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great teacher was accused of being a it is assailed ; it insists that asceticism is wine-bibber because he drank wine at not Christianity; it insists that the law, weddings, feasts, and other similar occa- “ Touch not, taste not, handle not,” is a sions. He paid no attention whatever to pagan law which the New Testament the charge, continued to drink wine with repudiates, and is a poor substitute for his disciples, and left it for them to use the Christian life ; but it also insists that as a memorial of his presence and his life. when that liberty is secured, he who posThe names of the men who preferred the sesses it must use it, not for the satisfying charge against him have perished in obliv- of the flesh, not in mere self-gratification, ion, and the charge itself would no longer and not so as to become a stumbling-block be known had he not preserved it in to those who are weak. Each individual history by his reference to it.

must determine for himself how he will Temperance reformers will not accom- use this liberty : if this question is to be plish a permanent temperance reform until decided for him by another, it is not they learn the nature of the virtue which liberty at all. Where there is no liberty they advocate and the vice which they there can be no temperance. The inmates condemn. Temperance is not synonymous of a State prison are all total abstainers, with total abstinence from intoxicating but this does not make them all temperate liquors; it is self-control. Intemperance men. The object of teaching, preaching, is the mastery of the reason and the con- and example should be to make men science by the animal nature; temperance temperate; that is, self-controlled. The is the mastery of the animal nature by social excommunications, the rule-making, reason and conscience. The man who the legislation, which tend to substitute has good reason to think that drinking the control of one man over another man, coffee is injuring him, and still continues work against temperance because they to drink coffee, is intemperate; the man work against self-control. who has good reason to think that drinking wine or beer benefits him, and therefore drinks the wine or the beer, is not A Word for the Reader intemperate; he may be mistaken, but he is not intemperate. Drunkenness is a A great deal of sympathy has been sin; whether drinking is a sin depends expressed of late years for the writers of upon circumstances. To coddle the books : their burdens, perplexities, and drunkard as a poor victim, and condemn woes have been described with the utmost the occasional or temperate wine-drinker elaboration and in the most kindly mood. as a wine-bibber, is to confuse moral dis- It has been shown many times that, if tinctions and set moral laws at defiance. they have the poetic imagination, or the

The text is often quoted,“ If meat make gift of clear intelligence, or the love of my brother to offend, I will eat no meat sound form, they have fallen upon evil while the world standeth,” but those who days. It has been said that those who quote this text should not forget the pre- have musical voices sing in the ears ceding declaration of the same Apostle, of a generation which is indifferent to “ Neither, if we eat, are we the better; melody ; that those who have a deep philoneither, if we eat not, are we the worse.' sophic insight into life have happened We ought to remember his urgent counsel, upon a time which is concerned only with “Destroy not him with thy meat for whom the externals of diving; and that those Christ died;" but we ought not to forget who are committed by the structure of his other equally urgent counsel,“ Who art their own natures to the pursuit of the thou that judgest another man's servant ?” ideal have been born two or three cenIt is always right, and it is often duty, for turies too late. The difficulty of securing a Christian to surrender his liberty for intelligent attention at the start, the comthe sake of his brother, but he cannot petition of the magazine and the newssurrender what he does not possess. The paper, the indifference of editors and Outlook insists, with Paul, that he who publishers, the desire of the great untrained drinks not shall not condemn him who public to waste its time on stories of drinks ; it insists that each individual has adventure, sentimental verse, and semia duty of defending his liberty whenever religious commonplace, the fascination of science, the distractions of modern indus- assumed on every hand that he must be trial life—all these aspects of modern life acquainted with science; he is appealed have been set in order by way of explain- to, through the advertisements in his jouring why the great poet does not arrive nals, the announcements in the shop winand why the great novelist delays his dows, the placards at the news-stands, by coming. Every one who is convinced that the charms of the latest novel. all things are awry, and that modern life What shall he choose? in which direchas reversed all sound conditions of tion shall he go? to whom shall he turn living, thinking, and acting, laments the for advice? If he appeals to the authorievil conditions upon which the man of ties in the different fields, he often finds genius has fallen in our time, and grieves them at swords' points with one another. over the situation in which literature finds The scientist tells him that philosophy itself.

