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nent is Vesuvius, and this is too much detached to be considered as properly forming one of the Apennines. iEtna, in the island of Sicily, rising to the height of 10 or 11,000 feet above the level of the sea, is the largest European volcano. The Lipari islands, anciently called the JEolian, a few miles to the north of Sicily, bear evident marks of a volcanic origin; and, in several of them, subterranean fires are still in operation. The volcano of Stromboli is in almost incessant activity, and differs, in this respect, from any other with which we are acquainted. The Azores, in the Atlantic ocean, are doubtless indebted for their formation to the same circumstance as the Lipari islands; and, indeed, new rocks have risen from the sea in their vicinity, within a recent period. An eruption took place at St. George, during the present century. Iceland, too, though lying under 65° of north latitude, presents the most abundant tokens of the presence of volcanic fire, and has often suffered under its devastations. Mount Hecla is the most noted, though not the only source of the eruptions on this island.— To the possession of many inland seas, and, consequently, of a line of coast very extensive in proportion to its area, Europe is greatly indebted for the great advancement of its inhabitants in civilization; these circumstances being favorable to that intercourse without which nations never make great advances. The peninsulas are six: Scandinavia, Jutland, Crimea (Taurica Chersontsus), Italy, Spain and Greece. The soil of Europe, though not equal in luxuriance to that of the tropics, is, almost throughout, fit for cultivation. The tracts in the northern zone are almost the only exception. With respect to climate, Europe may be divided into three parts,—the warm region, where the lemon-trees grow wild, as far as 48° north lat., having a pleasant spring, a hot summer, and short winter; the temperate, as far as 65° N., in winch grain ripens; and the cold region, to the extreme north, where nothing will grow but reindeer-moss, and no domestic animal can live except the reindeer. The products are not so various as in other parts of the world, and many of them were originally brought from foreign countries and naturalized; but, on the other hand, Europe can boast of a more perfect cultivation. Among the animals are horses, some of which are of the nobler breeds, horned cattle, sheep in Spain, Saxony and England, of the finest wool, asses, goats, swine, dogs, reindeer,
wild beasts of different kinds, valuable for their flesh or fur, whales, sea-cows, seadogs, abundance of wild and tame, fowl, large quantities of fish in the seas, lakes and rivers, among which the herring, in particular, affords sustenance to many of the inhabitants; useful insects, such as bees, silkworms, kermes, gall flies, and Spanish flies. Oysters and pearl muscles also abound. It produces all kinds of grain, and sufficient for its consumption; beautiful garden plants; abundance of fruits, including those of southern climates, such as figs, almonds, chestnuts, lemons, oranges, olives, pomegranates, dates; also flax, hemp, cotton, madder, tobacco, the best kinds of wine, and a great variety of wood for fuel, and for house and ship building. The birch and the willow best endure the cold of the northern polar circle. Europe produces all the varieties of metals and minerals in great excellence and abundance. In gold and silver, Hungary and Transylvania are the richest; in iron, the northern countries, Sweden, Norway and Russia. Salt of all kinds, rock, sea and spring salt, is also abundant m Europe. The inhabitants, estimated by Malte-Brun at 200 millions, at least, are unequally distributed; in Russia and Sweden there are from 15 to 18 to a square mile; in the Netherlands, where the population is most dense, Italy, France, Great Britain and Germany, the same extent supports from 150 to 250 persons. The inhabitants consist of several different races, speaking distinct languages. The stocks to which the principal languages belong, are—the Teutonic, which is the mother of the German, Dutch, English, Swedish and Danish; the Latin, or Roman, now spoken only by the learned, but the mother of the Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Walachian ; the Sclavonic, to which belong the Russian, Polish, Bohemian, Bulgarian, Vandal, and the Servian, or Illyrian. Besides these, there are the modem Greek; the Turco-Tartaric; the Finnish, and Hungarian; the Cimbrian, in Wales and the north-west part of France (Bretagne); the Scottish, or Gaelic, in Scotland and Ireland; the Basque, among the Pyrenees. The most widely spoken is the German, with its kindred languages, formed by a union of the Roman with the Sclavonic. The prevailing religion is the Christian, which includes several churches, viz., the Roman Catholic, which is the most numerous; the Protestant (Lutheran, Calvinistic and Anglican), consisting of numerous sects—Anabaptists, Mennonites,
