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All Things Truth beareth away Victory.” The chief cause of hatreds is ignorance; the cure for ignorance is truth. Hate within the nation must be cured. The young people in school today can do more to effect this cure than any preceding generation, because there are more libraries, more open forums, more books and magazines, more museums, more helps of every kind. The spread of the telephone, the telegraph, the increased mail service, the growth of good roads, all are helps.

PROBLEMS AND EXERCISES

1. Re-read Chapter XII in connection with the reading of this chapter. Make an outline of the two chapters as if they were one.

2. Probably you have not yet given much thought to plans for studying after schooldays, but begin now a page in your loose-leaf civics notebook headed, "Ways of Learning after Schooldays are Over.” Divide the items which you set down here into two parts, one devoted to the things one should learn to secure the right kind of home and the other to what will make for success in work life.

3. Re-read what was said in Chapter III about leisure, then think out ways that a person can make up in leisure hours for lack of school opportunities.

4. Begin at once to observe how the men and women in your community are still learning. From scraps of conversation and from using your eyes intelligently you will get some idea about this, also by asking your parents and older people with whom you are well acquainted.

5. Of the successful persons you know how many owed their success to what they learned after school years ?

6. Set aside one day for a special "listening” day just to prove to yourself how much that is helpful you can learn in this way. The class will discuss their experiences. 7. In your school work you have probably learned how to take notes

you hear in a lecture and what you read in books and periodicals. To demonstrate how well you can do this, make notes to bring to class on the first lecture you hear or the first book other than fiction that you read.

8. Are you studying shorthand ? Have you ever considered learning this as a help to taking notes when reading in the library or listening

on what

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to a lecture? Woodrow Wilson is one of the many prominent men who found shorthand an invaluable aid in everyday tasks. Discuss in class the ways in which shorthand would be of assistance to you.

9. What distinguished person either of the past or of the present do you know? Before reading anything more about this person set down exactly what you know about him. You will probably be surprised to find how few facts you have. After an evening's further reading set down what you have learned to compare with your first set of facts. Acquaintance with a person of either the past or the present cannot be attained quickly. Write out a list of the things you particularly wish to learn about this person.

10. Decide on several persons —perhaps a painter or sculptor, a musician, a writer, a statesman, a philanthropist — whom you would like to know well. Begin to set down all you can learn about these.

11. Assume that you are talking with a younger pupil who must leave school now. What could you tell him about "learning by doing”? Up to the present what have you learned by doing either in school or in vacation work.

12. In how many ways do you meet groups of people? What things do you now do in groups ? Explain how your English work helps prepare you for

group work. What other helps does school give in this direction? 13. What are some of the ways in which the older people of your community come together? Which of these do you think help them most in their after-school education ?

14. Make a list of all the means available in your community for learning after schooldays are over. Find out who provides each of these, whether it is local, state, or national government, a private organization, or private individuals.

15. Study your library with the following or a similar outline : 1. Location of the library. Is the library easy of access? If not, why has

not a better location been chosen? Is the building so marked that a

stranger could find it easily? 2. The beauty of the library a. Describe the exterior of the building and the grounds. Is the building

architecturally attractive? What has been done to make the grounds attractive? What is the most striking feature of the exterior?

If this is unattractive, how could it be changed ? b. Is the interior attractive architecturally? If so, in what ways? If

not, in what ways is it unattractive?

c. Does it contain pictures or ornaments of any kind ? If so, are these

really attractive ? d. Of how many rooms does it consist ? Describe these from the point

of view of efficiency and attractiveness. 3. Periodical room. Does the library have a periodical room as well as a

general room?
a. For what periodicals does the library subscribe ?

b. What changes would you suggest ? 4. Children's room. Is there a separate room for children, or a separate

corner for them? a. If not, why not?

b. What practical suggestions could you make along this line ? 5. Special rooms. Does your library have a special room for the use of

the foreign-born, with periodicals and books in foreign languages ? Would such a room be useful in your library? How could it be

secured? 6. Collections of books a. An especially useful part of a library is its books of reference. Find

out how many and what kinds of the following books your library

has and if they are up-to-date : (1) Dictionaries

(4) Yearbooks (2) Encyclopedias

(5) Atlases (3) Lexicons b. Find out also how many and what kind of books the library has of (1) Standard fiction

