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31. The Church helps counteract Ugliness. Of all the unofficial organizations which help to eliminate the kinds of ugliness that spoil even the most attractive community, the church is the most important. It is important not only because it aids the poor and the sick but because it teaches the principles of right living. A part of the teaching of every church, whatever the denomination, is that there is a power higher than the individual to whose laws one must conform if he wishes happiness and contentment. Those communities in which the churches flourish are seldom those in which lawlessness also flourishes.

PROBLEMS AND EXERCISES

1. Read the chapter quickly as a whole, then make a brief outline of it under three headings to show what the government does to make America beautiful, what private organizations do, and what individuals do. Devote a page to each heading. Have a separate sheet also under these three headings for your community.

2. Turn to the list of the community government officials and bureaus prepared for Chapter VI and find out which of these are directly or indirectly concerned with making the community attractive.

3. Make a "beauty” survey of your community, or neighborhood if you live in a large city. This may be merely an extension of the study already made of the community for Chapters V and VI. But let this be a thoroughgoing survey, to learn exactly how much remains to be done. When the complete list of what needs to be done is made out, divide this into two parts: (1) the things that pupils can accomplish and (2) those which the older people must attend to. Of the things which the older people must attend to, indicate what would be the best means of getting results — whether through private organizations or government bureaus.

4. After this survey has been made, have a committee appointed by the class to make out a report and send to the local newspaper. The editor will probably be glad either to refer to this or to print parts of it.

5. If the principal thinks wise the class may prepare a simple exhibit to be placed in the public library or in some central store to show what needs to be done. Some pupils can take photographs, others can make drawings to show where improvements are needed. This exhibit should give special emphasis to changes needed in schools, library, playgrounds. 6. In 3 you have probably included items about the smoke, noise, and billboard nuisances. Let several members of the class make a special report on these to indicate (1) the cause ; (2) how much discomfort is caused; (3) whether there are any laws to prevent these, and, if so, why they are not enforced; (4) whether any attempt is being made to pass adequate laws to remedy these; (5) what private organizations, like board of trade, civic league, are trying to improve conditions.

7. Does your state have a law which permits or requires zoning in communities? If so, is it enforced? If not, what is the reason ? Massachusetts has an excellent law, but it provides for no penalties for failure to observe the law. Is this the case with the law of your state ?

8. If any of the essential occupations of your community or state have unattractive surroundings, find out whether this is unavoidable. If it is, show, if possible, that the work helps provide beautiful things for other people — perhaps in distant parts of the world. For instance, in developing the anthracite coal regions of northeastern Pennsylvania the beauty of wooded hills and green meadows has been spoiled, but "today over 100,000 families get their living out of this section ... where 100 families of Indians could not live, and homes in every part of the United States have warmth and light because of the coal.”

9. If you have spent a vacation in a beautiful spot, tell about it. If you have not, decide on some place that you would like to see and get facts about railroad rates, boarding-house or hotel rates, the best time of year to see it. Go about the getting of information as if you could surely visit this place next summer.

10. Does the occupation which you are planning to take up when you leave school directly or indirectly create beautiful things ? If through the work by which you earn your living you cannot contribute to the beautiful, there will be ways in which you can encourage those who do. For instance, unless artists find buyers for their pictures, they cannot paint ; unless florists have buyers they cannot raise flowers. If you had five hundred dollars to spend on pleasure, how could you spend it to encourage those who produce beautiful things ?

11. Is there a national park, monument, or bird reservation in or near your state? If so, find out (1) when it was made such, (2) who did the "leading,” (3) what is the result to the state in fertility, streams, beauty.

12. Are there any public tourists' camps in your state or county? If so, who supports them?

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13. Discuss in class how the inside of the home can be made beautiful (use the material gathered for use in Chapter V).

14. Explain how art museums help make America beautiful. Refer to your loose-leaf-notebook material on this subject and describe several beautiful things which the nearest art museum has.

15. When a reporter interviewed a famous Frenchwoman, to his question "What is the secret of a woman's beauty?” she replied: "There are three things: first, intelligence; second, intelligence; and third, intelligence.” Discuss in class what intelligence is and how it can make a person attractive.

