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cessor of Chrysostom, who distinguished between the divine and human nature of Christ, acknowledging Mary as the mother of Christ, but refusing to her the appellation of mother of God. Cyril contended long and violently against these doctrines, and appointed pope Celestine umpire, who immediately condemned them. He drew up 12 anathemas, directed against John, patriarch of Antioch, which, in the opinion even of theologians, are not wholly free from heresy, and called upon Nestorius to subscribe them. To settle the dispute between these two prelates, the council of Ephesus was summoned. Both parties appeared with a great number of adherents and servants, between whom innumerable disputes arose. Cyril opened the council before the arrival of the patriarch of Antioch; and, altiiough Nestorius refused to recognise his enemies as judges; although 68 bishops were in his favor, and a magistrate, in the name of the emperor, demanded a delay of four days; yet, in a single day, Nestorius was condemned, deposed, and declared to be a second Judas. Soon after, the patriarch of Antioch arrived, and held a synod of 50 bishops, who, with equal haste, condemned Cyril as guilty of heresy, and declared him a monster born for the ruin of the church. Both parties rushed to arms: the streets of the city, and the cathedral itself, became the theatre of their fuiy, and were polluted with blood. The emperor Theodosius sent troops to Ephesus, to disperse this pugnacious council. This measure, however, only changed the theatre of the war; for it was continued three years longer, between John of Antioch and Cyril. Soon after, Nestorius, not less violent than Cyril, obtained from the emperor a command for Cyril to appear again before a council at Ephesus. Both parties appeared, with their adherents, in arms. Cyril was maltreated, and even imprisoned. He escaped from his keepers, however, and fled to Alexandria. From that place, lie contrived, by distributing bribes, to excite an insurrection in Constantinople, winch struck terror into the timid emperor. Negotiations were begun: Cyril was prevailed upon to mitigate his anathema, and, uirainst his will, to acknowledge a twofold nature in Christ. But Nestorius, as he was determined never to renounce his opinions, was compelled to lay down his offices, and to retire to a monastery. He was afterwards banished to Thobais. In :'W or 340, he died. Cyril closed his restless career in 344. His opinions prevailed both in the Eastern and Western

empire, and the church gave him a place among the saints. The best edition of his works, in which there is neither clearness nor accuracy of style, is that of 1638, in folio.—3. St. Cyril, a native of Thessalonica, by way of distinction, was called Constantme, and, at Constantinople, where he studied, received the name of the Philosopher. At the recommendation of St. Ignatius, the emperor Michael III sent him to the Chazars—a people of the stock of the Huns. He converted the khan, after whose example the whole nation were baptized. He then preached the gospel, with Methodicus, to the Bulgarians, and baptized their king Bojaris, A. D. 860. They had the same success in Moravia and Bohemia. Still later, they went to Rome, where they both died. According to Dobrowsky, Cyril died in 868: according to Xav. Richter, lie died in 871 or 872. The two apostles were both declared saints. The Greeks and Russians celebrate the festival of St. Cyril on Feb. 14. He was the inventor of the Cyrillian Letters (q. v.), which took their name from him, and is probably the author of the Apologies which bear his name.

Cyrillian Letters; characters called, in Sclavonic, Czuraliza; one of the modes of writing the Sclavonic language, of which there are three:—1. Roman or German letters, used by the people of Poland, Bohemia and Lusatia; 2. Q/riUian, so called from their inventor, Cyrillus. They are much used by the Russians. 3. From these Cyrillian characters, probably through the artifices of calligraphy, a peculiar alphabet was formed, which is sometimes used in printed books, but no where in common life.

