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families of wealth often consists of only a few rooms. This means that many of the home activities must be carried on outside the home. Because of the limited kitchen and pantry space, there have sprung up bakeries, laundries, and delicatessen shops. The lack of yards has made public playgrounds, tennis courts, and gymnasiums necessary. As we shall show later, the city hall, the police station, the post office, and similar institutions merely help accomplish for home and work life what no person can well do for himself. No matter how great the differences, every community is divided into these two parts. This is true even of those little mountain settlements which consist of a few cabins. These cabins are often miles apart, scattered along a creek.

It is hard to realize that such a community can be divided into two parts,—the work part and the home part,-for there seem to be only forests, great bowlders, wonderful trees, and the humble little gray cabins. Even if the cabins are really homes, where is the work? Work is the forest, the cornfield, the woodpile, and the house. Every cabin has its cornfield, its sugar-cane patch, and its pigpen. The fields are scraggly and often forlorn, but they represent bread and butter to the mountaineers.

22. America is a Place of Work and Homes. This, then, is America. There seems to be nothing unusual about such a nation, for do not England, France, Russia-all countriesconsist of work and workers, places of work, and homes? The nations differ from one another in the kinds of work, the methods of work, the kinds of homes, and the ideals of work and home. But that is only the beginning of the story, for these are not little things—they are as big as life itself. They are life. Work means the trivial tasks of life,—the washing of dishes, the making of clothes, but it also means the building of cathedrals, gathering together the brooks and streams of half a state and draining them into the heart of a great city to furnish water for millions of people, studying the mosquito to learn the secret of its deadly power and thereby saving thousands of lives, building a railroad through a desert, building a

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subway through the heart of a busy city. The thing that matters is not that America works, but that America works at a thousand tasks, at monstrous undertakings, with a speed and daring that have made her conspicuous among the nations. And work is the glory and beauty of America. It is the one big thing that makes the second big thing-the home--possible and beautiful. The two go always together. The one without the other is impossible.

23. What Our Democracy Is. A democracy is simply another name for a nation of people who believe in work and homes for all the people all the time under the best possible conditions. The more kinds of work we have and the greater the number of workers, the more laws we must have and the more officials to attend to the rules. That is what makes government seem complicated, but it is no more and no less complicated than our work life and home life.

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1. Read the whole chapter through before you give special attention to any one part of it. Prepare a brief summary of it.

2. It has been said that the nation which produced the most iron "ruled the world.” Explain this statement as fully as possible.

3. In every large newspaper there is daily news of steel, cotton, corn, wheat, and the other national products. Find these columns in the chief newspaper of your state. Ask your parents and some of the business men of the community to help you interpret this news. Discuss it in class.

4. Explain the news item given below so that its meaning would be clear to a child that did not know about the World War and the famine that followed it:

SIMBIRSK, RUSSIA, Sept. 10 (By Mail) — Villages are virtually growing overnight in this district on sites where a short time before only weeds thrived. There has been a genuine back-to-the-soil movement, an exodus from the cities where panicky thousands fled when famine came. American corn has been the influence that has built these villages more quickly than history grants to America's pioneer mushroom mining villages of '49.

1 TO THE TEACHER. Read Suggestions to Teachers on page viii.

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5. Some part of your state grows cotton or wheat, mines coal, manufactures shoes, or does something that connects it with one of the nation's great industries. What is this chief industry? Show on a map of your state the chief centers of this principal industry. Be prepared either to write or to give orally a picture of this industry.

6. Describe the chief industry of the section in which you live, including answers to these questions:

a. Is the thing produced in your community sold in the United States? If so, do you know where most of it goes? How does it reach these places (by truck, trolley, canal, river, or railroad) ?

b. Is the thing produced in your community sold to other countries? If so, do you know to what countries? To what ocean port is it sent for shipment? How does it reach this port (by truck, trolley, canal, river, or railroad) ?

c. Many of the things that are grown or mined or manufactured must be stored for weeks or months before they are shipped to the users. For instance, there are cotton-storage warehouses, grain elevators, cold-storage plants. Is any of the product of your community sent to such storage places? If so, tell about them.

