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withdrew, or took little trouble to make a life does the Exposition mark a greater good show. If all the British possessions step forward than in electrical engineer
-Canada, Australia, India, etc.—were to ing, when compared with the last Paris add their exhibits to the mother country's, international fair. Weapons of warfare they would make a formidable show, but come next in point of progress; the exthe colonies have their independent spaces. hibits of 1889 would be regarded as obsoGermany, on the other hand, has come to lete to-day. Special interest is attached Paris with the determination of impressing to the new engines of destruction in these the world that it is a great industrial days of wars, and the two largest individpower. It has gone in for ostentation. ual exhibits are in the military and naval No foreign country has brought such huge section. They are the pavilions of Schneimachines, or placed its goods in such der & Co., of Creusot, who supplied the elaborate settings. Fortunate in securing Boers with their “Long Toms," and the some ends of sections and conspicuous Vickers-Maxim Company, of England. places, Germany has made the most of The former have a turret-shaped structhe sites.
ture containing examples of their longOne of the leading features of the range and other new guns. The VickersExposition is the machinery hall, where Maxim Company have a collection of the power station is. A large amount of ferocious-looking quick-firing, death-dealelectric power is required for driving ing machine guns, and a large variety of machines and elevators, for the railroad weapons. and moving platform, and current is also Turning to the paths of peaceful inwanted for lighting and illuminations. dustry, there is no phase of it in which Foreign nations were asked to participate there is keener competition than in conin equipping the power station where their nection with textiles. Here the nations machinery could be put to a good practical meet ir friendly rivalry, and in looking test. Germany has best responded, sup over the spinning and weaving machinery plying about a third of the motive power. one notices a number of new inventions. It has sent four sets of generating appa- In the weaving section the Millar loom, ratus, which show that Germany is be- exhibited by a London firm although an coming a formidable competitor in the American invention, is the most ingenious. production of electrical plants. These are It introduces a clever combination of perhaps the most valuable German exhib- knitting and weaving, and is capable of its at the Fair. Some of the other German producing a great variety of cloth. A sections look impressive, but close exam- remarkable thing about the machine is ination wül show that there is little that, while it quickens production, any one originality, and that the workmanship is can work it after a day's teaching. These not of the best and most thorough kind. machines which increase production and It is a case of show rather than quality. dispense with trained and skilled oper.
The United States is the most business- atives form an important factor in the like among the exhibitors. American labor problem as well as in competition. machinery is moving where possible ; the Zurich, the center of industrial Switzerwhole process of making the American land, shows up well in this section, and show is performed under the people's eye. France displays much originality in its Weaving-machines are at work, a daily Jacquard machines. In the kindred secnewspaper is produced, and other samples tion of spinning machinery, prominence of characteristic American enterprises are should be given to an Alsatian firm for given. The American Pavilion in the Rue its ingenious use of electric power in a des Nations is like a business house ; other mule spinning-frame. One motor drives nations have made their pavilions look like the spindles and another works the carbazaars or art storehouses.
riage. British machinery appears to good Russia has made a great effort to im- advantage here, although in the textile press France and the world in the section as in other sections it cannot be said to devoted to metallurgy, where there are be representative of the industrial position great piles of tools and groups of castings. which England occupies. Russia is remarkably well represented. One of the most crowded parts of the
In no department of modern industrial industrial sections of the Exposition is that relating to costumes. There is a but simply a collection of sheds in a wonderful show of costumes and ladies' wooded park outside Paris. The most dress materials, and France maintains her exciting thing about the Annex is a cycle position for this class of goods. The ex- track, and in the absence of a crowd hibit sent by the city of Lyons is magnifi- cyclists and “motorists” are able to fly cent, and must be the envy and admira- over the road at full speed. While there tion of other countries interested in the is an enormous show of cycles from all silk industry.
countries, collections of agricultural and A section of the Fair which does not other machines, the Annex is chiefly inadmit of comparative treatment is that tended for exhibits referring to transporrelating to automobiles, which had no exist- tation. There are trains and cars of all ence ten years ago. There is an endless nations capable of producing them. Gervariety of motor-cars, vehicles of all sizes many has arranged a train in sumptuous and shapes—for useful purposes and for style, but it was probably not made in pleasure—from a wagon to a small motor- Germany, as it belongs to the International cycle. France has by far the largest show Sleeping-Car Company under another of these fin-de-siècle vehicles.
name. The French railroads take up a A survey of the chief industrial exhibits great deal of space, and America has an at the great Fair would not be complete excellent show. The new locomotive without a visit to the Annex at Vincennes. adopted on the State railroads in France There are no elaborate palaces and pavil- and included in the French section was ions at Vincennes, no crowds and no dust, made in Philadelphia.