Cyrus; a celebrated conqueror. The only two original authorities concerning him—Herodotus and Xenophon—differ so greatly, tiiat they cannot be reconciled. According to Herodotus, he was the son of Cambyses, a distinguished Persian, and of Mandane, daughter of the Median king Astyages. He founded the Persian monarchy. (See Assyria.) A short time before iiis birth, the soothsayers at the court of Astyages divined from a dream of his, that his future grandson was to dethrone him. Upon this, he gave orders that Cyrus should be destroyed immediately after his birth. For this purpose, he was delivered to a herdsman, who, moved with compassion, brought him up, and named him Cyrus. His courage and spirit betrayed his descent to the king. On one occasion, playing with other boys, being chosen Icing by his companions, he caused

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the son of one of the first men in the nation to be beaten. The father of the boy complained to Astyages, who reprimanded young Cyrus. But he appealed to his right as king of his companions, and replied with so much boldness and good sense, that Astyages became interested in him, and instituted inquiries, which led to the discovery of his birth. The magi having succeeded in quieting the uneasiness which the discovery occasioned him, he sent Cyrus to his parents in Persia, with marks of his favor. But the young man soon drew together a formidable army of Persians, and conquered his grandfather, B. C. 560. A similar fate befell Croesus, the rich and powerful king of Lydia, and Nabonadius, king of Babylon, whose capital he took, after a siege of two years. He also subdued Phoenicia and Palestine, to which he caused the Jews to return from the Babylonish captivity. While Asia, from the Hellespont to the Indies, was under his dominion, he engaged in an unjust war against the Massage tse—a people of Scythia, north-east of the Caspian sea, beyond the Araxes, then ruled by a queen named Tomyris. In the first battle, he conquered by stratagem; but, in the second, he experienced a total defeat, and was himself slain, B. C. 529, after a reign of 29 years. He was succeeded by his son Cambyses. The stories related by Xenophon (q. v.), in the Cyropozdia (Account of the Life and remarkable Traits in the Character of Cyrus), that he received a splendid education at the court of Astyages, inherited his kingdom, and ruled like a genuine philosopher, are cither mere romance, deserving not the least historical credit (Xenophon's design being to represent the model of a king, without regard to historical truth, and, in this way, perhaps, to exhibit to his countrymen the advantages of a monarchy), or else the two accounts are founded on different traditions, perhaps of two different persons named Cyrus.—Another Cyrus was the youngest son of Darius Nothus, or Ochus, who lived nearly 150 years later than the former. In the 16th year of his age, he obtained the supreme power over all the provinces of Asia Minor. His ambition early displayed itself; and when, after his father's death, his eldest brother, Artaxcrxes Mnemon, ascended the throne, Cyrus formed a conspiracy against him, which was, however, discovered before it came to maturity. Instead of causing the sentence of death to be executed upon him, his brother kindly released him, and made him governor of Asia Minor. Here Vol. iv. 9

Cyrus assembled a numerous army, to make war upon Artaxerxes, and dethrone him. Among his forces were 13,000 Greek auxiliaries, who were ignorant, however, of the object of the expedition. Being informed of his brother's design, Artaxerxes marched against him with a much larger army. In the plains of Cynaxa, in the province of Babylon, the two armies encountered each other. After a brave resistance, especially on the part of the Greeks, the army of Cyrus was overcome, and he himself slain by the hand of Artaxerxes,

Cythera (now Cerigo; population, 8000), one of the seven Ionian islands, separated by a narrow strait from the south shore of Laconia, was particularly celebrated for the worship of Venus Urania, whose temple in Cythera, the chief city, was the oldest and most splendid of her temples in Greece. The ancient Cythera is now demolished, and exhibits nothing but a fevr ruins. On the shore of this island, according to one tradition, Venus first ascended from the sea, and took possession of the land; i. e., Phoenician navigators here first introduced the worship of Venus into Greece. The island is rocky and unfruitful. From tliis place, Venus has her name Cytherea.

Czar, Zar, or Zaar; a title of the autocrat of Russia. The word is of old Sclavonic origin, and is nearly equivalent to king. The emperor is called, in the same language, ktssar. Until the loth century, the rulers of the several Russian provinces were called grand-princes (weiilci knacs). Thus there were grand princes of Wladimir, Kiev, Moscow, Sec. The grand-prince Wasiiie first received, in 1505, the title of sanwdershda, which is equivalent to the Greek word autocrat. (q. v.) The son of Wasiiie, Ivan II, adopted, in 1579, the title of Czar of Moscmo, which his descendants bore for'a long time. In 1/21, the senate and clergy conferred on Peter I, in the name of the nation, the title of emperor of Russia, for which, in Russia, the Latin word imperator is used. Several European powers declined to acknowledge this title, until the middle of the last century. The eldest son and presumptive heir of the czar was called czareviz (czar's son): but, with the unfortunate Alexis, son of Peter I, this title ceased, and all the princes of the imperial house have been since called grandprinces. The emperor Paul I renewed the title czareviz, or czarcwitch, in 1799, for his second son, Constantinc. (q. v.) The rulers of Georgia and Imirctta, now under

