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Trace the responsibility for such conditions as this. If you knew of any such tenement what could you personally do to start changing the wrong conditions?

5. The United States Constitution is printed at the back of this book. Make a list of the items that directly or indirectly deal with home life. Be able to explain in what ways each of these items affects

your life.

6. Every state, usually through the secretary of state, issues a manual or handbook which gives the names and duties of the state bureaus, departments, commissions, and the officials who are elected by the people or appointed by the government. The civics class should own a copy of this manual, or if this is impossible some members of the class should be appointed to consult the library copy and make a list to be recopied by each student in his notebook. From this compile a list of departments and officials connected with the home life of the people. Discuss the work of these.

7. Probably every state has some laws that give unwise help to the home. What unwise laws does your state have ?

8. What kind of assistance or protection do the homes of your community need which they do not get ? Is this because there is not the right kind of law or because present laws are not enforced ?

9. Compare the homes of today with those of the pioneers. Can you tell in what ways present homes are inferior to these early homes and in what ways they are superior ?

10. With great care analyze your home or the average home to find out a. What part the family makes for itself. b. What part is made possible or is assisted by private organizations. c. What part government makes possible or assists.

11. Because of the many conveniences of the modern home, the family has more leisure than formerly. How does your family use this spare time? Re-read pages 50-51 and discuss the best ways of using leisure in the home.

12. Turn back to Chapter III and tell what kind of homes you would expect the different workers described there to have.




1. What Towns, Cities, and Villages really are. The community is the place where work and home meet, for the simple reason that without work there can be no homes and the two go always together. Along the route of the Panama Canal several years ago there were beautiful little towns consisting of homes, hotels, attractive streets, little shops. But now they have disappeared, and Gorgona, Bas Obispo, Las Cascadas, are names only. The government built these towns, and the government destroyed them. It seems a reckless waste of material and time to build towns and then to tear them down. But the canal was finished, and the work that drew thousands of Americans to the Canal Zone was completed. No new work took its place. Therefore the homes, hotels, and boardinghouses were empty. In Alaska today there are cities of streets full of empty houses-cities that have died because the gold mines which drew thousands of people to them have been abandoned. In one city where for a time there were fifty thousand people, now there are only about five hundred. It is the same story everywhere: home-seekers must always be workseekers, and where a group of people make work a community grows up.

2. Work the Starting-Point of Every Community. The starting-point of every community is work of some kind. Often it is some manufacturing enterprise, as in the following cases:

I. In April, 1906, the region in which Gary, Indiana, is now situated, was "a waste of rolling sand dunes, sparsely covered with scrub oak and interspersed with ponds and marshes. Three years later there was a great steel plant capable of employing 14,000 men, equipped with a made-to-order harbor for the great ore freighters, and a town of 12,000 inhabitants.” It also had among other things : 15 miles of paved streets

6 hotels 25 miles of cement sidewalks

A commercial club $2,000,000 worth of residences

2 public schools A sewer system

3 daily papers Water and gas plants

46 lawyers Electric lighting

24 doctors A national and a state bank

6 dentists


2. In 1867 at a crossroads in Maine a small'textile mill was built. Later other mills were built, and by 1919 the straggling settlement of a dozen houses had become Sanford, a town of 13,000.

3. In 1880 there were not ten houses to be seen within sight of what in three years' time became a town of 3000 people called Pullman City. This sudden growing of a community was due to the building of great factories by the Pullman Company, makers of special sleepingcars and parlor cars. They not only built factories, but houses, streets, stores, so that without waste of time people could be induced to become workers in the factories etc. After a time this community was annexed to Chicago, but it still remains a comm

munity which centers in one vast industry.

4. In the early years of 1800 there was a small village of about 14 dwelling-houses situated in a little river valley in New York. This was Kingsboro, the only industry being the manufacture of tin. The tin articles were carried up the Mohawk to be exchanged for wheat, pelts, and other things which the people had to offer. The Indians and trappers gave deerskins in payment. More of these skins were obtained than could be conveniently made use of, for they were suitable only for breeches and jackets. After a time, however, someone devised a method of treating the skins that made it possible to use them for mittens. Still later other skins were used and gloves invented. By 1858 the hamlet had become a town of 500 dwellings and 3000 people, now called Gloversville. For many years the city has been known all over the world as the great glove city.

By no means is the work which proves the starting-point of a community always a factory. Often it is a mine or fertile land or a location which makes a center for traffic. Many a great city is today great merely because its first work was providing a location for the shifting of freight and the repairing of


cars and engines. Every person knows of many communities like the following:

1. The origin of Topeka, Kansas, has been described in these words: "Here was a great river, plenty of water, and, above all, the two great trails of the continent, Fort Leavenworth and St. Joe to Santa Fe, and Independence to California, crossed at this point.”

2. Washburn, North Dakota, was started by a man who knew how to organize more than one kind of work life. He "purchased a tract of

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There are two reasons why this community is a prosperous manufacturing city — the river supplies transportation facilities and also water for steam


115,000 acres on the Missouri and built a railroad to a point on the river about 40 miles above Bismarck. Near the town which sprang up at the terminus of the railroad he opened a coal mine which soon had a producing and shipping capacity of 30 carloads per day. On the river he placed some small light-draft steamboats and barges to transport lumber and merchandise to the villages and farms up river and to bring down grain to the Washburn elevators.”

3. Communities are kept Alive by Means of Work. A community, then, is built around work. But this is not all: it is kept alive by means of work. As the work life diminishes, the community dwindles. In New York State in 1828 a community grew up around a cotton mill and a woolen mill. Later the water power failed and both mills were closed, so that by 1910 the population had dwindled to 750, and by 1920 to 349. There are many of these communities that are gradually dying because there is no work life to hold them together. But there are a good many communities that seem to flourish without work. Probably every person can think of towns and villages with


Because its location makes it a center of traffic across the continent, Chicago is today one of the world's greatest cities. (Courtesy of Marshall Field & Co.)

streets full of comfortable houses, but no factories, farms, or mines-only a few stores to supply food, clothing, and the other necessities. It is true, however, that work made these communities possible in the first place and holds them together year after year. A community that seems to exist without work life is probably living on stored-up work-work that has been done in the past. Stored-up work is money in the bank, money in houses and land, and other kinds of property.

4. Some Communities live on Stored-up Work. In Connecticut there is a small village with comfortable homes, a post office, several stores, and a railroad station. The money which built most of the homes was earned by the parents and grand

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