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because he has private and personal mat- trous for the higher civilization in this ters which perplex and oppress him. Pub. country in the long run than the feeling lic and private duties are not only indis- that we have no common cause with the solubly bound together, so that no brave older nations ;. that we are committed to and conscientious man can separate them, permanent antagonism to the other peobut, where they are met seriously and ples who make up our race; that the hisintelligently, they disclose unsuspected tory of the past has no lessons in governpoints of contact ; and the doing of one ment or finance for us to learn; that we set of duties equips a man for the doing of are powerful enough to set the laws of another set. If we waited until our work trade at defiance; that we can, at our will, was done and our lives brought into final make all things new. This provincial harmony before assuming new responsi- feeling, this fostering of old antagonisms bilities, we should not only turn cowards, which can survive only in a soil of ignobut we should miss the best education rance, this self-sufficient exploitation of which life offers us.

our achievements and character, this rank There is now a clear alternative before growth of a feeling of superiority to other us : either we must take up our share of peoples, this continual declamation about the responsibilities of keeping the modern liberty while the country is stained from world in order, or we must cease to profit end to end with lawlessness—these are by what other nations are doing in this signs of the partial development, the undirection. We cannot honorably any healthy egotism, the indifference to larger longer take the profits and refuse to pay relationships, which grow readily in isolaour share of the expenses. We cannot tion and detachment. share in the gain of a great partnership We are members of the great family of and evade its risks. We must either call nations, to all of which we are deeply our ships home, refuse to permit American indebted for knowledge, truth, political capital and American energy to assist in experience, and service of many kinds; the development of undeveloped countries, we have been more fortunate in our consend for our missionaries and close our ditions than many of these older peoples, churches and schools in semi-civilized or but we are not a whit better; and we barbarous countries, refuse to allow our have still much to do before we can claim books to be translated into Chinese, and equality with them in magnitude and rigidly limit ourselves to our own terri- quality of service to the spiritual developtory in trade, religion, science, art, educa- ment of the race. We need their help tion, and philanthropy; or we must ac- and they need ours. We are commanded cept our share of the responsibility of living by our opportunities—which are the voice in the world and dealing freely with the of God—to take up new burdens and race in the great fellowship of humanity. enter upon a newer and a greater life.

To take our share of the work of the Those who hold back and cry out that the world and bear our share of its burdens “ways of the fathers” are being forsaken will involve dangers and entail expense; see neither their own time nor the times of but when did a decent man or a respect the fathers. The fathers saw the open able people ever settle a question of duty door in their own day and passed through by a nice calculation of expense, or decide it, breaking with the past as they did so the question of accepting a new responsi- and facing all manner of peril and incurbility by a consideration of the risks in- ring every kind of cost. They were volved? Brave men do not barter with accused by good and well-meaning conduty nor trade with responsibilities. This temporaries of being revolutionists and country has a work to do in the modern demagogues: “popular demagogues," world which it cannot escape, and ought wrote one of the critics of the men to rejoice in accepting as its service to in Massachusetts who urged independhumanity. The perils which may face ence on the American colonies, “always it through greater intimacy with the older call themselves the people;' . . . he nations are small compared with the perils that would excite a rebellion, what of detachment and isolation which have ever professions of philanthropy he may been steadily growing during the last two make when he is insinuating and worming decades. Nothing could be more disas- himself into the good graces of the people,

The Only Refuge

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is at heart as great a tyrant as ever wielded on the hearts of those who are blessed the iron rod of oppression.” The fathers with abundance, and that so many men who gave the American State a chance to and women of the best sort are giving be did not stop because of perils and themselves up body and soul in an eager costs, and their children cannot afford to endeavor to create better and happier be less brave. The fathers were not seek- conditions for the poor in great cities, to ing for power and self-aggrandizement; secure justice and fairness to labor under their children are not“ imperialists” bent the law, and to bring a society which calls on conquest and slaughter. They recog- itself Christian nearer the model of a nize that a new age has dawned, and, in Christian society. the American spirit and in absolute loy- It is almost impossible to overestimate alty to American principles, they propose the importance of this noble movement in to meet its duties and responsibilities with the Church and out of it which is making the courage of those who believe that to-day for the betterment of the world. America ought to live with the world and But it must not be forgotten that, when not remain shut up in her own private reformers have carried through all reforms, grounds, however spacious; that she has the help of God will still be supremely before her a great opportunity for which necessary; for the issues of life are not she has been preparing herself, and that in conditions, but in men; and if the time her supreme sin now would be the “unlit ever comes in which all men shall be lamp and the ungirt loin.”