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D; the fourth letter in our alphabet, of the order of mutes. (See Consonant) According to M. Champollion's recent discoveries, the d, in the hieroglyphic writing of the old Egyptians, corresponding to the clau of the Copts, is a segment of a circle, similar to a Q. The Greek delta was a triangle, A, from which the Roman D has been borrowed. D, as an initial letter on medals, indicates the names of countries, cities and persons, as Decius; also the words devotus, dcsig?iatu$, divus, dominus, &c.; D. M., diis mmiibus; D. O. M., Deo Optimo maximo. The Greek A represented the number four. Among Roman numerals, D signifies 500, but was not used as a numerical designation until 1500 years after Christ. The Romans designated a thousand in this way,—C13. The early printers, it is said, thought it best to express 500 by half the character of 1000, and therefore introduced 13, which soon grew into D. If a line was marked over it, it signified 5000. In inscriptions and manuscripts, D is very often found in the place of B and L; des for bes, dachrwnai for lachrurrwe. In dedications, D., thrice repeated, signifies Dat, Donat, Diced, or Dcd, Diced, Dtdicat. As an abbreviation of the jurists, D signifies the pandects (Digesta). D stands for dodo?' in M. D.; in D. T., doctor of theology; L.L. D., doctor of laws, &c. D., on French coins, signifies Lyons; on Prussian, Aurich; on Austrian, Gratz. In music, D designates the second note in the natural diatonic scale of C, to which Guido applied the monosyllable re.

Da Capo (ltd,; from the bead or beginning) ; an expression written at the end of a movement, to acquaint the performer

that he is to return to, and e^. . .,mr, me first strain. It is also a call or acclamation to the singer or musician, in theatres or concerts, to repeat a piece which he has just finished—a request very often made mercilessly by the public, without regard to the fatigue caused by a performance.

Dacca Jelalpore; an extensive and rich district of Bengal, situated principally between 23° and 24° of N. lat. It is intersected by the Ganges and Brahmapootra, two of the largest rivers in India, which, with their various branches, form a complete inland navigation, extending to every part of the country; so that, every town having its river or canal, the general mode of travelling or conveying goods is by water.

Dacca ; a large city, capital of the abovenamed district, and, for 80 years, the capital of Bengal. It is situated on the northem bank of a deep and broad river, called the Boor Gimga (Old Ganges), at the distance of 100 miles from the sea. In this city, or its vicinity, are manufactured beautiful muslins, which are exported to every part of the civilized world. It has also an extensive manufacture of shell bracelets, much worn by the Hindoo women. The neighborhood of the city abounds with game of all sorts, from the tiger to the quail, and is, on this account, a great resort of Europeans, during the three cold months. J80 miles from Calcutta by land; Ion. 90° 17' E.; lat. 23° 42' N. *

Dach, Simon, a German poet of the 17th century, bom at Memel, July 29, 1605, lived in an humble condition, until he was appointed professor of poetry in

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the university of Konigsberg. He remained in this office until his death, April 15, 1659. His secular songs are lively and natural. His sacred songs are distinguished for deep and quiet feeling.

