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His Majesty the Emperor of China salutes :

In virtue of the commission we have with reverence received from Heaven, and as China and foreign nations are members of one family, we are cordially desirous of placing on a firm and lasting basis the relations of friendship and good understanding now existing between us and the nations at amity with China. And as a part of our genuine desire for that object, we have specially selected an officer of worth, talent, and wisdom, Anson Burlingame, late minister at our capital from the United States of America, who is thoroughly conversant with Chinese and foreign relations, and in whom, in transacting all business,

we have full confidence as our representative and the exponent of our ideas. ...

Dated this sixth day of the twelfth month of the sixth year of our reign.

Lung Chih

It was a strange mission-orientals, representatives of one of the oldest nations of the Old World seeking help from the youngest of the nations of the New World. A reporter, in describing the state dinner given the envoys at the White House, said:

It was a singular sight to see those ancient Asiatic countenances, lighted by the conceit and shaded by the tyrannies of four thousand years, led by the smooth-faced Anglo-Saxon, beneath the shadow of the Eagle and the Stars, to receive the welcome of men whose creed it is to hate idolatry and despotism, and whose only ineradicable custom it is to despise caste and ceremony and stability.

20. A Great Event in World History. While this Chinese delegation was the most interesting of all the foreign missions that have come to the United States, probably the most important was the conference of foreign delegates in 1921-1922. It was under the shadow of the Washington Monument, in the Pan-American building, that the momentous conference was held. •Here, in an attractive but simple and unpretentious room, the first successful attempt to make war more difficult was carried out. The official representatives of China, Japan, England, France, Italy, Belgium, Portugal, and Holland -all of them nations that were ancient before this nation was born, all nations that had had emperors, kings, or queens, that had seen weary stretches of warfare and years of famine and plague due to war's ravages-came to the capital city of Washington to plan ways of beginning the limitation of naval armaments. Every foreign official who was at this Washington conference carried back to his home country the memory of a plain, straightforward President, a plain, straightforward Secretary of State, and a large array of simple, direct assistants who said what they meant and meant what they said. In 1918 a million of our soldiers talked plainly and forcefully with courage and weapons and showed all the world what unofficial America was. In 1921 our President, Secretary of State, and the other officials showed all the world what official America was. It was one of the greatest single lessons in democracy that the world had had.

PROBLEMS AND EXERCISES

1. Read this and the following chapter before studying either in detail. Make a brief outline of the two as if they were one chapter.

2. Find out about the foreign-born population of your community and state. Make a study of the two countries from which the two highest numbers of immigrants in your state come. Learn (1) what form of government each has; (2) what are its chief occupations; (3) what are the causes for emigration; (4) what beautiful things and attractive customs exist there; (5) what are the most important facts in the past history of the nation; (6) who some of its great men have been.

3. Find the passage in the Federal Constitution that prevents states from making immigration laws that conflict with Federal laws. What are some of the laws dealing with immigrants passed by your state? If the state has a bureau of immigration learn what its duties are.

4. Find out from the last census report what is the foreign-born population of your state and in what sections the greater part of it is located. In some states whole suburbs of manufacturing cities and whole rural communities will be made up of the foreign-born or the children of foreign-born. Does your state have such centers ?

5. If any foreign-born live in your community, let the class as a whole find out (1) the number; (2) the countries from which they come; (3) the streets on which they live ; (4) the places in which they work ; (5) the churches they attend; (6) their amusements; (7) their banks and stores; (8) whether they can speak and understand English; (9) how many of them attend evening school; (10) what newspapers and books in their own language they have access to. To make this study, pupils will have to have special assignments, but all pupils should enter the information in their loose-leaf notebooks.

6. Re-read what is said about leadership in Chapter X. Has your community leaders among the foreign-born? What are some of the things that need to be started to help this part of your community ?

7. On page 462 is given a list of some of the ways in which Americans can help the newcomers of their neighborhood. In many large cities a stranger cannot take books from the public library unless two known residents recommend him. Find out if this is the rule of your public library. If it is, how could you help a newcomer in this respect ?

8. Not all savings. banks and trust companies are reliable. Suppose that your civics class has been asked to recommend a reliable savings bank to a foreigner. How would you go to work to learn about any given bank in your community? It would seldom be wise to say that a certain bank was not safe, but it would always be permissible to say that you

knew that a certain bank was reliable. (See page 412.) 9. If a foreign-born person should tell you that he was going to return to the Old World because America is "no good,” what questions would you ask him ? What would you tell him about the part of America that is fine and helpful that he has perhaps misunderstood ? Arrange such a conversation between two members of the class, allowing the other pupils to be onlookers who may take part in a general discussion after the conversation is finished.

10. What has your community as a whole or any private organization or individual done to entertain a foreign guest or to make the immigrant feel welcome ? What might it do?

11. Who are some of the foreigners who come here on special errands? Name several important missions of the last few years. Search the newspapers to find references to foreign students, business men, consuls, ambassadors, authors, and other foreign visitors.

12. In such annual reference books as the World Almanac and the Statesman's Yearbook you will find a list of the ambassadors, ministers,

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and consuls to the United States. Examine this list to see what countries are not represented. Find out the reasons for this.

13. If you live in a city, search your directory to learn if any foreign consuls have offices in your community. If they do, perhaps your principal would approve of inviting one of them to speak to the civics class on his duties and what he thinks of America. In a way he is the guest of your community as well as of the nation, and the school should show him every possible courtesy. Whether or not you can entertain any such guest, plan a program for such an occasion.

14. Assume that in the nearest large city consuls from England, France, Italy, and China are stationed. Try to imagine yourself in their places; that is, you are to send frequent letters of information to your home country telling about the coal, steel, cotton, automobiles, shoes, etc., that business men there may wish to buy, and also reporting on the possibility of their finding a market for the things they want to sell. Find out a few of the things that are made or grown in your state which are exported to foreign countries, and a few of the things from other countries that come into your state.

15. Tell all that you can about the conference held in Washington to discuss the limitation of naval armaments. Why was this conference a great historical event that will be mentioned in all the histories that pupils in all countries study ?

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1. Many of the World's Treasures have come to America. While the tide of immigrants who are to live here and help change the nation is the most important part of the outside world that comes to the United States, other parts are also changing the nation. Some of the best of the Old World is here in the form of paintings and other rare art works. In the Metropolitan Museum of New York City is a world-famous collection of miniature portraits. Among these is a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots which at one time belonged to Charles the First and bears his initials. These portraits are likenesses of some of the world's most famous persons and also the work of some of the world's greatest artists. In the residence of a wealthy New York man is a private library whose vaulted entrance is supported by columns of greenish marble taken from a famous French château, and its floor is paved with stones brought from Rome; here is a collection of rare manuscriptsyellowed sheets of paper before which men whose names we mention with reverence once sat dreaming until their dreams could be written down in words. Robert Burns's "Auld Lang Syne," Sir Walter Scott's "Waverley," "Ivanhoe,” and “The Lady of the Lake," Byron's "Don Juan," Keats's "Endymion," are a few of the treasures among these manuscripts.

2. Art Museums and Libraries contain Some of the World's Rare and Beautiful Things. Every art museum and most of the large public libraries in the United States contain some of Europe's or Asia's art treasures. Among the Old World treasures owned by the Metropolitan Museum of New York City is the famous gold cup made by Italy's wizard silversmith, Benvenuto Cellini of Florence. In another museum in New York

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