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legations to cease ; on the contrary, the of extra-territoriality be violated without organization of an army of relief, a march prompt and severe punishment. The to Peking, and the taking of the city were policy of the United States has from the made necessary. Under these circum- beginning been conspicuously frank, just, stances, when China asks for a cessation and conservative of the best interests of hostilities, and proposes to reopen of China; this policy will doubtless be negotiations by the appointment of an followed by the Administration to the Envoy with full powers, our Government end. While reserving for the United can only reply that the conditions laid States every just right of inflicting the down in its previous communication to penalty which ought to follow a gross the Chinese Government have not been violation of the usages of international fulfilled; that the Powers have been com- intercourse, it is entirely above the sus. pelled to rescue their Ministers by force picion of selfishness. The spectacle of of arms without the aid of the Chinese the oldest of existing Governments findGovernment, and that, while this Govern- ing the most substantial aid in the friendment is ready to welcome any overtures liness of the youngest of the Great Powers for a truce, there must first be effective is not only extremely picturesque, but suspension of hostilities, not only in prophetic of the new principles and hopes Peking, but throughout China. Until of the new time upon which the world is this is done, although no war has been entering. declared between the two countries, China is virtually at war with this country, and the United States can pursue no other The R course than that of protecting its representatives and citizens in China and their The Outlook has already pointed out property, and of endeavoring, so far as the enormity of the Ramapo steal. It possible, to secure order.

can be designated by no more favoring There is, apparently, no responsible · terms. It was a flagrant robbery from Government in China with which the the people of the State of their, water, United States can now treat. No one with absolutely no return given to them knows, as a matter of fact, whether any therefor. The bill passed last year did Government exists other than that of the nothing except save the city of New York great Viceroys. The whereabouts of the from being handed over bound to this Empress and the Emperor are unknown; Ramapo corporation. The Morgan bill, if they could be treated with, it is doubt- which proposed to give the city a right to ful if they could keep their engagements go anywhere into the State to supply itself or make effective any promises which they with water, was defeated, not wholly or should make. Moreover, there is still even chiefly by the Ramapo influence, but the question of indemnity to be dealt by the sentiment of country districts that with ; and our hand cannot be stayed nor the city ought not to be vested with any our troops withdrawn until adequate guar- such unlimited powers. In our judgment, antees are secured for the punishment the country districts were right. The of the violators of the legation quarter and city of New York ought not to be vested of the murderers of foreigners, whether with any such unlimited powers. missionaries or otherwise, and for the There is but one remedy, and a radical payment of adequate indemnity for the one, for the great Ramapo wrong. The property destroyed. Our Government charter should be repealed absolutely. has very wisely refused to declare war There may be a question whether, under upon China and to take the position the State Constitution, the Legislature has officially that the Chinese Government power to repeal a charter; but it should is responsible for the attacks on the not assume that it has no such power. legations. There seems, unfortunately, On the contrary, it has presumptively all however, to be little question that this the powers of the people of the State, and was the case, and that it will be neces- it should at least make the attempt. If sary to teach the Chinese Government the repeal is resisted on the ground that that ambassadors cannot be attacked a charter so granted is in the nature of a with impunity, nor can the principle contract and unrepealable, it will be for

the courts to decide that question ; the the city of New York could be and should courts will have also before them another be represented on the Board, which question, namely, whether the charter should be non-partisan, and that the right itself is constitutional. There are two of appeal to the courts would at least reasons for doubting its constitutionality; prevent the grosser forms of favoritism one, that it does not conform to the con- and partisanship. stitutional requirement that the purpose The end to be secured is perfectly plain. of every act must be stated in its title; the By the Ramapo charter the water of the other, the broader ground that the charter State has been given over to a private exceeded the powers of the Legislature, corporation. That water should be taken and is contrary both to public health back again by the State, and the difficult and public policy. If it be objected question of its legitimate distribution and that the company has been at expense use should be given to a body which on the strength of this charter-expense represents the people of the State and is incurred in good faith-the answer is that amenable to them for the use of its powif the repeal of the charter inflicts directers. Nothing less than this will be adedamages upon any individuals, the State quate to right the wrong perpetrated by can and should assume responsibility for the Ramapo water bill, to restore the such damages. It should pay for its own water to the people of the State, and so blunder ; but its water is well worth all to put it under their control that it shall that such payment could possibly cost. be made useful to the greatest number of

