Life." He assumes in this volume, as “ Character;" but whereas that is anec demonstrated in its predecessors, that dotal and empirical, this is philosophical, “man is endowed with two minds:" "the though not abstruse. Mr. Lecky does objective mind is that of ordinary waking not devote himself to abstract theories reconsciousness ;" “the subjective mind is specting the basis of morals, but to a that intelligence which is most familiarly practical consideration of what the moral manifested to us when the brain is asleep, laws really require in the practical conduct or its action is otherwise inhibited, as in of life. Three or four sentences taken dreams, or in spontaneous somnambulism, almost at hazard from the volume will or trance or trance-like states and con- indicate to the reader its general spirit ditions, as in induced somnambulism or better than any more elaborate critique hypnotism.” The objective mind, as we could do: understand Dr. Hudson, acts through the Happiness is a condition of mind and not a brain, and is given to man to connect disposition of circumstances. him with the physical universe, and serves I believe it to be impossible to identify viras a means of educating the subjective

tue with happiness.

It is melancholy to observe how sensitive mind, which acts independently of the women, who object to field sports, . .. will brain and has no direct contact with the be found supporting with perfect callousness physical universe. This subiective mind fashions that are leading to the wholesale deis, if not a part of, a direct inheritance

struction of some of the most beautiful species

of birds. from, the divine or universal mind, coming The constant watchfulness of external opinto man through the very earliest stages of ion is very necessary to keep up a high standhis development; or, as Dr. Hudson ex- ard of political morality. presses it, “ The mental faculties of man “ The Map of Life" is not a great book; are inherited from [does he not mean it is not a profound book; it might be through?] his lower ancestors, beginning compared with well-thought-out editorials with lowest unicellular tissue.” It is this on current questions of conduct and charsubjective mind which is directly derived acter; but that would be a fortunate from God, and links man to God—that is, journal whose ethical standards were as spirit in man is linked with, because de high, whose moral judgments were as disrived from, God, who is spirit. Answering criminating, and whose interpretations to omniscience, omnipotence, omnipres- of duty were at once as true and as ence, and infinite love in God, are in man practical as those of this book.

Books of the Week

This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. The absence of comment in this department in many cases indicates that extended review will be made at a later date. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published price. African Nights Entertainment. By A. J. Daw- edge of the world. Students of international

son. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. 5x8 in. 346 problems will find interest in the account here pages. $1.50.

given of political conditions under the control Morocco as a subject for fiction seems to be of England in Arabia-a most beneficent influin much vogue this year. Mr. Dawson prob

ence, according to the testimony of the Arabs ably knows his subject better than did Mr.

themselves. The comprehensive scope of the Mason, who used material of somewhat similar

volume covers a still wider range of interest, character in his “Miranda of the Balcony,"

both scientific and commercial, historical and and at least as well as the other writers of literary, sociological and religious, in which recent short stories who have made use of Mo the author, a Fellow of the Royal Geographirocco. These tales abound in cruel and hateful

cal Society, has availed himself of the most incidents growing out of passion and barba recent authorities in supplementing his perrism. They are certainly tragic enough, and sonal observation. Mr. Zwemer writes, of one often wishes that they were relieved by course, in a missionary interest, as a representmore of humor or romance. A certain affec ative of the Arabian Mission of the Reformed tation of callous unconcern pervades them all. Church of America, the spirit animating which They are of the school of Kipling, but not of is well expressed in the saying, “It is lives Kipling at his best. One wishes that the

poured out that these people need." A great author had made more sympathetic and less work awaits the Church in that land, where strenuous use of his full knowledge.

to-day a region of 120,000 square miles is still a Vilis. By Marye Rovziewicz. Dodd. as unexplored as the Antarctic Continent. Mead & Co., New York. 8x7 in. 323 pages. $1.25. Art of Debate, The. By Raymond M. Alden. The translator's preface has a tendency to Ph.D. Henry Holt & Co., New York. 7x5% in. mislead the reader in so far as it suggests to