Dacia. The country which anciently bore this name, according to Ptolemy's description, comprised the present Banat, a part of Lower Hungary, as far as the Carpathian mountains on the west, Transylvania, Moldavia, Walachia and Bessarabia. Some include Bulgaria and Servia, with Bosnia, or the ancient Upper and Lower Mcesia. The inhabitants of this country, called Daci, also Davi, made themselves, for a long time, terrible to the Romans. When Trajan conquered Dacia, in the second century, he divided it into, 1. Dacia Riparia or Ripensis (the present Banat, and a part of Hungary), so called because it was bounded on the west by the Theiss, and on the east by the Danube; % Dacia Mediterranean (now Transylvania), so called, because it was situated between the two others; and, 3. Dacia Transalpina (now Walachia, Moldavia and Bessarabia), or that pail of Dacia lying beyond the Carpathian mountains. He governed each of these three provinces by a prefect, established colonies in them, and sent colonists from other parts of the Roman empire, to people them, and supply cultivators of the soil. When Constantine the Great divided the Roman empire anew, Dacia became a part of the Illyrian prefecture, and was divided into five provinces or districts. Upon the fall of the Roman empire, it was gradually overrun by the Goths, Huns, Gepidae and Avars. Since that time, the history of this country, which then lost the name of Dacia, is to be sought for in that of the provinces of which it formerly consisted.

Dacier, Andre, bom at Castres, in Upper Languedoc, 1651, of Protestant parents, studied at Saumur, under Tanneguy-Lefevre, whose daughter Anna was associated in his studies. After the death of Lefevre, in 1672, he went to Paris. The duke of Montausier, to whom his learning was known, intrusted him with the editing of Pompeius Festus (in nsum delphini). The intimacy growing out of their mutual love of literature led to a marriage between him and Anna Lefevre, in 1683, and, two years after, they both embraced the Catholic religion. They received from the king considerable pensions. In 1695, Dacier was elected a member of the academy of inscriptions, and of the French academy: of the latter he was afterwards perpetual secretary.

The care of the cabinet in the Louvre was intrusted to him. He died in 1722. Dacier wTote several indifferent translations of the Greek and Latin authors. Besides the edition of Pompeius Festus, and the (Euvres d? Horace, en Latin et en Francois, with the JVbuveaux Eclaircissemens sur les (Euvres oVHorace, and the JYouvelle Traduction d'Horace, with critical annotations, he prepared an edition of Valerius Flaccus, a translation of Marcus Antoninus, of Epictetus, of Aristotle's Art of Poetry, with annotations, of the Lives of Plutarch, of the CEdipus and Eiectra of Sophocles, of the works of Hippocrates, and of several dialogues of Plato.

Dacier, Anna Lefevre; wife of the preceding; bom at Saumur, in 1651. After the death of her learned father, who had instructed her, and cultivated her talents, she went to Paris, where she displayed her learning by an edition of Callimachus (1675), winch she inscribed to Huet, the under tutor of the dauphin. The duke of Montausier, in consequence, intrusted her with the care of several editions of the classics (in usum delphini). She first edited Florus (q. v.), with a commentary. Her learned works were not interrupted by her marriage. Her feeble translation of "Homer attracted a good deal of attention, and led to a dispute between her and Lamotte, in which it appeared that madame Dacier understood much less of logic, than Lamotte of the Greek language. In her Considerations sur les Causes de la Corruption du Gout, she defended Homer with the acuteness of a profound commentator, and Lamotte replied with a great deal of wit and elegance; on which account it was said, Lamotte wrote like an ingenious woman, madame Dacier like a learned man. Lamotte introduced her to the notice of queen Christina, who persuaded her to embrace the Catholic religion. In her Homere defendu, she showed little mercy to Hardouin, who had written a satirical eulogy of this poet. On this occasion, she was said to have uttered more invectives against the reviler of Homer, than the poet himself had placed in the mouths of all his heroes. She translated Terence, and three pieces of Plaurus, in the prologue of which she treats of the origin, the cultivation and changes of dramatic poetry with acuteness. Her translation of the Plutus andthe Clouds of Aristophanes, deserves indulgence, as the first translation of the Greek comic poet. Her translation of Anacreon and Sappho, with a defence of the latter, met Avith success. She also wrote annotations 100


on the Bible, but did not publish them. Her life was entirely devoted to literature, mid her domestic duties. She died in 1720. Equally estimable for her character and her talents, she gained as many admirers by her virtue, her constancy and her equanimity, as by her works. She was chosen member of several academies.

Dactyle. (See Rhythm.)