7. The work life of every community is either directly or indirectly connected in some way with distant parts of the United States and other countries. Show in what ways.

8. If each one of the forty-eight states were a separate nation, with different laws and a customhouse at the state line, how would this affect your community unfavorably? Show how the work life of your family and friends is benefited because the state in which you live belongs to a great nation. Turn to an atlas and compare a map of Europe with that of the United States (be sure that both maps are drawn to the same scale). Measure the distance from your state to the most distant part of the United States; if goods were to travel this same distance from any point in Europe that you choose, through how many different countries would they go ? Discuss in class what you discover and be ready to take part in an impromptu debate on the question,

Resolved, That our state has greater prosperity than it could possibly have if it were an independent nation of Europe.

9. Now that you have in a general way studied the section in which you live, make a detailed study of it. A civics loose-leaf notebook should be started, to be continued throughout the year. Every study that you make of your community should be entered in the notebook. For your first study use this outline :

a. Work buildings: factories, storehouses, barns and sheds, silos, shops, offices, stores, garages, railroad stations, power and light stations.

b. Places of work that are not buildings: farms, mines, quarries, brickyards, forests, harbors, streets and roads.

c. Home buildings: single houses, tenements, apartment houses, hotels, boarding houses.

d. Things other than buildings that are related to work and home : docks, trolleys, telephone and telegraph wires, wireless outfits, railroads, ships, windmills and artesian wells, roads, streets, bridges, street lights.

e. Buildings that are neither work places nor homes, but are closely related to both: churches, library, museum, schoolhouses, municipal buildings, theaters and concert halls, grand stands and gymnasiums, clubhouses, hospitals.

f. Things that are related to home life: parks and playgrounds, seashore and other neighboring resorts, ball grounds.

g. Government buildings: police stations, fire stations, schoolhouses, public library, city or town hall, voting-booths, pumping-stations, garages and storehouses for wagons and tools used on roads etc., courthouse.

10. Describe the home part of your comm

nmunity or some section of it. How do the home buildings compare with the work buildings ?

11. Explain why great cities like New York and Chicago are necessary in a nation like ours. Explain how every city is dependent on distant farms and small towns.

12. Let several pupils be designated to prepare two large outline maps, one of the state and one of the community. From these each pupil is to make several copies to use in connection with the exercises of this chapter.

13. Select the foreign country about which you know most, and begin now to learn the principal facts about its government. Set these down in your loose-leaf notebook, and add to them from time to time. Use each fact that you learn, to show what it reveals about the work and home life of the nation.

14. Every nation is what the people make it. If in your study of other countries it seems to you that government is not an organization to help them in their work life and home life, but one that oppresses them, it is only because the people either do not have high ideals for work and home or are not willing to take the time and thought to secure the right kind of government. Decide which foreign country seems the least desirable in which to live, and show that it is because the people have left government to a few selfish persons.

CHAPTER II

THE UNITED STATES A NATION MADE BY HARD WORK

1. The Vast Area of the United States. Since life in the United States, whether in Maine or in California, consists only of work and home, and since government is the result of these two parts of life and exists for their sake, we need to know just what work and home in America are today and a little about what they have been in the past. To understand how the United States has become the world's greatest workshop, it is necessary to recall some of the facts that we learned in geography and history.

Probably few of us realize how enormous a country the United States is. We have inherited it full-grown; and unless we read a detailed account of its settlement or travel north, east, south, and west in it, we have no real understanding of its size. Even many of the statesmen of our early years either thought it unwise for the United States to expand farther west than the Mississippi, or else doubted that so large a territory could be well governed by a democratic government. Thomas Jefferson spoke of the possibility of both an Atlantic and a Mississippi republic, and was positive that it would be foolish to attempt to extend our territory to the Pacific. Another early statesman said that "Mr. Jefferson's opinion seems correct, that it will be best for both the Atlantic and Pacific nations, whilst entertaining the most friendly relations, to remain independent, rather than to be united under the same government.” Daniel Webster spoke freely of the time when there would be 'a great Pacific republic, of which San Francisco would be the capital," and one of our senators said that "the wealth of the Indies" would not be sufficient to make possible building a railroad through five or six hundred miles of mountains,

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