has had its day, and that it is to be studied But no one seems to think of the reader only from the historical point of view, as of books. His trials are never enumer- shedding light upon the processes of hisated, his griefs are not set down, his per- toric evolution. The philosopher, on the plexities are forgotten. He is either other hand, declares that he still pursues treated as a person who does not exist; the queen of sciences, and that no kind of or as an undeveloped individuality with knowledge yields its finest fruit until phiout definite tastes, convictions, or ideas; losophy has rationalized and interpreted or as a vulgar person who loves what is it. If he enters the field of literature, the meretricious, cheap, and unwholesome. romanticist confronts him as the weddingEvery writing gentleman of pessimistic guest in “ The Ancient Mariner” was proclivities falls foul of the reader at waylạid, and tells him a melancholy tale frequent and regular intervals, puts him of the decay of the spirit of romance, and in the pillory, and expends his scorn at depicts for him the brutalities of the leisure upon the unhappy victim. He is realistic movement. No sooner does he denounced because he reads too many escape this insistent guide than he falls newspapers, subscribes to too many mag- into the hands of the realist, who tells him azines, is a member of too many clubs, that romanticism is an outgrown mood of draws too many books from the libraries, an immature race; that the interest of a reads too much ephemeral literature, and mature race always centers in the fact, wastes too much of his strength on fiction. and that realism represents the only realHe is reproached because he reads " The ity. If his curiosity is whetted by what Sorrows of Satan " instead of the Essays he hears about Ibsen, Tolstoï, and Maeterof Bacon ; because he buys the latest linck, and he endeavors to get some light popular exposition of science instead of on their claims to attention, he is at once going to the authorities.

plunged into a fathomless bog of contraNow, the reader is not without his dictions. He hears, on the one hand, that faults ; as an average man, he shares the Ibsen is the first of modern dramatists and average moral defects of the race. He one of the most original men of genius in is often-perhaps as a rule--very im- our time, and, on the other, that he is a perfectly educated; he lacks the advan- charlatan, with a one-sided view of life, tages of specialized training, and he a philosophy of society which is hopehas had very little leisure; but it is a lessly crude, and an immoral tendency. serious question whether the reader of One group of people assure him that books does not deserve some of the sym- Tolstoï is the most powerful and searchpathy which has been extended to the ing novelist of the century, and another writers of books. His position is a diffi- that Tolstoï is a fanatic who has lost the cult one. He is offered an immense sense of art, who is as lacking in moral range of material, ancient and modern; reticence as Whitman, and who is the he is urged to read the classics; he is told master of all that is unwholesome. If he that no harmonious development can be opens “ Quo Vadis,” he is assured by the secured without acquaintance with the man on his right that it is one of the great poetry; he is reminded that nobody greatest of semi-historical novels, and by can understand his own time who has the man on his left that it ought to be not a good knowledge of history. It is suppressed by law. If he happens upon

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the “ Forest Lovers,” he is informed by and generation, as the equivalent of what one friend that he is going to feel again we would now call humor. Some time.in the charm of Spenser, and by another the future one of our scholars may make that he is in imminent danger of having the discovery that humor was definitely his imagination corrupted.

mentioned in this inspired list, just as it The problem which confronts the aver- has been decided that it isn't “charity age reader is by no means insoluble, but that vaunteth not itself, but “love." Or this bare statement of it suggests that he it may be that the gentle gift of humor ought to receive more sympathy than has had no actual place or need of existence yet been given him ; and that when his in the storm and stress of those sterner, evil conditions are fully taken into account more volcanic, less conventional and less he may not be either so ignorant or so subtle days. Be this as it may, it remains gross-minded as he is often represented. true for us in this present period that He is usually a very decent person, who some degree of humor each of us must would like to make the best use of his have, or labor under a serious disadtime if he only knew how to accomplish vantage among our kind. Firmness of that important result, and to get the most temper, force of character patience, enfor his money if he only knew what books durance-all these can do much toward to buy. He appears to like a good book gaining an end in view. But when all when it comes in his way, and he certainly these forces have been applied in turn has an instinct for selecting the best out unsuccessfully, how often, at a sudden of the work of the past. He still reads touch on that mighty lever called humor, Jane Austen, but he does not read “ The do we see all that accomplished which Castle of Otranto or “ The Mysteries force could never have gained ! of Udolpho.” He reads Shelley, but he has forgotten Tupper. Would it not be wiser to approach the reader in a sym- There was a certain very reasonablepathetic vein rather than to waste on him minded friend of the Spectator's who a satire to which he is probably indif- owned a wharf that led up from the water ferent and a scorn which rarely reaches before his door to his summer home, but, him ?

