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anybody to attend to it. He was not allowed, however, to get away with good intentions. The leader saw to it that the tin cans were taken away, and one morning the cinders disappeared. When the factory manager saw that a group of people were earnestly trying to improve a bad spot, he was ashamed not to do his part. It is always so; where there is a leader there are those who will be led.

24. The Advice of a Great Leader. A great leader named Abraham Lincoln once gave this advice to a young man:

You must not wait to be brought forward by the older men. For instance, do you suppose that I should ever have got into notice if I had waited to be hunted up and pushed forward by older men? You young men get together and form a Rough and Ready club and have regular meetings and speeches. Let everyone play the part he can play best —some speak, some sing, and all "holler."

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Lincoln had in mind politics when he gave this advice, but it applies equally to any kind of leadership that has to do with affairs of the whole or any part of the community. When a person sees something that needs to be done that can be accomplished only by the united efforts of a group of people, then it is his duty to follow Lincoln's advice and "holler.”

25. Ways in which Many can Lead. Some of the everyday ways of leading open to everyone are

I. Getting together painstakingly facts about something that needs to be done.

This is one of the ways that pupils while still in school can help. At a bad street corner where many accidents had happened, high-school pupils made a survey for a week, counting the number of vehicles that passed and the number of pedestrians that used the crossing. These figures were sent to the leading newspaper, and as a result a traffic policeman was stationed at the corner. In another case a person who had an errand in a part of the city unfamiliar to him noticed that the streets were full of litter. He visited other sections and found that only in streets where large numbers of the foreign-born lived were the streets untidy. He knew that the street-cleaning department was supposed to clean all streets in crowded sections every night. So for a week he went through these streets the last thing at night and the first thing in the morning. He found that cleaning was done only once in a while, instead of regularly. The dirty streets were not the result of untidy habits on the part of the people but of the negligence of the city. The man set down the facts gathered, had many typewritten copies made of them, distributing these to the board of health, the mayor, and the newspapers. At once the people were aroused, and so much indignation was expressed that the city officials were forced to remedy matters. General complaints will do little good, but whoever will have the patience to collect facts is taking the first step in leadership.

2. Joining some society that is trying to remedy evils.

As a member of such a society there will be two ways of leading : (1) serving on important committees that make studies and recommend what shall be done, and (2) as an ordinary member making suggestions in business meetings that will give new ideas to the committees.

3. Leading by the indirect method.

Some of the most powerful leaders in the world today are men and women of whom we never hear. They see something that needs to be done, and quietly move about among people and at the right opportunity make the kind of suggestions that arouse others to become active leaders. When they find a person unusually well equipped to lead they stand by him with encouragement and appreciation.

PROBLEMS AND EXERCISES

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1. Every government official either helps make laws or helps carry them out. As you know, we usually speak of those who make laws as the legislative department of government and those who carry them out as the administrative or executive department. Sometimes those connected with courts are referred to as if they belonged to an entirely different department—the judicial. But judges and other court officials help carry out the laws and therefore are really executives. Make a list of the principal elected government officials in (1) the nation, (2) your state, (3) your county, (4) your community. Against each show whether it is a lawmaking or an executive position. Go over the list a second time and indicate which officials have opportunities to be leaders, and give an idea as to what some of the opportunities are.

2. Make a list similar to that just compiled, showing the chief appointed officials in the nation, in your state, in your county, and in your

community. Show how these have an opportunity for leadership. Copy both lists into your loose-leaf civics notebook for use later.

3. Let the class discuss the principal leaders of today in the government and out of it, in the nation, the state, and the community.

4. Make a list of present conditions in your community that seem most in need of being changed, or of new things that need to be done. Are there leaders for these? If a leader was found for each of these things, what would he probably do first ?

5. The text gives only a few illustrations of the different leaders. Make as complete a list as possible of the kinds of work leaders and leaders in helpfulness needed today. Re-read Chapter III and state what kind of leaders the different groups of workers need.

6. Newspapers and organizations are often leaders. Explain in what ways. Bring to class newspapers to illustrate your points.