China: A Missionary's View
By Mrs. S. L. Baldwin'
THE world stands aghast to-day at would flourish. Every inch of ground
the great upheaval in China, and was needed to keep famine from India's
asks persistently, What could have poor, but what of the hunger of the poor produced such a convulsion ? Among the as compared to the greed for gold? The various causes given of late we have the East India Company proceeded to comassurance, from sources by no means well pel poppy-planting in India, although informed, that the missionary is the chief it impoverished the soil, and for years cause of all the trouble. Without a doubt smuggled opium into China. After a the missionary factor is in the situation, time the English Government superseded but there are more factors than one, and said Company, and we then had the specthey have been doing their fruitful work tacle for many years of the great Chrisfor years. The only marvel is that the tian English Government engaged in revolt did not come sooner.
smuggling a deadly poison into a helpless Let us look at the chief causes of the country. The Emperor of China, finally present outbreak in the Chinese Empire. losing all patience after long years of defiAt one time opium was a contraband arti- ance of his laws ar d ruin of his people, cle in China. Only two hundred chests sent Commissioner Li from Peking to Canannually were allowed to enter the coun- ton, with full power summarily to execute all try, solely for medicinal purposes, and it Chinese in league with the smugglers and was strictly forbidden as an article of to confiscate all opium he could find. Li, trade. But the East India Company, then with great moderation, only shut up ir in charge largely of India and Eastern their factories the English and American trade, learned that the Portuguese profit merchants whose hands were black with ably smuggled opium into China. India the trade. He supplied them with good had vast plains upon which the poppy food, but seized their opium, put it in pits 1 As most of our readers know, Mrs. Baldwin was for
filled with water, and then foated it out many years a missionary in China, and writes from long to sea. An opium“ tea-party”! ple.-TH EDITORS.
Then England came with her cannon
and close observation and study of the country and peo
and soldiers, and we had the Opium War ple. While demanding for our people in as known in history, which Lord Elgin China the privileges of the “most favored declared "the most iniquitous war ever nation,” it denies to the Chinese what is waged.” But might conquered right, and granted to every other nation. England compelled China to pay $21,000,- So that to-day, while the very refuse of 000 for the war and opium destroyed, and Europe lands on our shores by the tens of took her southern port, her beautiful thousands, and seizes the ballot, and proisland of Hongkong, to-day one of Eng. ceeds to compete with the American as well land's chief colonies, and, worse still, com- as the Chinese in industries and in power, pelled China to admit opium as an article a college-bred Christian Chinese gentleman of trade. To this moment this awful curse enters our free Republic under the most and English Government monopoly is annoying and difficult conditions—not forced upon China.
