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3. Turn to the list of your state, county, and community officials compiled for earlier chapters, and make a smaller list of the officials directly or indirectly related to the schools. Show in each case what their connection is.

4. Define education without using the word "school,” and make your definition show that education is never completed.

5. America is said to have more young-looking old men than any other country. Can you explain this ?

6. Re-read sections 6-8 in Chapter III and discuss these in connection with school training.

7. In the text we have given more attention to early and late success, but many persons reach their truest success in middle life. Think of several prominent persons of whom this was true.

8. As you learned in earlier chapters, the schools are a part of home life and work life and help prepare for both. Take each one of your present studies and show how it helps you now in your home and in your work or will help you in the future.

9. Show how the oral English work, the letter-writing, and the debates of your English course will help you in your dealings with other people.

10. Discuss the "minimum essentials” of an education. Do you think any study not mentioned in the text is equally important ?

11. Explain and illustrate this statement: "Part of the purpose of education is to make it possible for a person to get out of isolation.”

12. Assume that you were the college student referred to on page 282, and be prepared to give a "defense of the flag” before the class. Be prepared with facts, not mere high-sounding praise of the flag.

13. Many failures in life are due to inability to think a thing through. Think of a number of conditions in which a person would face failure if he lacked this ability. What other studies besides mathematics help cultivate this ability ?

14. Prepare for your teacher a written composition on "Why I am (or am not) going to college."

15. If you have decided what occupation you will enter when you have finished school, find out what higher schools or colleges could best help you prepare for this.

16. Show how college helps even more than the high school to get out of isolation. Do you think it is more or less important for persons who must live in small villages or rural sections to have a college education? Why?

17. How does school life prepare for leadership? for intelligent following ? Take each of your studies and each of your present school activities, and show in what ways these are helping prepare for leading and for following:

18. What scholarships are offered in your state in colleges and special schools ? Send for the catalogue of the college that most interests you. even if you know you cannot study there. Mark out the course you would like to take. Watch the newspapers for items about this college. Make it your college in interest even if you cannot attend it.

19. What is illiteracy? How does your state rank in this respect ? Are there schools enough in your community for everyone who needs school training? If not, where does the blame lie? How could this be changed?

20. Often the people of the community know little about the schools. The pupils themselves can help change this with the help of the teachers. Organize the class into committees with a view to covering school news for the local newspaper. Let one of these committees interview the editor, telling him that once a week your class will send him one or two typewritten sheets of school news which you hope he will publish. Personal items should be omitted, but items about the school or classes as a whole, about the special music work, the new books just received, the needs of the school library, the number of pupils who have desks that do not fit, the recess games, etc., can be sent.

21. Turn to Chapter VI and to your notebook outlines of community activities and show how the school is directly or indirectly related to each of these.

22. Recently Los Angeles voted $17,400,000 to improve its schools. But this money was not voted until the people unofficially had made a long, hard campaign to bring this about. Posters, letters, lectures, houseto-house interviews, were used to accomplish this. Plan an imaginary campaign for your community.

23. What have private organizations and individuals done for the schools of your community?

24. What schools besides the public schools does your community have? Get as much information as possible about them.

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CHAPTER XIII

LEARNING AFTER SCHOOLDAYS ARE OVER

1. Work Life brings New Needs. There are many things that school cannot teach, simply because no one can tell in advance what even a small part of a person's needs will be. All that the school and college can do is to give young people the kind of start that will enable them to study and work by themselves. For the young person to leave school before he has learned how to study, how to get information independently of both teachers and fellow students, is to be badly handicapped from the first. When Theodore Vail became a railway mail clerk he found that he needed to know what school had not taught him. Since there was no textbook that fitted his requirements, he studied the territory for which he handled mail, then made a map showing the location of all the post offices, the points at which the different railroad lines crossed or met his line, marking on the margin of the map the schedules of the trains with which his connected. By the help of this map he was soon able to get his mail to its destination more quickly and regularly than any of the other lines. After a while the Federal post-office authorities heard of this wide-awake mail clerk and summoned him to a position in Washington. It was no wonder, then, that he later became president of one of the largest organizations in the United States-the Western Union Telegraph Company.

When during the World War England was in danger of starvation because of the difficulty of getting food supplies quickly enough, a man was needed as "surveyor-general of supplies” who knew where the world's food supplies were and how to transport these by the shortest routes. The person chosen for this great task was Andrew Weir, who controlled the largest fleet of sailing vessels in the world. Weir left school at fifteen to work in a bank, but evenings and Sundays he studied ships and harbors and distant islands, searched encyclopedias, books of travel, government reports, and talked with everyone who he thought might have a scrap of information to give him. When he was twenty he owned his first ship! It was the years of

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Much of every person's education must be gained after schooldays. What this factory worker learns about his work will determine how high he will

climb in the ladder of success

study by himself, added to the start obtained in school, that made it possible for him to help save England in her days of greatest need.

2. Getting Information from Books, Periodicals, and People. Both inside and outside of school the two chief ways of getting information are from books and periodicals and from people. To get information from books is not always as simple as it seems in school, for the teachers usually assign definite subjects

a book.

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and lists of books to consult. Outside of school this kind of help is not always available. One reason that towns are beginning to place libraries in school buildings is not merely to save the time of pupils and teachers, but to make it easy for pupils to learn how to select from a large collection of books those which will give the information wanted. This is the minimum list of things that a person should know about the use of books:

1. How to use a library card-index.
2. How to use the table of contents and index of

3. How to distinguish between the title of a book and the subject of a book.

4. How to get one bit of information from one book and related facts from another.

5. How to find out whether an author is trustworthy.

In addition to knowing how to get from books the help needed, a person will also need to learn how to use newspapers and magazines. Sometimes merely because a subject can be set down between the two covers of a book, it has an air of completion or finality, but every subject needs to be supplemented by the accounts of what is happening today. One day's news dispatches from Egypt reported that relics more than four thousand years old had been found in one of the cliff tombs of Thebes. These relics consisted of a large number of toy figures of men, women, children, and animals, arranged to show scenes from the life of that far-off time. Here were whole new pages to add to the textbook of ancient history. Recently the newspapers announced the discovery of documents which formed the official records of the fourth Frémont expedition to the Pacific coast. These papers, which had been lost for more than half a century, were of interest to every student, for they included much material about pioneer life, the organization of the express for carrying news, and the various routes across the continental divide. The facts of geography change as do those of history. One day's newspaper, for instance, announced that in Chile, as the result of a violent earthquake and volcanic eruption, "fifteen mountains had dropped a sufficient distance to

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