7. Using the chamber-of-commerce organization formed in connection with Chapter X, prepare a plan that this organization could use in leading the people of the community to do many of the things that need to be done.

8. For every wrong thing, however small, a leader is needed. Make a list of all the wrong things that affect your life-your home, your play, your work. Include all such things as inadequate mail service, too much soft-coal smoke, lack of playgrounds, poor electric-car service, too few periodicals in library.

9. The text has emphasized work leaders. But turn to your list of government leaders and see how many of these help the home in indirect ways.

10. Turn back to the home lists compiled for Chapter VI and show in what ways leaders are needed in your state and community. Most of the leaders in helpfulness are home leaders. Show that this is so.

11. Some of the important leaders in the nation are not mentioned in the text. There are educational leaders — men like ex-President Eliot of Harvard University-who point the way to better methods of teaching. Make a list of several such leaders who are living today, and discuss them in class. Include the names of those who are leading in your state.

CHAPTER XII

WHERE YOUTH DWELLS

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1. The Primrose House. On a quiet street in one of our large cities stands a gray-gabled, quaint little house with a redlacquer door, called the "Primrose House." A painted sign tells the passer-by that "Here dwells Youth.” All day automobiles come and go; all day the door is swinging. But the stranger who passes and repasses, trying to understand the secret of the magic sign by scanning the faces of those who enter and those who leave, is baffled. He sees no sign of youth, only of wealth and fashion. In spite of its attractive name and its quaint beauty it is only a house of fashion, not the dwelling-place of youth.

The real dwelling-places of youth in the United States are the thousands of buildings over which no words appear, but through whose doors more than twenty million boys and girls, young men and women, pass and repass. These are the schoolhouses and colleges that dot the land. Many of them are neither quaint nor beautiful, as is the Primrose House; some of them are like great palaces and castles. But in them all there is only youth and the spirit of youth.

2. School prepares for Accomplishment. Youth, which is the first precious gift of life to every person, soon slips away; but the spirit of youth can be gained and kept by those who live eagerly, as the boy and girl live. Those who live eagerly are those who achieve today and plan to achieve greater things tomorrow. When somebody asked Theodore Vail what thing he considered most worth while in life, he said, "Accomplishment.” The schools of America prepare young people for accomplishment. Every year there are more schools in the United States than in the preceding year, and more kinds of schools. Other

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countries have many schools, and some countries many kinds of schools, but no nation in the world reaches so many of its people with so much help in preparing for the later years. With patience and self-denial a person can prepare himself for a useful life without the aid of a school, but it will take him longer and will cost him heavily in health and strength. The United States, by constantly changing the courses of study and opening new kinds of schools to meet changing conditions, tries to save its young people from the waste and strain of studying unaided. The young people who every year pass through the school doors into the world of action have stronger bodies, keener minds, and greater courage because of the school years.

3. Some of the Nation's Important Work is done by the Young. Some of the most important and difficult work of the United States has been done by its young people.

Washington was only seventeen when he was employed to survey the land set apart by the General Assembly of the colony of Virginia for the town of Alexandria; and he was barely twenty-two when, at the outbreak of the French and Indian War, he was placed in command of troops." Alexander Hamilton was secretary of the treasury at twenty-five. Minor C. Keith, a young American of twentythree, was the engineer who built the most difficult part of the Northern Railway in Costa Rica. His work involved laying tracks across a long stretch of deadly swamp land and a steep mountain range, and first of all making a port suitable as a terminus for a railway. Although more than four thousand of the men in his employ, and three of his brothers who assisted him as engineers, died of exposure or disease during the work, he achieved success. At twentytwo Herbert Hoover won his first conspicuous success in a corner of West Australia, where he had been sent by a London mining firm to uncover a "big new mine.” At twenty-three a young man of a Southern town was treasurer of the Rotary Club, member of the board of directors of the Young Men's Business League, and vice-president and assistant treasurer of the mill in which he had started to work as office boy at twenty dollars a month.

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