Quakers, Unitarians, Methodists, Moravians; and the Greek church. A part of the inhabitants profess the Jewish, a part the Mohammedan religion. Among the Laplanders and Samoeides there are also some heathens, but their number is small. Agriculture has made great advances in Europe, and is daily improving. In this respect, those countries are particularly distinguished where the Teutonic languages are spoken, as, also, are France and a part of Italy. In no part of the world are manufactures carried to such perfection as in several of the European countries, especially in Great Britain, France, the Netherlands and Germany. The inhabitants work up not only native European, but also foreign products, and supply all the wants and luxuries of life. Commerce is not less active, and is promoted by well-constructed roads and canals, by well-organized posts, banks, insurance companies, commercial companies, and fairs. The commerce of Europe extends to all quarters of the world, and every sea is filled with European ships. In this respect, Great Britain is most distinguished. Europe is the seat of art and science; to her belongs the honor of discovering the most important truths, of giving birth to the most useful inventions, the finest productions of genius, the improvement of all the sciences. In intellectual progress, the Teutonic races, and those who speak the languages derived from the Latin, have surpassed the Sclavonic nations. The Turks have remained strangers, in many respects, to the literary and scientific improvement which has marked the other European nations. Eighty-five universities provide for the higher branches of education; numerous gymnasia and academies for the preparatory studies, and a great number of lower schools, particularly in Germany, are employed in educating the common people. In many places there are academies of science, and societies of all kinds, for the cultivation of the arts and sciences. By its physical situation, Europe is divided into East and West Europe. West Europe comprises the Pyrenean peninsula (Spain and Portugal), the country west of the Alps (France), the countries north of the Alps (Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands), the country south of the Alps (Italy), the islands ojf the North sea (Great Britain, Ireland and Iceland), and the countries on the Baltic (Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Prussia).
East Europe contains the countries north of the Carpathian mountains (Russia and Galicia), and the countries south of the Carpathian mountains (Hungary, in its more comprehensive sense, and Turkey). The following are the political states of Europe: the three empires of Austria, Russia and Turkey; 17 kingdoms, viz., Portugal, Spain, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Sardinia, the Two Sicilies, Greece, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Wurternberg and Poland; 1 ecclesiastical state, the papal dominions; 8 republics, viz., Switzerland, the Ionian islands, Cracow, San Marino, Hamburg, Lubeek, Bremen and Frankfort; 1 electorate, Hesse; 6 grand-duchies, Baden, HesseDarmstadt, Saxe-Weimar, MecklenburgSchwerin, Meeklenburg-Strelitz and Tuscany; 12 duchies, viz., Oldenburg, Gotha, Meiningen, Altenburg, Brunswick, Nassau, Dessau, Bernburg, Cothen. Modena, Parma and Lucca; 1 landgraviate, Hesse-Homburg; 1 grand principality, Finland, and 12 principalities, viz., Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Scbwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Waldeck, LippeDetmold, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lichtenstein, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Schleiz, ReussLobenstein and Reuss-Ebersdorf.
Inhabitants. The most important races inhabiting Europe are classed by Hassel, in his statistical tables (1823), in the following proportions: 1. Roman nations, 75,829,000—including the French, Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Walloons, Walaehians; 2. Teutonic, or German nations, 60,451,800—including the Germans, Dutch and English, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes ; 3. Sclavonian nations, 68,255,000 —including the Russians, Poles, Lithuanians, Livonians, &c, Wendish, &c, Tschechen, Sclavonians, Croats, Rascians and Servians, Morlachians, Bosnians, &-c.; 4. Caledonians, including the Highlanders and Irish, 8,200,000; 5. Turks, 2,350,000; 6. Greeks, 4,834,000; 7. Arnauts, 530,000; 8. Magyarians, 4,472,000—including the Bulgarians^ 522,000; 9. Finns, 1,370,000, Esthonians, 480,000, Laplanders, 17,800 (the three last belong to the Mongol race); 10. Cymri, or Low Bretons, 1,661,000; 11. Basques, 620,000; 12. Maltese, 88,000. The tables of the same distinguished geographer, published in 1817, estimate the Jews at 1,179,500; the Gipsies at 313,000: the Armenians at 131,600.
STATISTICAL VIEW OF ALL THE
1 AnhaJt-Bernburg-, , 2 " Dessau, . [ 3 « Cothen, .
i 4 Austria,
J 5 Baden,
! 6 Bavaria, .... j 7 Bentinck, .... i 8 Brunswick, . . .