physically comfortable, the final questions will still remain to be solved by every man. Just laws, wholesome homes, free education, and universal helpfulness will

help mightily to bring in the kingdom of The opportunities for action are God; but human nature will still be what many in these days, and the calls for serv- it always has been, and the grace of God ice so pressing, that the most devout and will be as necessary for the man in the devoted men are sometimes drained of model tenement, with the model school at their spiritual fervor, and are in danger the corner, as it is to-day for the man in of becoming mere mechanical doers of the slums. We are helped by conditions, good deeds rather than deep and rich but we are not saved by them; after all springs of spiritual power. In mediæval our devices, laws, remedies, and reforms, times too great emphasis was laid on God must still be our refuge ; for in Him, meditation and prayer, on solitude and not in conditions, we live and move and silence ; in modern times the tendency in have our being. the opposite direction has been so excess- The saints and teachers of the mediæval ive that the fountains of spiritual life ages have much to teach us in this busy sometimes seem to be perceptibly lowered modern age, with its vast activities and its by the incessant endeavor to cover the faith in works. They missed many things entire surface of modern life with a net- which we possess, and their view of life work of religious activities.

was partial and distorted; but they knew These activities are of immense impor- where the springs of strength were. They tance, and the great emphasis which mod- found peace in quiet communion with the ern men put upon works as an evidence Spirit of the Lord; for they were conof faith is wholesome; but in the relig- vinced that man's only real refuge and ious life, as in every other department of peace are in God. life, there must be balance and proportion. “Happy is the soul which, being An institutional church needs a very deep afflicted in this world, is comforted of and rich life of the spirit behind it if it is God,” wrote good Thomas à Kempis ; to be kept fresh in feeling, creative in “ which, being unknown to men, is known method, and sound in aim. The greater to the holy angels; neglected by the and more complicated the machinery, the wicked, but sought after by the good; greater the need of an increase of motive despised by the proud, but loved by the power. It is one of the inspiring signs humble; separated from the children of of our times that the circumstances of the the world, but united to the servants of less fortunate in society rest so heavily God; scorned by the great, but honored





by the little one; dead to the world, but Eleven years ago, that is, in 1889, the alive unto God; afflicted in the flesh, but population of New York was, in round rejoicing in spirit; weak in health, but numbers, 1,515,000. That year there were strong in mind; downcast in countenance, 155 deaths from street accidents. Last but upright in conscience; burthened by year the population was estimated at toil, but strengthened in prayer ; bent 1,953,569, and the street accidents caused under the weight of infirmities, but raised 235 deaths. It is curious to compare one up again by interior consolations; and year with another, because in 1889 we had prisoned in this world by the bonds of in New York none of the modern methods the flesh, but in spirit rapt to heaven, and of street traction, no automobiles, and joined with Christ.”

comparatively few bicycles. Pray look at this little tabulation :

1899. 1889. The Spectator

Killed by wagons and trucks.... 105 60 elevated road...

9 3 horse-cars

20 24 The Spectator is not unduly timorous,


26 68 but he confesses that in these days of


1 haste he often gets a little nervous in the


7 city streets lest something may happen to


19 electric cars...

48 somebody. And of a truth something is always happening, though the Spectator



155 does not personally see many of the serious

A glance at this tabulation shows that accidents incident to the effort to have

the new and quicker method is not safer. rapid transit in the metropolis without At the earlier period we had ten times adequate means. Indeed, there is no way to learn how many street accidents there dents were only twenty per cent, more

as much street-car mileage, but the acciare in New York in any given time, for only those that prove fatal are permanently steam-cars is due to the sinking and wall

than last year. The fewer accidents from recorded. A sprained ankle, a crushed ing in of tracks and the abandonment of hand, a blackened eye—any of these is