279 pages. his mind that he will find in this story a de- A remarkable text-book. The author never fense of Russia's methods of government and loses sight of the fact that debating is an art of its treatment of Siberian prisoners as against to be learned through practice, and not a the representations of Mr. George Kennan, science to be taught by skillfully framed Kropotkin, and others. In point of fact, the generalizations. He generalizes, of course, but story does not touch this subject at all. It is his generalizations are concrete suggestions a vigorous and even brilliant novel of Siberian to debaters, and not abstract formulations of life, and there is abundant internal evidence to the philosophy of debating, such as teachers prove that the author, a Polish lady of rank, are apt to write for other teachers to admire. is intimately acquainted with her subject. Realizing that the practice of law has trained The hardships and dreariness of winter life better debaters than the study of logic, he on the steppes, even among those who are liv. makes effective use of legal arguments in exing in Siberia voluntarily and with some degree emplifying the art of putting things. In fact, of prosperity, are brought out with dramatic the book is as well adapted to the needs of force and intensity. The plot of the book is law students as to those of college classes in well conceived, and the characters live and debating. The author's style makes the book move almost as vividly as do those of Tur. agreeable reading, and his pre-eminent comgenieff or Tolstoi. In short, the book must mon sense gives to every chapter practical be considered as a work of fictional art, not as value. an argumentative treatise ; and thus considered

nsiderea Art of Study, The. By B. A. Hinsdale. The it is entitled to very high praise.

American Book Co., New York, 718x54 in. 206 Arabia: The Cradle of Islam. By the Rev.

pages. $1. ş. M. Zwemer, F.R.G.S. Introduction by the Rev.

We deem this a valuable book. Its design is James S. Dennis, D.D. Illustrated. Fleming H. to correct the ill-adjustment of the teacher to

Revell Co., New York. 512x8% in. 434 pages. $2. the pupil. It would revolutionize many schools This volume (such is the dearth of information if it could effect its object, “ a partial shifting on the subject) comes at once into the vacant of the center of gravity by making the pupil place of an up-to-date authority for English- the center of the system, and placing the speaking people upon “ the neglected penin- teacher in his orbit.” “This is rational: schools sula." It is the fruit of ten years' residence in and teachers are for learners. In these missionary service at Bahrein on the Arabian thoughtful pages from the occupant of the coast of the Persian Gulf, a place noted for its oldest pedagogical chair in the country there pearl fisheries. It is one of many notable is light and quicker ng for teachers, and for instances in which missionary explorers have parents also. A puunt of special interest is laid the civilized world under obligations of the judgment of Dr. Hinsdale on the superior gratitude for contributions to general 'knowl. progress made by the German as compared

Power.

with the American method. The New Eng- she was affianced before the battle of Trafal. land college presidents, some years ago, gar, where the grandfather was killed. The accounted for the fact that an American boy reader finds his sense of chronology rather of sixteen is no more advanced than a German violently strained, but he enjoys the literary boy of fourteen by the waste of time in some quality of the book, and finds several of the unnecessary and barren studies. Dr. Hinsdale characters interesting. considers the cause to be mainly in the con- Handsome Brandons, The. By Katharine stant employment by German teachers of the Tynan. A.C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. Illustrated. * study-recitation," the method of which is 719X5 in. 384 pages. $1.50. analogous to the laboratory method of instruc Mrs. Hinkson's stories are always wholesome tion. This process of aiding the pupil to and quietly entertaining. Some of her short attack the lesson is making way into our stories to our mind give clearer and better schools, but much work of this sort Dr. Hins- pictures of Irish characters than do her longer dale criticises as defective at“ the vital point novels. The present book relates the fortunes of grounding the pupil in the art of study," of an Irish family who have fallen upon evil while assisting him in acquiring knowledge. days financially-not exactly a new subject in Battling for Atlanta. By Byron A. Dunn.

this class of literature. The total impression A.C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. "Illustrated. 716x5

made by the book is one of gentle pleasure, in 380 pages. $1.25.