The charter repealed, and the State once localities, with justice to all local commore in possession of its own water, a munities. And no man should be voted Metropolitan Water Board should be con- for as either Governor, Assemblyman, or stitu.ed, which should have a general su- Senator, who is not committed to secure pervision over the watershed of the State, by some method this justice for the which should map out the State and ac- people of the State and for future generquaint itself with the relations of the water ations. shed to the various localities, which should know how and where this watershed The Contagion of Faith could be made most advantageous to all the people and to each locality, with the It is a significant fact that every intellileast injury to every other locality; and gent man finds it necessary to have what no village, town, or city, including the is called a working theory of life ; in' city of Greater New York, should be other words, every man feels compelled, allowed to take water from the State, and in order to live at all and do any work, still less should any private corporation to accept some conception of life which be allowed to do so, without obtaining makes room for action and place for hope. permission of this Water Board, from The consistent pessimists who believe whose decision under certain conditions nothing and hope for nothing are few. an appeal should lie, if necessary, to the In pessimism there are almost numberSupreme Court of the State. The people less gradations, from despair up to that of the country districts ought not to have conventional pose into which so many unlimited power to block the right of the people have fallen of late years ; fallen city to secure that water which is essential so completely that it has become second to its life. The city ought not to have nature to look at the dark side of things unlimited power to take water from the and to take gloomy views. This attitude country districts without regard to their does not, however, in the least interfere health and well-being. The questions with the pleasure which the average peswhich might easily arise between different simist finds in life, nor with the satisfacdistricts, or between city and country, tion which he takes in his own work. He should be submitted to the arbitrament has, as somebody has well said, “ the of an impartial tribunal. If it be objected best possible time in the worst possible that a Water Board appointed by the world.” The men who profess to find Governor would probably be Republican neither order nor meaning nor beauty in and perhaps rural, while the city of New life are very often persons who work as if York is Democratic, the answer is that the objects which they are striving to

obtain were worth securing; who hold for the mastery. In all our relations we themselves to a scrupulous performance make our choice as to whether we shall of duty, as if duty were not only obliga- evoke the best or the worst in those whom tory, but were worth doing ; and who are we meet; whether we shall liberate the loyal in all their personal relations, as if best that is in them or invigorate the loyalty were not only a matter of morality worst. There are men who go through but also a source of pleasure.

life and do no evil so far as action is To be consistently pessimistic one must concerned, but who blight everything fine believe nothing, hope nothing, and do and fair which comes in their way, by the nothing. The moment a man hopes, be- chilling breath of skepticism; there are lieves, or acts, he ceases to be a consist others who have a genius for calling out ent pessimist. An effective argument the best. It was impossible not to believe can be made for pessimism as a philo- in the nobility and dignity of life when sophical theory; as a working theory it is one listened to Phillips Brooks; his atuntenable unless one so modifies it as mosphere made skepticism incredible. practically to destroy its force. There are When Hume declared that he believed in a few smitten and hunted creatures here immortality whenever he remembered his and there in society who, if they took mother, he was bearing testimony to the their own experience as a basis for a judg- almost divine influence which women of ment of the value of life, might, with some the highest type always exert, and which show of decency, proclaim themselves pes- they often exert in entire unconsciousness. simists; but, by an enormous majority, What a man believes or what he disbemen in all parts of the world, and in the lieves is a vital matter, not only for himworst times, find something which is worth self, but for others. Let him believe in living for and something which is worth the best, and, however full of faults and doing. The man who follows pessimism imperfections he may be, there will be to a consistent end is to be found only in in his own nature a slow but tidal movethe list of suicides. The instincts of hu- ment toward goodness, and he will make manity, as well as its intelligence, its the attainment of virtue easier for all who insight, and its inspiration, are against a know him. Let a man disbelieve in the view of life which makes life unbearable. possibility of purity, integrity, and unself

