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SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS

At the start each pupil must be equipped with a loose-leaf notebook. All the information gathered in connection with the problems and exercises of text, and all the outlines made, should be inserted in this. At intervals notebooks should be inspected for credit, and at the end of the course they should be inspected, graded, and returned to pupils to keep.

It is desirable that in the work of each chapter pupils should get some practice in (1) using the library; (2) getting information from current newspapers and magazines; (3) getting information from persons who are well-informed; (4) coöperative work either in assembling facts required in the exercises or in using these after they have been assembled; (5) impromptu discussion of some important point; prepared discussion (perhaps debate) of an important matter; (6) planning or doing some act of service for school or neighborhood or community as a whole. The author has planned the Problems and Exercises so as to facilitate practice along these lines. Teachers should supplement at their discretion.

At the first meeting of the civics class a survey should be made to discover what special abilities and equipment are available. The survey should show what pupils have cameras or kodaks, and apparatus for developing and printing; whether any pupil has skill in mechanical drawing or in preparing blueprints; what pupils have encyclopedias and other books of reference in their homes; to what societies or clubs pupils belong and what experience, if any, they have had in serving on committees, presiding at meetings, debating, etc.; what pupils own or have access to a typewriter or have a working knowledge of stenography; what pupils have lived in other communities or have traveled sufficiently to have a knowledge of communities other than their own; what kind of home work or vacation work, if any, pupils have done; the different kinds of work life with which pupils come in contact through relatives or the location of the home. Whatever ability or equipment of these kinds is available should be made use of constantly in working out the Problems and Exercises and in making additional studies of community problems.

The indispensable reference equipment for civics work consists of (1) a good atlas; (2) detailed maps of state, county, community; (3) a map showing the railroads and automobile roads of the state; (4) a good daily newspaper that has a statewide reputation; (5) the principal local paper; (6) the latest Congressional Directory (for this write to the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C.); (7) the last official state register or manual (for this write to your state capitol, addressing the letter to the secretary of state's office); (8) the latest report or manual of your community (a small charge is frequently made for these official manuals, but whatever the price or inconvenience in securing them, they must be obtained); (9) as many government reports as possible; (10) the World Almanac, the Statesman's Yearbook, or some other annual book of ready reference; (11) guidebooks to the principal cities of the state. A civics bulletin board should be placed at a convenient point in the school. Every event in the community which is of special interest to the class as students of community civics should be inserted here-notices of lectures, art and industrial exhibits, the presence of distinguished persons, additions to the library, the closing of a factory, etc.

If possible, plan to have a delegation of the class visit the state capitol, the county seat, and the city hall (or whatever is the headquarters of your local government). Before these visits are made the class should prepare an outline of the things to be looked for and the information to be obtained. The delegates must be ready not only to make a formal report on their trip but to be questioned by the class.

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Nov. 11, 1921, George W. Stephenson "THE HERALDING OF PEACE.WASHINGTON ILLUMINATED ON ARMISTICE DAY, 1921,

IN HONOR OF THE UNKNOWN SOLDIER

COMMUNITY CIVICS

CHAPTER I

FOUR PICTURES OF THE REAL AMERICA

THE FIRST PICTURE-A FAMOUS STEEL VALLEY

1. An Awe-Inspiring Scene. A sight once seen never to be forgotten is Pittsburgh at night. By Pittsburgh we mean that long stretch of Allegheny valley where, between steep, barren hills, stretch acres upon acres of huge smokestacks and dark buildings overspread by a heavy curtain of smoke that never lifts but does not hide the glare of hundreds of furnaces. By day it is a sight that makes one thoughtful. By night the stranger stands awestruck before it. He feels as if some miracle had taken place. What by daylight had been a stretch of dingy hillside is now a wall of purple darkness, spotted with tiny lights-soft orange lights that come from lamplighted homes, hard yellow street lights that mark the course of the zigzag thoroughfares of the hills. But the purple shadows and maze of lights are only a fantastic frame for the real picturethe narrow stretch of valley which one moment seems darker than the darkest black one has ever seen in his dreams, and the next moment is torn into a thousand fragments by bursts of fire.

The lights on the hillside, the deep shadows, the earth, even the sky, seem to quiver in suspense. Again and again the valley is lighted by angry masses of flame, as if giving warning of a great catastrophe, but that is all. As the hours slip away, the scene hardly changes. The soft orange lights from the queer little houses one by one disappear, but the hard yellow lights

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keep winking, and the dark valley keeps on vomiting fire. The stranger turns away with the dissatisfied feeling that he has seen the beginning of something that failed to happen. But he was wrong. Something did happen.

2. Monstrous Tasks are accomplished in this Valley. In that dark valley huge battleships, great bridges, miles of Russian railroad were being started; great locomotives and steel cars that would some day penetrate remote parts of China and Africa were being made. There, too, was being fashioned the framework for hundreds of skyscrapers which, in a few months, would house thousands of city workers.

This is one of America's enchanted valleys. If measured by miles it would be found to constitute only a thousandth part of the earth's land surface, yet it produces one sixth of the world's pig iron. Without this valley there might have been no victory over the German armies in 1918, for the ships that carried ammunition to our allies, the transports that laid down in France about two million American soldiers, the guns that poured death into German ranks, the emergency railroads and locomotives that rushed troops from French ports to the firing lines, -all were made, in large part, of steel that came from this valley. But the American people spend only the smallest fraction of their time making war. They prefer to battle with the forces of nature, and steel is man's magic weapon. It would take a whole chapter to name all the ways in which steel has helped us to defy nature: steel made it possible for us to overcome the Rocky Mountains and thus make San Francisco and New York City companion seaports; to tear down mountains and carve a way from ocean to ocean in Panama; to penetrate the most inaccessible parts of the United States with railroads; to fashion stoves and furnaces by which, in the coldest day of winter, the hugest office building, as well as the small cottage, is made as warm as a midsummer day; to manufacture tons of simple needles that have brought comfort and luxury to almost the whole world. The production of steel is today one of our greatest industries. Before the World War it employed more people

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