unfortunately, this wharf was also a convenient landing-place for the public road

that ran behind his house. The wharfThe Spectator

owner was a man sufficiently generous to

the traveling public, but when a man “ Every night and morning, when I say has any regard for privacy, as most of us my prayers," asserted a sweet lady of have, or ought to have, it is not conducive many sorrows, “ from the bottom of my to a calm state of temper to find boats heart I thank my heavenly Father, first constantly tied to our pier-posts, and the that I can read books, and, secondly, that boats' owners climbing over our wharf to I have a sense of humor.” And, indeed, walk across our lawns, past our porch, through the tragic happenings of that and under the very shadow of our own little lady's brave life, those who knew private vine and fig-tree. The wharf's her best could never doubt that her trials proprietor tried to solve his problem by were lightened, her burdens made bear- every method that firmness and dignity able, by the possession of those same dictated. He built him a fence at the blessings for which she thus gave thanks. pier's end. He posted warning signs, It has always seemed to the Spectator a and in his own person, with more or less little strange that among the beatitudes imperiousness, warned off persistent tresin the Sermon on the Mount humor is passers. All was of no avail. At last, not once definitely mentioned as a cardi- one morning, this fertile-minded proprietor nal blessing for which man should strive went to his wharf and carefully removed and pray. But those who, with the Spec- from it every sign he had posted there. tator, reverently believe in humor as a He also removed every vestige of his rare and helpful virtue may be able to fence, leaving the way perfectly free. persuade themselves that some one of the Then on the end of his landing he hung beatitudes must have stood, in its day one fairly large sign that threatened nothing and nobody. The sign was merely a we detect its presence. Not long ago the polite but brief poem, and ran thus : Spectator was visiting a fellow-worker, Please keep off

who was a wife and mother, and as he This private wharf.

sat near her desk his eye was suddenly Which gentle and, above all, humorous caught by a memorandum written so request was strictly respected from the clearly that at a glance (this is the Spechour of its appearance. Boat-loads of tator's justification) he read it. It ran people paused on their way, read, laughed, thus : and passed on, but ventured not to in

Write short essay on humor. trude on a privacy that laughingly ridi

Buy matches. culed them as intruders, though they had

Stove-lifter. not hesitated to trespass when seriously “What are you laughing at?" asked the threatened. The Spectator will quote Spectator's hostess, and in reply he one other such efficacious sign: “We silently pointed to the memorandum on don't lend our tools; you don't return the desk. The authoress blushed a little them!” This suggestive and humorous as she read the list, but the woman in her saying, hand-painted, and hanging over a rose at once in defense. country carpenter's work-bench, must “And why not

essays and stovehave palsied many a tongue that came

lifters ?" she asked. a-borrowing. The Spectator can answer “Why not, indeed ?" replied the Specfor one tongue that hurriedly changed a tator. “Only it struck me that your request for the loan of a foot-rule to a memorandum was a kind of short humormild request for a drink of water, but ous essay in itself. What do you think?" doubtless there were others who were And after a momentary struggle the similarly affected.

writer of this short humorous essay

admitted the impeachment. As a weapon of self-defense, humor has " I can see it's humorous," she answered, its own peculiar place in life's arsenal; “but I don't see why it is. Matches and that fact is proven ; but it is not a weapon stove-lifters are just as serious affairs and of offense, as is satire, the bastard cousin just as important to have as essays on any of humor. Humor's gentle answer turneth subject. Suppose you let me look over away wrath, while satire invites anger. your note-book.” A humorous retort has a pleasant and The Spectator handed her his note-book, calming influence, yet carries with it at and there on the first leaf that appeared the same time a subtle warning that the were these memoranda : speaker is not quite to be trifled with.