9 Bremen, ....
10 British Empire, .
11 Cracow, ....
12 Denmark, ....
13 Frankfort on M.f
16 Hamburg-, . . .
it Tt °
17 Hanover, ....
18 Hesse-Cassel, .
20 « Homburg,
21 Hoh. Hechingen,*
22 " Sigmaringen,
23 Ionian Islands, .
24 Lichtenstein, . .
27 Lubeck, ....
28 San Marino, . .
29 Meek. Schwerin§
30" Strelitz, .
31 Modena, ....
33 Netherlands, . . 34. Oldenburg, . . . 36 Ottoman Empire,
37 Portugal, ....
39 Reuss, elder line,
41 Russia. .....
42 Sardinia, ....
44 Saxe-Allenburg, 15 "Coburg, .
47 lC Weimar, .
48 Schaumb. Lippe,||
49 Sch. Rudolstadt,1T
50 u Sondershauscn,
51 Sicilies (the Two),
52 Church States, .
53 Sweden, ....
54 Switzerland, . .
56 Tuscany, . . . .
57 Waldeck, ....
58 Wurtemberg . .
A&EA in German geographical square miles.*
15.78 16.29 15.60 12,151.10 279.54 1,477.26 1.20 70.37 3 21 5,556.08 23.31 2,465.50 4.33 10,086.73 ?
7.10 695.07 208.90 185.00 7.84 6.12 18.25 47.12 2.45 20.60 19.50 6.75 1.06 223.8 36.13 98.71 82.70 1,196.56 116.00 9,602.21 103.92 1,722.18 5,054.68 6.84 21.10 66,718.69 1.363.81 '271.33 23.41 43.88 41.72 66.82 9.75 19.10 16.90 1,947.40 811.80 13,734.15 696.31 8,44-6.90 395.36
3,102 833 1,500 5,71 80,000 970 315,000
38,900 59,270 35,610 32,500,000 1,153,144 4,037,017 2,900 244,200 51..W0 22,297,621 110,000 2,057.531 54-.000 32,052,515 550,000' 150,000 1,582,574 602,700 7 J 8,900 21,664 15,000 40,000 175',398 5,800 76,718 145,000 4-6,503 7,000 441,164 97,343 379,000 348,006 6,977,500 248,198 9,393,000 437,400 3,782,550 12,778,403 24,100 57,690 41,990,000 4,167,377 1,400,100 '109,493 153,000 129,589 221.654 25.600 56,985 48.106 7.414,717 2,483.910 3,878,700 2,037,030 13,651.172 I!300,530 54,0V) 1,535,403
* The German geographical mile is equal to the fifteenth part of a degree of the equator, consequently is about 43 English statute miles; and a square German mile is about 21| English square statute miles. Frankfort on the Maine. Hohenzollern-Hechingen. ft Mecklenburg-Schwerin. (I Schaumliurg-Lippe. If Sch warzburg-lludolstadt.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
12 13 14 15 16 17. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4-6 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Absolute 3 provincial estates, . .
Absolute, . . •
Absolute \ provincial estates, . .
Republic, und. protec. Rus., Prus. & Aus.
Republic, . .
Republic, under protec. of Britain,
Republic, protected by the pope, .
Absolute j cortcs, ....
Absolute ; cortcs, ....
Estates, . .
450,000 710,000 230,000 130,000,000 9.832,200 30',078,869 175,000 2.376,933& '400,000 572.124,000 333.120 10,200,000 760,000 394,400,000
1,500,000 11,700,000 4,500,000 5.373,611 180,000 120.000 300,000 1,414,000 1,200,000 '490,000 720;000 400,000
2,300 .(MX) 500,000 1,500,000 1,810,000 30;000,000 1,500.000 28,000,000 1,500,000 21,852.000 76,194,000 140,000 400,000 130,000.000 21,852,000 11.000.000 '600.000 900.000 750,000 1,799.400 215.000 325,000 300.000 31,483,712 12,000,000 17,500,000 63,773 66,300,000
600,000 500,000 1,600,000 500,000,000 15,981,060 111,005,644| 150,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 £785,530,326$ 25,000 100,000,000] 8,000,000 1,200,000,000
370 529 324 271,404 11,566 53,898 j
2,432 385 90,519
38,819j 475' 281,000] 2,580 1,050 12,940 9,859 8,421 '2001 145| 370 1,600] 55 690 800] 406
3,137 742 1,860 2,800 43,297 2,177 80,000 1,320 40,000 165,000 206 538 600,000 28,000 13,307 982 1,366 1,150 2,164 240 539 451 28,436
740 1,058 648 750.504. 20,000 71,600(
4,192| 770] 378,370]
74,000 946 320,000
1,076 1,039,117 60,000 24.000 l',964] 2,732 2.300 4,020] 430 1,07S 902 60,000 9,100] 138,569 33,578 173,550 8,000i 1,036] 27,9101
* The word ComtitiU.ioiixil is set against those states which have representative governments, in the modem sense
The debt of England is here given in pounds sterling. In the sum total below it is computed in guilders.