But while pessimism as a working ishness, and, although he may have great theory finds very few consistent adherents, ability and many attractive qualities, he pessimism as an intellectual pose finds will smirch the society through which he many who are only too ready to take passes, and leave a blackened trail behind courage out of the hearts of those with him. When a man comes to look back whom they have influence; for the most on his own life, his most blessed comfort unfortunate result of the pessimistic pose may be the discernment for the first time is the devitalization which it effects. It that he has helped instead of hindered, takes the tonic out of the atmosphere in and his most terrible punishment may be which men live; it saps their hopes in the discernment for the first time of the the exact degree in which they accept it; aid which he has given unconsciously and it not only destroys their illusions but unintentionally to the process of moral their aspirations as well. It is a kind of disintegration and spiritual decline in blight on the finer growths of the spirit. those about him, The best things in men are evoked by their own faith in themselves, or by the

The Board of Control elected by the incorfaith of others in them. He who believes porators of the American National Red Cross that another is base has taken the first at their recent meeting in Washington, D. C., step, and perhaps the most effective one, has accepted the resignation of Mr. George toward making that other base ; while he

Kennan, First Vice-President, which was

tendered to Miss Clara Barton at Santiago de who treats one who is undeserving as if Cuba on the 4th of August, 1898, and which he were deserving has taken the first and was renewed on the 17th of May, 1900. In perhaps the most effective step toward place of Mr. Kennan, whose connection with rehabilitating a fallen man.

the Red Cross since the Santiago campaign

has been only nominal, the Board of Control There are two spirits in every man, has elected Mr. B. H. Warner, of Washington, and these spirits are contending together D. C.

The Spectator

pret to me the libretto, lest I dilate at the

wrong emotion !" So, after the first mornSeeing a great fair is apt to bewilder as ing, the Spectator wandered here and well as fatigue. The average visitor does there at his own sweet will, admiring the not go to an Exposition with any idea of things he would admire, and passing by serious study, but just to “see things.” with a glance many things which he ought And seeing so many things generally pro- to have admired and doubtless would if duces the same effect that London pro- he had not been simply a Spectator. duced on the humble mind of Jedediah Buxton. Jedediah was a country-born

Many of the Exposition buildings mathematical prodigy of the last century, and on a time his friends took him to the

seemed beautiful in themselves, while great city of London. There, true to his

there was little or no unity in their

arrangement. The Château d'Eau, with instinct, he attempted to count all the

its playing fountains, and the Electricity objects he saw and the sounds he heard.

Building, with its novel façade, appealed But the crowds were so great, the houses

to the Spectator's love of the unconvenso many, the street-sounds so various, that

tional in architecture. The Art buildings even a mathematical prodigy had to give

seemed worthy of becoming, as they are up the task of enumerating them and go

to be, permanent memorials of the Exposiback discouraged to his quiet country vil

tion. Even the entrance gateway, with lage, where sights were familiar and not

its much-criticised Parisienne welcoming too numerous to be counted. The Expo

the world, day and night, in her evening sition sightseer grows inclined to give up

toilette, seemed not inappropriate as symthe task of seeing everything, of making

bolizing, with its color and chic, the notes, of following plans and guide-books,

bright, gay capital itself. But the Spectaand willing to wander around in haphaz

tor liked best to stand on one of the great ard fashion, enjoying things for the mo

bridges that cross the Seine and gaze at ment, and indifferent whether he remembers them or not, conscious as he is that

the buildings on the river banks, full of

color and various contrast as they are, he cannct carry away accurate impres

with here and there the outlines of the sions of a hundredth part of the vast

larger Exposition buildings in sight, and, whole.

beyond, the Eiffel Tower and the Trocadéro buildings, and, yet further, the back

ground of the splendid city. The river This is probably not the best way of

highway of Paris is always interesting, and seeing an Exposition, but it came to be

this year, with its picturesque Old Paris the Spectator's way at Paris. The Spec

on one side and the long stretch of varitator tried the expert's way at first. This

colored National Buildings on the other, is to study a few things thoroughly; and

and with its never-ending flotilla of the plan commends itself to one's better

crowded passenger-boats and its fine judgment. But, after following the expert

series of bridges, it is incomparable. method, under the personal guidance of a

Especially when the buildings and bridges distinguished professor, for one morning, **

are illuminated at night does the spectacle the Spectator gave it up. He found that

take its place in one's memory alongside the time at his disposal would enable him

that other ever-memorable one of the to see only one corner of one building if

White City at Chicago under similar conhe spent it in this way, and that certainly