some lines. serious enough to the victim, but no records are kept of such happenings. The Spectator read in a magazine the other day the Once a New York Congressman was statement that the decreased death-rate in charged by a member from Texas with New York was due in large measure to belonging to a delegation which did not the decrease in the deaths by accidents fairly represent the intelligence of the incident to street traffic since we introduced metropolis. The New Yorker made reply: the cable-cars and the buzzing electrics. “ There may be something in what the That writer had not taken the trouble to honorable gentleman from Texas says. investigate the records. The number of We may not be as smart as some others deaths from street accidents is too small at home, for let me tell the gentleman seriously to affect the death-rate in a great from Texas that it takes more sense to go city. And, besides, not only are there more across the street safely in New York than deaths than formerly from street accidents, successfully to run for Congress in Texas.” but the number has increased in ten years And the Spectator does not believe that fifty-one per cent., while the population the streets are any safer now than they has increased only twenty-eight per cent. were ten and twenty years ago. There Our magazine writer did not know very is no way in the world to get at the minor exactly what he was talking about. It is accidents. Even the cases that go to the not impossible that his article was not hospital for treatment are not reported less interesting on account of his pictur- unless they are serious.

To be sure, recesque inaccuracy. There be many who ords are kept in each hospital, but the shy at exact statements, who will swallow statistics are not assembled. The young a glittering generality, true or false, with surgeons and the hospital staff members great relish. That is one reason for the know about these things, however, and popularity of that journalism which we you cannot get any of these to speak call yellow.

slightingly of the dangers of the New York streets. He jests at scars who never cars are very much alike to him, but when dressed a wound. The railroad company he happens to be all hog and also very fat, officials could tell more than any others, the open cars, with seats crossways, afford but on such subjects these officials pre- him his most cherished opportunity for the serve a reticence that is really amazing. exhibition of his porcine capacities. He They have even been known to deny that always manages to get the seat next the there are many accidents, and to charge step, so that every one entering and every that the seriousness of every accident is one leaving must climb over him. If he exaggerated a hundredfold. But the offi- had an intelligent appreciation of comfort, cials are tremendously ready to settle for he would move to the other side of the any damage that is done, provided the car, where no one would disturb him; settlement can be made quickly and with but it takes the reasoning faculty to think out going to court.

of that. It is not possible that he thinks

at all; he merely acts without consideraA friend of the Spectator was not long tion of others, or even of himself. ago tumbled off a cable-car, rolled in the mud, and very considerably bruised. The car stopped, and the conductor picked

There is one class to which the Spectahim up. In the car the now tramplike- tor would like to pay tribute—the conduclooking passenger took the conductor's

tors. Theirs is certainly a very hard job. number and gave his card in exchange, The Spectator is very sure that he could saying that he should secure satisfaction.

not hold such a place successfully for a It was two days before he could get out

week. The strain seems to be incessant, to his business. Meantime he took stock and, besides, these conductors are in conof damages. His hat and overcoat both tact pretty nearly all day with men and were ruined, his trousers were torn, and

women not in the best of humor, some of his umbrella broken. Besides this he had them downright angry.

them downright angry. It is a cheerful abrasions, contusions, and bruises from soul indeed who preserves good nature head to foot. He wrote a good-humored when physically uncomfortable. That is letter to the President of the company,

what the majority of those who use the saying that he would charge nothing for New York cars are all the time that they the hurts to his body, as they would get

are in them. But the conductors must well, but he would trouble him to pay keep their tempers and be civil. That is for the ruined clothes, which would never required of them by their superiors. And improve. He valued them as follows: it must be said that they do this pretty hat, $8; overcoat, $75; trousers, $10; well

. To be sure, they are not Chesterumbrella, $7. Total, $100. A few days fields in grace and urbanity; but they do afterwards the Spectator's friend was vis

not try to be offensive. They mean no ited by an agent of the company, who offense when they shout, “ Step lively, said that he had been sent to offer $25 in lady, step lively !” Not a bit of it. They full settlement. “Not a cent less than

are merely trying to contribute something $100," said the Spectator's friend. Three to the rapidity of movement which the days later the one hundred dollars was

modern urban demands as a right. It paid, and the railroad got off cheaply. And seems to the Spectator that a conductor, so did the Spectator's friend, for he had say on Broadway or Madison Avenue, has not lost his life, he had not hired a lawyer, his hands and his head full all the time. and he had not got into the courts.