but it is without any great vigor or dramatic This is an addition to the series of patriotic stories for boys called " The Young Kentuck

Her Next-Door Neighbor. By M. S. Comrie. ian Series." Its title sets forth succinctly the

E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. 5x794 in. 285 subject of the book, and the author carries his

pages. $1.25. youthful hero through the campaigns of Gen- History of England, A. By J. N. Larned. eral Sherman against General Johnston and Tlustrated. Houghton, Miftsin & Co., Boston, General Hood, with due attention to romance

5x7'4 in. 673 pages. $1.25. as well as to battlefield.

Well planned, well written, and well illustrated. Church Past and Present: A Review of Its

With a clear sense of historical perspective, History by the Bishop of London, Bishop Barry,

the author tells the story of the development and Other Writers. 'Edited by the Rev. H. M. of our Anglo-Saxon civilization in England, Gwatkin. Thomas Whittaker, New York. 942X6 and he accompanies the narrative with occain. 195 pages. $2.50.

sional glances at the progress of events on the This volume of thirteen essays by ten Angli

Continent of Europe, so that the reader gets can clergymen speaks for those who oppose his English history as an inseparable part of the movement Romeward into which many of the world's history as well as an inseparable their brethren have been drawn. It deems a

part of our own. restatement of the principles of the Reformation "a paramount necessity.” It admits with

History of Greece, A. By J. B. Bury, M.A.

With Maps and Plans. The Macmillan Co., New apparent satisfaction a defect apparent from York. 437 in. 909 pages. $1.90. the Roman Catholic point of view in Anglican

Dr. Bury is eminently successful in occupying orders, which exhibit" a succession in which

middle ground between the ordinary school there is so much uncertainty, and where the

history and the very elaborate and exhaustive secular has governed the ecclesiastical.” To

works on Greece. His scholarship is recog. ward Dissenters its tone is sympathetic ; it

nized in English university circles, and it is admits that “the average Dissenter is a more

the reader's good fortune to find joined to that tolerant man than the average Churchman."

scholarship a style essentially readable and As to the Church of Rome, it concludes from

illuminated. Literature, art, philosophy, and a historical study of “Romanism since the

religion, as well as political and military Reformation " that it is gradually losing

affairs, are treated in admirable proportion, ground. So far from the Old Catholic move

and with wise and shrewd comment. For a ment being a forlorn hope, as popular opinion holds, it finds the contrary to be true-** their

student or reader who desires a history some

what higher in purpose and fuller in scope publications are slowly and surely leavening

than the ordinary school history, we can corthe mind of Europe.” Theologically, it antici

dially recommend this new work. It is well pates, in this time of return from mediæval

provided with maps, and contains many illusthought to the first principles of Christianity,

trations. that the presentment of these principles likeliest to find favor is that made by the Alexan- , Lighter Moments: From the Note-book of drian school in the third and fourth centuries.

Bishop Walsham How. Edited by Frederick The main objection it makes to Calvinism is

Douglas How. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.

449x7 in. 143 pages. $1. that it is “too Romish.” But we can only Under this title the son of William Walsham touch these few among many points which How, Suffragan Bishop of Bedford, England, give this volume claim to the attention of and author of hymns loved in all churches, thoughtful readers.

reveals his father's love of innocent fun. Gateless Barrier, The. By Lucas Malet. Dodd, Amusing anecdotes gleaned during a long ex

Mead & Co., New York. 734X5 in. 357 pages. $1.50. perience of all sorts of people had been noted The heroine is a ghost, inhabiting a luxurious by the good Bishop in his private record of apartment in the country house of an English “Ecclesiastical Jottings." Queer happenings gentleman. The hero is heir to the estate in church services, ludicrous answers by schoolan American, married, and blasé. He forms children, preposterous “bulls," and various a pleasant friendship with the ghost, who other matters for laughter, make up the collectakes him for his own grandfather, to whom tion. All these good things the Bishop made

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