ditions. At Chicago one said, This can would not do. Then, too, the expert had

never be equaled! At Paris one said, a disagreeable way of admiring immensely

This can never be surpassed ! things which the Spectator thought very commonplace, and of condemning as tawdry and meretricious the things which The distinguished expert's epigram on the Spectator was inclined to praise. modern art, “ Its most sacred scripture After one of these distressing experiences reads, “Whatsoever things are ugly, whatthe Spectator was reminded of Rufus soever things are impure, whatsoever Choate's remark to his daughter at the things are of evil report-do these things,'” opera : “My dear, will you please inter- could scarcely have been uttered in the Hall of Sculpture. Fine indeed is the istic bachelor's apartment was a “house effect of these heroic groups of plaster and upside down," where mirrors reverse the bronze, with our own St. Gaudens's Gen- visitors, one's neighbors seem to be walkeral Sherman and Macmonnies's eques- ing on their heads, etc. A house which trian group taking a most distinguished had sheltered the great Napoleon while place. One feels inclined to spend all he was crossing the Alps is to be seen in his remaining time in this one department, the Swiss Village, which itself is one of but the American determination to “see the marvels of the Exposition and a great it all ” hurries him on. Many fine sculpt- triumph for the workers in staff. One ures are also found throughout the grounds, believes at first that an abandoned quarry including some old friends of the World's has been used for the village site, the Fair at Chicago. Almost everywhere, in imitation of rocks and cliffs is so perfect. the interior of the buildings, one finds The Norwegian Pavilion, containing boats evidence of the touch of taste. This may used by Nansen on his Polar expedition, not be art in the highest sense, but it and the fine Italian Building, with its gives one the feeling that this people, cathedral effect, are among the best of whatever its faults, has come nearer, in the national buildings. One of the intersome directions, than has any other to esting experiences was a test of the inrealizing the ideal of beauty.

hospitable-looking chairs marked “Go, Brothers !” (the firm of Allez Frères),

found everywhere on the grounds, which Among the various exhibits happened one has only to sit on for an instant to bring upon in a day in this vast congeries of a woman seemingly from nowhere to colthings interesting and amusing the Spec- lect a sou for the privilege. This “distator rescues, from memory's flotsam and appearing lady" is one of the features of jetsam, these: A house devoted to baby- a show where everything has to be paid incubators, with living examples of the for, often in ways which are startling to successful results ---tiny pink specimens the American visitor. of the genus homo in little glass cases kept at a uniform temperature, the babies being removed only to be fed. The kindly Everything has its price in the ExposiFrench nurses pour forth voluble expla- tion and in Paris, but the Spectator found nations of the nativity and present status the prices usually not exorbitant. Even of the motherless infants, and the aston- American drinks—i.l., beverages which ished visitor, murmuring, “What next?" are not mere “ wash-downs," as is the case drops a coin in the collection-box and with most French drinks, but cold and departs. At the other extreme, a Brob- delicious in taste-can be had, if the dingnagian Frenchman in the streets of visitor but knows where to find them, at Old Paris, said to be the largest man in average American prices. Of course, if the world, and one before whom the Spec- one goes to a fine roof-garden restaurant tator would not like to question the asser- he may expect to pay, as one of the tion. The French are supposed to be Spectator's friends did, two dollars for small, but, taking pattern afar off after cocoa and rolls for four—but then that this man, many of them are tall, stalwart included yard-square napkins and a fellows, notably the gymnasts who perform superb view of the Exposition. The cabs their feats on the sidewalks near the are ridiculously cheap-thirty cents for a Madeleine on holidays. A bachelor's ride to any part of Paris ; and the Specpalace is seen, consisting of a suite of tator had no disagreeable experiences beautiful rooms, expensively and attract-' with the cabbies, though he heard of many. ively furnished, where a man might live Lodgings may be had, with the careful an ideally quiet life of the hermit kind if attendance that a Frenchwoman gives, for he did not require a retinue of servants to a dollar a day, or less. The best restaucare for his apartments. One would rants are expensive, but so they are everysuppose the French Government would where ; and the Spectator found in Paris have refused to sanction this exhibit, be- restaurants which furnish at moderate wailing as it does the slow growth of rates cooking and service that one cannot France's population. A more character- find in New York at corresponding prices.

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