He must collect fares with reasonable accuracy and give transfer tickets; he must

notice when a passenger wishes to alight These crowded cars in New York are and when also that passenger is safely on fine fields in which to study the genus terra firma; he must signal for each start humanus porcus. When a man hustles when the incoming passengers get aboard; for a car which promises to be crowded, he he must answer the questions of strangers appears to throw away all his stock of and others; he must take care of the gentility and decency before he starts; and maimed, the halt, and the blind, and he when he achieves a seat, he more frequently must be watchful lest those who have than not becomes a very hog. All the drunk unwisely deep come to harm.

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By Charles Wagner

Author of " Jeunesse," " Justice," etc., etc. NTELLIGENT readers sometimes try In the moral outline-portrait of our time,

to decipher in handwriting the traits looked at from this point of view, that

of human character; and nothing is which is most striking is the mutual conmore natural than thus to seek informa- tradiction of the single features—the sad tion about our individuality in an operation contrast between the several chief charinto which pass the least vibrations of our acteristics. The first of these contrasts being, in which our lightest emotions is that between the serious and the frivomake their mark. Nevertheless, hand- lous elements. writing is not the only action in which At certain hours and in certain parts of our inmost nature appears; a great num- the Exposition one might think one's self ber of other manifestations combine to at a fair, with this sole difference—that reveal, if not to betray, us. In fact, every the booths bear the names of nations inform of activity is a revelation. A man's stead of bearing the names of showmen. work is the image of his soul, whatever care Every part of the world has sent here he may take to conceal it. This general samples of its amusements. I cannot say conclusion has struck me in my thought- whether the choice has been a happy one, ful strolls through the Exposition of 1900. but, judged by the total effect, these atTherein our age shows forth its soul in tractions are rather frivolous than gay. its works, as I will try to make clear. They furnish by their very variety, by the

First of all, it is hardly necessary to attitude and actions of those who look at say, no one could suspect that so colossal them, proof that there is no place on a manifestation was designedly combined earth where joy can be purchased for to produce a particular impression. De money, that there exists no artificial means spite all the care and effort that each of producing it. The things conventionally concerned has put into his part, the total entitled “amusements” have in all the result differs from that which was expected. countries of the world a certain stamp of From all the elements of detail minutely essential emptiness and sadness upon calculated in advance come forth results them. In them men joylessly make gritotally unforeseen. Looked at from one maces; they wish to be thought gay, try point of view, this exposition in which the to appear happy, and attempt to commuintention to shine and to show one's self in nicate to the lookers-on that which they a favorable light animates the entire body do not possess themselves. Priests and of the expositors, collective or individual, priestesses without faith, divinities dead is not the less a work of truth. Despite for themselves, these unfortunates, with themselves, all these collaborators, who their enticements of dress, their efforts to try, each on his own account, to throw call forth laughter, remind me of religious dust in our eyes, still in the mass bring shrines where words without life are out a truthful likeness: thus from the poured forth in order to galvanize souls fluttering of the leaves and from the without spirit. One broken cistern recalls twisted mass of branches and trees is another, and one might well say, “Sad brought out on the horizon the peaceful as a priest ; profane as a sacristan." The outline of the forest.

people engaged in these amusements, 1 The first article in this series was published in The

moreover, have other reasons than those Outlook for September 8. It dealt with the Industrial inherent in their slave's task for not being Other articles will be: The Social Economics Exhibition ing; many of them have already failed Donald, editor of the London Municipal Journal." gay. The amusements are not prosperLeague for Social Service; Educational Aspects, by financially; they are called commonly missioner-General of the United States to the Exposi palaces of disillusion. And as each of tion: The Historical Element, by the Rev. W. E. Griffis, those connected with these enterprises, D.D., author of "The Mikado's Empire," etc., etc.; Woman's Part in the Exposition, by Madame Blanc down to the last singer or acrobat who (Th. Bentzon); and The Pictorial Side of the exposition, exhibits himself, has for pretext the amuse

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