(3) Essays (2) Recent fiction

(4) Foreign languages c. Find out about some of the out-of-print and rare books that your

library has. How were these obtained ? 7. Catalogue arrangement. Is it a simple matter to find the books you

want? Tell how you do it. 8. Atmosphere of the reading-room

a. Is it too quiet? too noisy? b. Is the air good ? c. What about the lighting during the day and in the evening? What

changes would you suggest ? 9. Attendants

a. Is there sufficient help at all times?
b. Are the assistants interested in their work?
c. What plans for betterment have they?
d. How could the school help in these plans?

e. How can a person secure a position in the library ? 10. Management. Who owns the library? Who paid for the building? the

books? Where does the money come from which buys coal, pays for lighting, pays the janitor, the librarian, and all the assistants ? Is there a board of trustees? If so, tell how they are chosen.

11. Library efficiency a. If the library facilities are inadequate what steps should be taken to

improve things ? What steps have been taken and what was the

result?
b. If library facilities are inadequate, what compensating conditions

are there?
(1) What periodicals are regularly available on news stands?
(2) What do the bookstores of the town offer?

(3) Are there any lending fiction libraries ? Sunday-school libraries ? c. If your library facilities are adequate, but the library is not used by

the people, what is the reason? Have moving pictures and the automobile anything to do with the situation? Do most families

have home libraries? Do all the schools have good libraries ? 12. If your community were to be judged by its public libraries, how high

would it stand ?
13. A part of every person's reading should consist of

a. A good local newspaper.
b. A high-grade national newspaper.
c. At least one good general magazine.
d. Some standard fiction, biography, and essays.
e. Some modern fiction, biography, and essays.
f. Articles and books dealing with one's occupation and avocation.

Does your community offer you the means of obtaining all these ? 16. Turn to the list of government officials of your community in your loose-leaf notebook and indicate which of these directly or indirectly are concerned with the libr ries, museums, churches, lecture courses, lecture halls, of your community.

17. If you find that government has little to do with the libraries and other helps in learning, who makes them possible ? How is this done?

18. Suppose your class has been asked to dispose of $5000 in the way or ways that will be most helpful to the largest number of persons in your community in learning after schooldays are over. Appoint a class committee to consider the matter and make a report. This the class will discuss, amend if necessary, and finally vote on. The report should specify how the money is to be used. For example, it is not sufficient to say that $500 should be given to the library.

19. Let each member of the class make a report on the church which he attends or which he knows most about, to show how it can contribute to a person's education. Be sure to include the art side and the opportunities for learning from others.

20. Take a recent number of the Outlook or some other magazine and list the articles that supplement history, geography, civics, economics.

CHAPTER XIV

FINDING WORK FOR ONESELF AND PROVIDING WORK FOR

OTHERS

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1. Nearly Five Hundred Different kinds of Work in the United States. Today, according to the government's classified index of occupations, there are 488 different kinds of work in the United States. That is, a physician represents one kind of work and a cotton factory another of the 488. And the work of each of these can be subdivided : among the doctors there are eye specialists, surgeons, skin specialists; in the cotton factories there are more than 50 kinds of skilled labor and 250 kinds of semi-skilled labor. So the 488 must be multiplied many times before we have an accurate idea of the variety of work. Even in the same occupation there are many subdivisions. For instance, in one of our states there is a 1,300,000-acre cattle ranch on which the owner can ride for ninety miles without leaving his estate, except when crossing public roads, and on which 100,000 cattle are raised. Not many miles away is a farm of two and one-half acres, on which the farmer keeps a donkey, a cow, and two pigs, and supports himself and family. However, it is not merely in size that farms and factories differ, but in quality and equipment. There are fertile farms and rocky farms, factories near water power and factories far removed from the source of power. No two work places are exactly alike. For this reason the United States is a nation of endless variety of work and opportunity.

During the years following the World War there was much suffering because of unemployment, and in many parts of the country bands of unemployed marched to the mayors' offices and to state capitols demanding that the government find them work. In some cases temporary work like road-building and

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