16. Make a list of all the helps that your community affords for gaining and keeping health. Include playgrounds, parks, ponds which offer opportunities for rowing and skating, athletic clubs, private clubs, gymnasiums, the regular and efficient collection of garbage, etc. In each case indicate whether it is government or private individuals who have made the help possible ; then make two groups of the list, one to show how much government does and the other how much the people unofficially do.

17. What is the difference between hard work and overwork? What are the hours of work in most of the occupations in your community ? Does any occupation have the ten-hour day? Why is it easier to work many hours out of doors than in offices and factories ?

18. Study several weeks' issues of some local paper and clip all items relating to lawbreakers. Arrange these in groups according to the kind of offense or crime committed. What is being done by the people to prevent these kinds of lawlessness in your community? Are many of the offenders young? What preventives of crime, like playgrounds, baseball grounds, parks, free concerts, community centers, does your community have? (Refer to loose-leaf-notebook material compiled for Chapter VII.)

19. There are numberless opportunities for leadership in making the community attractive. Every act of leadership has some tangible result. What special opportunities can you see in your community? If your class as a whole could lead in some one of the many ways suggested by this chapter, what would it plan to do ?

CHAPTER XVII

THE OUTSIDE WORLD IN AMERICA — I

1. All the World has come to America. During the centuries that America was a world of Indian tribes, wild animals, great forests, mighty rivers, vast mountains and plains, it was a shut-in world. The Indian tribes wandered about at will, but they never passed the barrier of the ocean, and those beyond the ocean did not even know of this continent of wonders. The America of those years was not many worlds in one-just one big, struggling Indian world. But from the day that the first white man touched foot to American soil, America has been invaded peacefully but continually by all the nations of the earth.

In the official headquarters of Turkey, many years ago, there were several deaf-mute attendants who described the diplomats of the various nations by means of gestures. They designated the American minister by holding up their palms and blowing on them to show that he had come from a far country. Several years later they described him by swinging their arms around in a circle to show that he came from a great

a world power. This gesture was more fitting than they probably knew, for not only had the United States become a world power in the sense of being one of the most powerful nations, but it had gathered to it some of all the nations of the world.

By 1919 more than thirty-three million people had made the long journey from alien shores to this country. Such facts as the necessity of printing a recent official census of New York City in twenty-two languages, and the presence of men of fortyeight different nationalities in a single factory in Detroit, help us realize that the United States consists of parts of all the world. In this respect our nation differs from every great European nation, as the figures of a recent year show.

PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN-BORN IN THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE WORLD Europe

United States
London

3 per cent
New York.

41 per cent Paris 6 per cent Chicago

36 per cent Berlin 2.9 per cent Boston

36 per cent Vienna I per cent Cleveland

34 per cent Detroit

33 per cent

2. Something about the Kind of People who come to America. Who are these 41 per cent of foreign-born of New York City, the 33 per cent of Detroit ? What kind of people are filling up the nation so rapidly? To answer this question in detail would fill many volumes, for these millions are of every race, religion, and ambition. Differences in race, religion, occupation, matter little, but work ideals and home ideals matter much. We have rigid laws excluding all but a few of the yellow races, not because of their religion but because their standards of work and home are so different from ours. We also have laws excluding anarchists, criminals of all kinds, and illiterates, because their ideals would destroy what has taken so long to build up. Of the peoples whom we have admitted without restriction some have become foremost Americans, others have been hindrances.

3. Difficulties confronting the Immigrant. Immigrants have come to us so rapidly (in some years there have been as many as five millions) that it has often been difficult for them to find work and homes readily and to discover the real America. Americans for a long time did not realize how much the foreigners had to learn. In his own country when a Syrian enters another's house, he leaves his shoes at the door but keeps his turban on. When invited to dine with another he must always decline, expecting to be asked again and again. It is not only customs that the immigrant must learn here but new things. Even a stove is a mystery to many a newcomer. One immigrant tried to make a fire by burning kindling in the oven. Ignorance of our minor customs and manners, however, can be overcome in a short time, once the newcomers are brought in touch with real American work life and home life. The deplor

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