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7. The text gives a little information about Robert College. Find out more about it. Study the map to see its central location. How many races and nations have special interests in Constantinople ?

8. Give several reasons why the United States is the only foreign country which enjoys the full confidence and esteem of the Chinese.

9. What is a scientist? an engineer? Professor Pumpelly was a scientist and Herbert Hoover an engineer. Explain the difference in the work of the two men in China. A timid man or a man afraid of hard work could never be either a successful scientist or a successful engineer. Explain why.

10. The United States has built so many miles of railroads, drained so many swamps, changed the courses of so many rivers, that it has a large corps of trained engineers. What are some of the difficult achievements of our engineers in the United States ?

11. Do you see any relation between the free public schools, the inexpensive or free colleges and technical institutes, and the fact that we have had expert engineers to send into other countries ?

12. Do you think it right or wise for Americans to fight in other countries? Find out all that you can about the struggle in Greece in which many Americans fought.

13. American citizens remain Americans in foreign countries unless they formally renounce allegiance to the United States and formally accept citizenship in the country in which they wish to live. Name some Americans who have become foreigners.

14. If there is a large foreign-born population in your community find out if many have returned to the home country within the last few years. The priests, rabbis, and clergymen can give some information about this, so can the local banks.

15. Are you planning to study or travel in a foreign country? If so, tell about it. Have any of the musicians, artists, and doctors in your community studied in Europe ? If so, where ?

16. Europeans have often called Americans money-mad. Suppose that someone has made this statement to you in good faith. Assemble the facts that you would use to prove that this is not true. Be prepared to take either the negative or affirmative side of this question in a class debate.

17. In Chapter X the need of leaders was discussed. What would a person have had to do in 1921 to "lead” the people of the United States to save from death some of the refugees mentioned on page 507? 18. One of the ways that the student can get into the outside world while still in high school is by means of the forum plan. The class or school organizes as a forum, officered by students, meeting at the hour of general assembly. The students then divide into nations and proceed according to some such plan as:

a. Fifteen students, say, become Britons; ten, French ; twelve, Germans; six, Greeks; eight, Turks; ten, Chinese; eight, Japanese; five, Mexicans; etc.; until all the important peoples of the globe are represented.

b. Each of these national groups informs itself concerning its relations with the rest of the world: what it gets, what it gives, what official and what unofficial agreements link it to other nations.

c. Each group has occasional meetings, the presiding officer being a senior who is a member of the senior oral English class. This leader studies and impersonates the leader of the nation in question: president, prime minister, etc.

d. Each national group brings before the whole forum (class or school) the various international problems that come up for consideration. These are discussed and resolutions passed.

e. Any given national group may present, from time to time, important facts concerning its nation, also biographical sketches of national leaders, folk songs and dances, current and past historical events dramatized, etc. The forum becomes, through such presentations, a place of entertainment as well as instruction.

19. Examine the advertising pages of several magazines and newspapers and make a list of the opportunities to invest in foreign bonds, stocks, and other property.

20. If there are in your community men or women who have traveled in other countries on business or to study or on errands of helpfulness, try to arrange to have one or more of these speak to the civics class. CHAPTER XX

AMERICA GOES INTO THE OUTSIDE WORLD OFFICIALLY

1. The United States sends Ambassadors, Ministers, and Consuls to Foreign Countries. In the preceding pages we have enumerated ways in which the United States has gone into other parts of the world to work, study, rebuild, teach, and trade. This has all been the work of unofficial America. But the United States is officially present in every corner of the world. Except in times of crisis there is within every country a bit of the United States. In some cases this consists of a few rooms, sometimes a small house, and in a few instances a pretentious building. Over these buildings or at the entrance to the rooms fly the Stars and Stripes, and inside live and work American citizens. These rooms and buildings are usually rented and not owned by Americans, but as long as the persons who occupy them are Americans in whose desk or safe lies a simple but impressive little document bearing the great seal of the United States and the signature of the president of the United States, the place is United States territory.

The persons who occupy these bits of United States territory in foreign lands are ambassadors, ministers, consuls general, consuls, vice consuls, translators, and special agents and secretaries — all employed by the Department of State to represent this country and to act as signal towers for the part of the nation that buys and sells, travels, studies, and works outside of the United States. Ambassadors, ministers, and envoys are a part of the diplomatic service, consuls general and consuls of the consular service.

When the president chooses for his cabinet a secretary of state he is in reality choosing a foreign secretary; that is, a

an

man to act for him in all matters concerning foreign countries. But no secretary of state chosen could attend to all the foreign affairs of the United States. So the president appoints a large group of assistant secretaries, called the "diplomatic service,"

who are known as ambassadors, ministers, and envoys. Outside of his cabinet the president has no more important appointments to make than these. Many people of foreign countries know America only through these men. Whether it is at a dinner, a theater, a ball game, or

official conference, their words and actions are being interpreted as indicating what the United States thinks and feels.

In 1920 the United States had in foreign countries

forty-eight

© Clinedinst diplomatic and over Jacob Gould Schurman, minister to China in three hundred consular 1922. Consult a "Who's Who” to learn what

representatives, besides his qualifications were

more than two thou

sand assistants. Since the quarters in which these representatives live and work have been made United States territory by treaties negotiated through the State Department, nothing within these offices can be touched by the nation in which they are located. Any foreign nation can, however, refuse to accept a representative of the United States who is not pleasing to it.

[graphic]

2. The United States the Protector of Latin America. The United States was only a young nation when it began to make itself felt officially in other countries. In his annual message to Congress in 1823 President Monroe announced to the world that the United States was the protector of all the little and big countries of the Western Hemisphere. This message, which became known as the Monroe Doctrine, has been more discussed than any other American document except the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. But like these two documents it has not been merely a series of sentences to be talked about. It has been a living document put into effect many times. Usually it has taken only letters from the Secretary of State to enforce this doctrine; at other times it has required the presence of battleships.

At one time Great Britain became involved in a dispute with Venezuela about the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana, and it seemed to the United States that Venezuela was not being fairly treated. For many years England refused to arbitrate the matter. Finally President Cleveland tried to bring about a settlement according to the general principles of the Monroe Doctrine. The result was that Great Britain agreed to arbitrate, and a boundary line was set that was accepted by both countries.

3. Official United States helps Trade through the State Department. "Freedom of the seas” has been the slogan of the nation, and to this end the government at Washington has been persistently vigilant. It was due chiefly to the efforts of our Department of State that Denmark in 1857 decided to abolish the dues that it had been levying on vessels and cargoes passing from the North Sea into the Baltic. Treaties with Bolivia in 1858 and with Canada in 1871 secured free navigation of the Amazon, La Plata, and St. Lawrence Rivers.

Special trade privileges are secured with foreign countries by means of treaties made by the president through the Department of State. To profit by these treaties the United States appoints consuls to live at the important ports and commercial

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