Dactyliotheca (Greek); a collection of engraved gems. The art of engraving gems was no where carried to greater perfection than in Greece, where they were worn not only in rings (from which the name of <W&Atof, ring), but in seals, and were much used for other ornamental purposes. The Romans were far behind the Greeks in tins art; but they were the iirst who made collections of precious stones. Scaurus, the son-in-law of Sylla, introduced the custom (Pliny, Hist. JVcrf., 37, 5). Pompey the Great transferred the collection of Mithridates to Rome, and placed it in the capitol. A much larger collection was exhibited by Caesar in the temple of Venus Genitrix, and, afterwards, under Augustus, by M. Marcellus, in the temple of Apollo Palatinus. In modern times, the princes of Italy vied with each other in collecting these treasures of art The family of Gonzaga established the first dactyliotheca, and was followed by the family of Este at Modena, that of Farnese, and by Lorenzo der Medici in Florence. The gems collected by him are marked with Lor., or Lor. de1 M., or with M. alone. His collection was divided and scattered, but the Medici established a new one, the foundation of the present D. Florentina, the most important existing, as it contains about 4000 gems. In Rome, collections of no great value were made under Julius II and Leo X. Maria Piccolomini, a Roman prelate, had the best in that city; and Lucio Odescalchi, afterwards duke of Bragiani, inherited that of Christina queen of Sweden. Rome afterwards received the collections of the Vatican (formed more at random than on any connected plan), of the Barberini, and of the Strozzi (containing some masterpieces of the art, now in St. Petersburg). The D. Ludovis-ia, belonging to the prince of Piombino, and that of the cardinal Borgia at Velletri, famous for its Egyptian gems and scarabai, are still celebrated. Naples has beautiful gems in the cabinet at Portici and at Capo di Monte. The prince Piscari formed a collection at Catanea, in Sicily, consisting entirely of gems found in Sicily. In France, the first collection was begun by Francis I, but was dispersed

m the civil war. In the reign of Louis XIV, Louvois laid the foundation of the present fine collection of antiques in the royal library. The collection of the duke of Orleans, which he inherited from the Palatinate, was celebrated. Besides these, there were several private collections of value. The most celebrated in England are those of the dukes of Devonshire, Bedford and Marlborough, and the earls of Carlisle and Desborough. Germany also has collections. In the palace of Sans Souci, at Potsdam, near Berlin, several are united, among which is that of Muzel Stosch, rendered famous by the description of Winckelmann. Vienna has a separate cabinet of gems. The collection of Dresden is good. The city library of Leipsic possesses some good gems. The collection at Cassel is extensive, but not very valuable. Munich has some beautiful pieces. There are also many private collections. In the Netherlands, the cabinet of the king is valuable. In the royal palace at Copenhagen, there arc some vases inlaid with gems; and Petersburg has, besides the imperial collection, the foundation of which was that of the engraver Natter, the rich collection of count Poniatowski. To multiply elegant and ingenious or remarkable designs on gems, engravings or casts are taken. Thus not only single designs, but all those of the same class, or those of a whole cabinet, are represented by engravings. The impressions of various classes of gems have been collected. Bellori collected the portraits of philosophers and others; Chifilet, abraxas stones (see Jlbraxas, and Gmsis); Gori, gems engraved with stars; Ficoroni, gems with inscriptions; Stosch, gems bearing the names of the artists. Representations of whole collections have been given; as, by Gori, of those contained in the Museum Florentinum ; by Wicar and Mongez, of those in the gallery of Florence; by Mariette, of the former French collections; by Leblond and Lachaux, of that of the duke of Orleans; by Eckhel, of that of Vienna. We might also mention the copies of the Museum d'Odescalc/w, of the cabinets of Gravelle, Stosch, Bossi, and the duke of Marlborough. But, although some of these impressions are very beautiful, the preference ought to be given to the casts. The collections of such casts are also called dactyliotheca for instance, the dactyliotheca of Lippert, consisting of 3000 pieces. Tassie, in London, has executed the largest collection of casts yet known, amounting to 15,000. These are important aids in the study of

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