Among the best sources for the current statistics of Europe, we would mention the Crenealogischer Historischer und Statistischer Mmanach, an annual, published at Weimar, and established by the celebrated geographer Hassel. This is a work of much merit in many respects. For English statistics, the Companion to the British Almanac, published annually by the society for the diffusion of useful knowledge, is of great value.
Etjryale; 1. queen of the Amazons.— 2. A daughter of Minos.—3. A daughter of Proetus, king of Argos.—4. See Gorgons.
Eurtalus; 1. one of the Greek heroes at the Biege of Troy.—2. One of the companions of iEneas, famous for his friendship with Nisus, with whom he was killed, after having forced his way with him into the enemy's camp. Virgil, JEneid, £K. 175.
Eurydice. Among the many women of antiquity who bore this name, the most celebrated is the wife of Orpheus, who died by the bite of a serpent. Her husband, inconsolable for her loss, descended to the lower world, and, by the charms of his lyre, moved the infernal deities to grant him permission to bring her back. This they granted, on condition that he would not look round upon her till he had reached the upper world. Forgetting his promise, he looked back, and lost her forever. This story has often formed a fine subject for poets.
Eurtnome; the daughter of Oceanus; according to Hesiod, the mother of the Graces, (q. v.)
Eusebia (Greek); piety; in the modern allegorical sense, the presiding genius of theology.
Eusebius, surnamed Pamphilus, the father of ecclesiastical history, born at Csesarea, in Palestine, about 270, A. D., died about 340, and was the most learned man of his time. He was a presbyter, and, in 314, was appointed bishop in his native city. He was at first opposed to the Arians, but afterwards became their advocate, and with them condemned the doctrines of Athanasius. His ecclesiastical history, written, like his other works, in Greek, is contained in 10 books, and extends from the birth of Christ to 324 (the best editions are that of Valesius, Paris, 1639, fol. and that of Reading, Canterbury, 1720, fol.). Of his Chronicon, with the exception of some fragments of the original, we have only an Armenian translation, and the Latin version of Jerome. Besides these, mere are yet
extant, 15 books of his Praparatio Evangelica, which is particularly valuable for the extracts it contains from lost philosophical works. Of the 20 books of his Demonstratio Evangelica, in which he shows the superiority of Christianity to Judaism, we have only 10 imperfectly preserved; and, finally, a life, or rather eulogium, of Constantine. Notices of his life may be found in the above quoted edition of Valeeius. Danz, Moller and Kessner have written briefly on his value and credibility as a historian.
Eustachi, Bartolomeo, a physician and anatomist, born at San Severino, in the mark of Ancona, studied Latin, Greek and Arabic at Rome, and devoted himself to the various departments of medical science, more particularly those which relate to the structure of the human body, and was made physician to the cardinals Carlo Borromeo, and Giulio della Rovera; ho was also appointed professor in the institution della Sapienza, at Rome. There is hardly any part of anatomical science which he did not enrich by profound researches or important discoveries. Some of the parts discovered by him have received their names from him: thus the canal that unites the internal ear with the back part of the mouth, is called the eustachian tube; so also the eustachian valve of the heart Among his works are his Tabula. anatomiccBy anus e Tenebris tandem vindicatas, etPontificis Clementis XIMunificeniia Dono acceptas, Prafatione Notisqut illustravit Joannes-Maria Lancisi (Rome, 1714, fol.). This work is remarkable as containing excellent drawings of the human body, which were executed in 1552, but not discovered and published till a much later period. The text has never been found. Albinus published an excellent commentary on these tables (Leyden, 1743, fol). Another of his works, De Jlnatomicorum Controversiis, is also lost Besides these, we have many other valuable works by him. Boerhaave published an edition of them at Ley den, 1707, which was reprinted at Delft, 1736, Eustachi died at Rome, 1574.
Eustathius, a commentator on Homer and the geographer Dionysius, originally a monk, afterwards deacon, and finally^ 1155, archbishop of Thessalonia. He died after 1194. Though not very enlightened in his theological views, he was deeply read in the classics, and a man of extensive erudition, as appears from his commentaries compiled from the old scholiasts, of which that on Homer, in particular, is an inexhaustible mine of