infrequently having to give bonds for the Many times, as I have urged my sedan- privilege of landing. The refuse from chair bearers not to use opium, have they Europe which we welcome is divided returned me the answer, “ Why do you among our municipal positions, our jails foreigners bring it to us?” Miles in the and pauper establishments, and the Amerinterior, where a foreigner never lives and ican is taxed just so much more for its rarely is seen, his face suggests to the support, while the Chinese gentleman, native the white man's curse. When a with money of his own earning, goes to mob years ago in China drove the for- one of our colleges. I have no word of eigners out of one of their cities, they complaint of immigration laws that shut cried after them: “You burned our Sum- the door to the menacing multitudes of mer Palace; you killed our Emperor ; you every land; but when we let in the thouare poisoning our people ; you are devils !” sands of most dangerous immigrants from
Second, what of the other great Prot- Europe, and shut the door in the face of estant nation, the United States? Have even students and Christian ministers of we observed the Golden Rule toward a one land, then justice, yes, decency, cries friendly nation ? Not by any means. out in shame. Such discriminating laws We just bowed assent to all England did. have produced their legitimate results Our merchants shared in the traffic and here in the United States in the terrible the iniquitous indemnity forced from persecution of these helpless Chinese China ; and after the Chinese Govern- strangers in our land. Robbery, beatings, ment was compelled to admit opium as shooting, roasting alive-in short, every an article of trade, every chief American conceivable brutality—have been perpetea firm, save one, had its opium treasure trated upon them, not only on the Pacific vault and made its greatest profits on sin. coast, but bitter wrongs even in Boston, I say, save one; let me write that name New York, and other Eastern cities. Our out in full. Oliphant & Company stood dailies never make their front pages brillalone among the mercantile firms of all iant with startling headlines of a Rock nationalities with hands clean of the Springs massacre— when fifty Chinese wicked traffic. They would not allow a were killed in less than an hour, their chest of opium to be carried on their houses burned, many of them burned steamers or allow it to be mentioned in alive, women gloating over the suffering. their trade reports. Was sharing in the Fifteen years ago that occurred, and up opium traffic all that our Nation has done to date no one has been arrested, much to wrong China ? No! At the bidding less punished, for this fiendish work. of that element in our country which is Yet Mr. Cleveland, then President, deever the foe of any Republic—that would clared that “so far from the Chinese havclose our public schools, take the Bible ing done anything to cause the assault, and liberty of conscience and a free press their law-abiding disposition was their from the people—at the bidding of this, sole offense.” our most deadly foe, our Government has Third. France wanted to place her insulted China over and over again by the goods in China without paying duty, se most discriminating laws against its peo- she just stole Tonquin, killing many inno
cent people and destroying much valuI am glad to say that recently the American Government has forbidden its people to sell opium in China. able property. The Rev. C. M. Cobern, Ph.D., says: “It was only in 1884 that a extreme. Eastern people have a very strict certain French vessel steamed into a Chi- code of etiquette. China had her books nese port, and, without even a declaration on etiquette when our ancestors were the of war, blew up the entire Chinese fleet, grossest heathen. The lowest working. killing three thousand Chinese soldiers man in China has his idea of courtesy. and marines.” And this is only one of But our Western men are, in the majority many bitter wrongs perpetrated by the of cases, utterly regardless of any sort of French upon China.
courtesy toward the Chinese in general. Fourth, Germany. What has she done They go about with a lordly, superior air ; to complicate the situation ? Two German deal out cuffs and kicks and contempt Jesuit priests-never peace factors-were upon servants and workmen, and even to killed in the interior of China. As Li- those they meet in the street, if they Hung-Chang justly said, “In any other regard them as in their way. The precountry such a case would have had a fair vailing attitude of the foreigner toward trial, the guilty would have been arrested the native is too often that of assumed and punished." All of this the Chinese superiority and contemptuous command. would have done, and far more quickly than The immoral lives of so many promiwe settle such cases in our courts, but China nent foreigners in China also make a was not allowed to do so. Germany saw most unfavorable impression upon the her opportunity, and sent her gunboats and natives, and are a sad comment upon the soldiers, and stole Kiaochau, and miles purity of life that the foreign missionary and miles of China's territory! Again I ever exhorts the native to follow. It is quote from Dr. Cobern: “Only three not uncommon for the native listener to years ago a private party of Germans reply to the preacher and say, “ Teacher, sailed up a Chinese river with the German I see your own people do not follow their flag floating at the mast-head of the vessel, own doctrine." landed, and began digging up the tombs I look back over thirty-five years, of the Chinese kings, hunting for treas- twenty in China, of close knowledge of ure. Appalled and exasperated at the and touch with this great Empire and sight, the Chinese gathered, and when the its wonderful people, and so far as Gov. party resisted them with arms, they anni- ernments, trade, and persons are conhilated these violators of the dead from cerned, I see brutality, greed, and the most off the face of the earth! A few weeks bitter wrongs ever perpetrated against a later, after the German Consul had in- people. After years of absence in our quired what had become of these travelers homeland, we recently returned and made who had disappeared so suddenly, a a twenty-eight-thousand-mile tour through German war-ship steamed up the same China, Japan, and Korea. I earnestly river and burned down the villages of the hoped to find an improvement in the manpatriots who had defended the royal cem- ners of foreigners in China, but I found eteries.” Imagine, if possible, a party of only the usual exceptions, and I have ever Chinese travelers raiding our Grant's or been grateful for them ; but cuffs and Washington's tombs!