Answer Gov. -'s letter. Satire gives a like warning, to be sure,

See Editor of but, in common with chickens and curses

Buy Johnny's rocking-horse. and boomerangs, satire has a fatal trick “ There !" cried the Spectator's hostess, of coming home to roost. No one wholly turning the leaf out triumphantly. enjoys being laughed at, smile the humo:- The Spectator read the items over. ist ever so gently; and in this laugh lies “Yes,” he said, “there they are, the humor's restraining power ; but when it same kind of items: but your point is not comes to being sneered at, as satire sneers, proven. Your memorandum 'strikes us human nature will not endure the insult, both as humorous, and mine doesn't at and sooner or later vengeance is apt to all. It seems perfectly natural. I don't follow. It may be that humor has no know why that's so, but it is and you know place in the original beatitudes, but the Spectator must still declare, Blessed are The Spectator's candid friend thought the Humorous! We love them for the for a moment and then replied : self-restraint which keeps ridicule inside “But why is it so ?” the line of satire, and yet we fear their “ I don't know," said the Spectator. gentle laugh sufficiently to respect their “I think it has something to do with the "private wharves."

woman question, but I'm not sure."

"Suppose you write and ask The Still speaking of humor, it is not Outlook about it," said the lady. always an easy thing to define, even where "I will," said the Spectator,

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By Robert Donald

Editor of the London “ Municipal Journal" (This is the first of a series of articles relating to the Paris Exposition. Other subjects and writers will be: The Religious Aspect, by Charles Wagner, author of "Youth” and “Justice ;" The Social Economics Exhibition (illustrated), by Dr. W. H. Tolman, Secretary of the League for Social Service; Educational Aspects, by Howard J. Rogers, Director of Education for the Commissioner-General of the United States to the Exposition ; The Historical Element, by the Rev. W. E. Griffis, D.D., author of “The Mikado's Empire," etc., etc.; Woman's Part in the Exposition, by Madame Blanc (Th. Bentzon); and The Pictorial Side of the Exposition, by Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith, illustrated by the author.-The EDITORS.]

NDUSTRY, liberating and sacred ful bronze lamps, such architectural and industry, it is thou who consoleth! artistic embellishment. The low arch

Under thy steps ignorance vanishes, makes a most graceful span, and, by keepevil flies! By mankind, freed from ing the arch down to the level of the roadthe servitude of night, mounts, mounts way, the vista looking towards the façade without ceasing, towards that luminous and dome of the Invalides Palace is uninand serene region where is one day to be terrupted. All the buildings for which the realized the ideal of perfect accord, of French people have been responsible are honor, justice, and kindliness."

well conceived, with the exception of the In these words M. Millerand, Minister monumental entrance, which is an eyesore. of Commerce, apostrophized industry in Turning from the buildings - to the his speech at the opening of the Paris means of getting about the Exposition, we Exposition. He regarded the creation of find that French originality ceases. At the Exposition as a triumph for French the Exposition of 1889 the chief means of industry. And so it is. The scheme has transit was a little Decanville railroad. been wonderfully well conceived and The means now mark an advance. There admirably executed. The site has been are an electric railroad and a moving platused to the best advantage. What strikes form. A platform of this style has been one most--viewing the Exposition build- seen before in Chicago and afterwards at ings from an industrial standpoint-is the Berlin, although the French claim priority dominating artistic element which leaves for this invention. The electric railroad its impress everywhere. The French has been equipped by the Société Indusworkman is slow; he is always behind; trielle d'Électricité, which is the French he finishes late, but well. Centuries of name for the Westinghouse Company. training have developed the special char- The Exposition is the most representaacteristics of French architects and engi- tive epitome of the world's industry which neers; the national artistic sense among has ever been brought together. It is the the people--attributable partly to temper- great international shop window where ament, partly to environment—has pro- every nation has samples of its wares. duced the neat craftsman. The uniform- Allowing for the natural preponderance ity which usually characterizes French of France in every section as regards design has been relieved by one or two extent of space occupied and the number outbursts of originality in the Exposition of articles exhibited, the Exposition may buildings. The two permanent palaces be taken as representative. are thoroughly unconventional, and the A run through the machinery hall and Alexander III. bridge is a magnificent galleries, where the products of industry piece of original work. One does not are exhibited, leaves the impression that know whether to regard it as an engineer- of all foreign countries Germany has the ing masterpiece or a work of art. It is most imposing show, America the most

Two engineers, two architects, and businesslike. Great Britain took the four sculptors were engaged upon it, and short-sighted policy of boycotting the their combined talent has produced what Exposition. Just at the time when firms many consider the finest bridge in the should have been preparing their goods, world. No bridge ever had such beauti- the Fashoda incident occurred, and many

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