kicks and abuse and immorality still preI have given illustrations of only some of vailed, while the “Great Powers ” had the deeds of four of the “Great Powers." grown more impudently insulting in their The Chinese have ears to hear, eyes to greedy projects; and in all that great tour see and read, and hearts to feel, and are I breathed the air of a coming struggle, by no means lacking in mental strength and returned home to declare it certain in The effect of actual robbery by some the near future. It is here! nations, and the monstrous proposal to I said the missionary factor was in the dismember and appropriate the whole trouble, and the causes are not fully stated country, should not surprise any one by without referring to it. There are misnatural results. The assumed wonder of sionaries and missionaries. Protestant the nations at the present Chinese uprising missionaries have gone to China, have only illustrates how hardened national done their work humbly and patientlyconscience may become. The personal have not forced their way—have estabattitude of many foreigners in China lished schools, colleges, printing-presses, toward the native people is irritating in the newspapers, orphanages, industrial homes, have translated books, and done every: from correct. The power to do work such thing to enlighten and lift up a people as the above-which cannot be duplicated who have already a literary aristocracy, in any Protestant mission in the world-is And I wish to emphasize one fact. The due to the following concession secured Protestant missionary always holds all of through the French Minister's pressure his institutions open to full and free in- upon the Central Peking Government. spection; he seeks the fullest examina- Let Bishop Alphonse Favier, of Tientsin, tion, and welcomes and treats with all tell us in his recent report of his territory courtesy all visitors, whether official or what they compelled the Chinese Governfrom among the common people; and we ment to grant to them. I quote: "Early have the results in the increasing friend- in 1897 the Catholic Chinese were under ship of gentry and officials and their large persecution, and at that time the Imperial contributions to our school buildings and Government gave consent to the authorthe sons of many in our schools. But ities in France to have the propagation there is a missionary organization in of the Catholic religion authorized and China-that of the Roman Catholics- churches built in all the provinces of which follows very different methods, and China.” Now comes the very objectionin consequence stirs up great evil feeling, able and, to people and officials, justly prejudice, and suspicion. No open door offensive forced grant to the Catholics : invites the general visitor. No official “ The Imperial Government issued a would be or is permitted to go all through decree entitling Bishops to the same rank an orphanage or nunnery. High walls, as Viceroys and Governors and extending barred gates, and closed doors are not their privileges, in their absence, to the peacemakers anywhere—much less in a priests whom they leave in charge." heathen country, where people do not Again, a world of mischief and trouble is understand such methods. The Catho- in the following. I quote from the Bishop: lics are mainly French Jesuits, and France « The object of the decree was to allow stands firmly behind them, ready to pre- missionaries to settle local disputes with sent to the Chinese Government and en- the natives rather than appeal to the force all the demands of the “Fathers," Chinese Government or the home Govand they are by no means modest in their ernment.” Here we have the clutch and demands. The Rev. C. Frin, S. J., of the grasp of the “temporal power" with a Catholic Mission of Kiangnau, says: vengeance. Behold the Christian Catholic " To get a true idea of one of our mission Bishop holding court, examining witnesses, centers, in the districts where there have sentencing, punishing at his pleasure, ever been robber bands, picture to yourself favoring, as we too sadly know, his natives every Christian village as a small strong- against the heathen and to him the worse hold, fortified at every point of vantage. Protestant heretic. The state, retinue, In the center stands the residence of the and power taken on by these political commander, who is none other than the ecclesiastical Governors, Viceroys, and missionary. This residence is a regular Mayors leave little chance for native citadel, surrounded by high walls and officials, and make woes many for the flanked at its corners by four towers well native heretics and their Protestant misfortified. There are no doors. The sionaries, who, after serious consideration, going in and out is effected by means of declined the opportunity of such temporal ladders which are each time drawn back power, as altogether contrary to the spirit within. During the day the Father at and history of Protestantism. I declare tends to his duties and the Chinese to here and now that this demand so plausitheir work. At nightfall every one is at bly put for temporal power, with much home again, and if danger has been sig- else that might be told, has been no small naled they all retire within their forts, factor in widespread irritation among sentries being appointed to keep watch officials and people; and woe be to the from the towers. At the first cry of alarm poor native Protestant if his Catholic the men are up in arms, and the Father neighbor has a grudge against him I he is directs the defense.”