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and injustice. He always gratefully return- curved at the upper end, which is cared any favors lie bad received while in an ried before bishops, abbots and abbesses, humble condition. He left a son, who was as an ensign expressive of their dignity, created lord Cromwell, which title remain- while they are exercising the functions of ed in the family for several generations. their office; and the figure of which is Cronion. (See Jupiter.) also borne in their coat of arms. When Cronos. (See Saturn.) bestowing the blessing upon the people, Cronstadt, orBuRZENLAND (in Hun- they take the staff into their own hands, garian, Brassau); a free royal city of Tran- It was originally a shepherd's crook, tho sylvania, in the Land of the Saxons, 25 bishops being regarded as the pastors of leagues E. S. E. of Hermanstadt, 31 N. their dioceses. By degrees the humble N. W. of Bucharest, with a citadel; laL emblem became highly adorned,and was 45° 3d7 30" N.; Ion. 25° 43'47" E. It con- made of costly materials. Artists like tains six Lutheran, one Roman Catholic, Benvenuto Cellini and Giovanni da Botwo Greek Catholic churches, one Luther- iogna were employed to make it. The an gymnasium, one normal school; 25,000 investiture of the bishop is indicated by inhabitants. Its commerce, chiefly with the delivery of the crosier. Some sav Walachia, is very brisk. that the crosier was originally only a simCronstadt, or Kronschtat; a sea- pie staff, which, from the earliest times, ha.< port and fortress of Russia, in the govern- been given as an emblem of authority to ment of St. Petersburg, situated on the judges, kings, &c. In conformity to this south-eastern extremity of the island of explanation, St. Isidore says that" bishops Retusari, in the gulf of Finland, two miles bear the staff because they have the right from the coast of Ingria, and eight from to correct the erring, and the duty to supthat of Carelia, at the mouth of the Neva- port the weak. The excess of splendor It was founded by Peter I in 1710. Some lavished in later times upon this instruof the streets are tolerably regular; but ment, gave occasion to the following sathe houses are in general built of wood, tirical lines:
es, &c. The population amounts to about Cross; one straight body laid at any 40,000, of whom at least 10,000 are sail- angle upon another; the ensign or emors. The harbor is very spacious, and blem of the Christian religion, as being a consists of the three divisions of the mer- representation of the instrument of punchants' harbor, the war harbor, and the ishment, on which Jesus Christ suffered man of war's mole. The war harbor is death from the Jews; the form in which the principal station of the Russian fleet many churches and cathedrals are bulk. Adjoining it are the docks for building The cross of the ancients was simply a and careening ships of war. They can piece of wood, fastened across a tree or hold ten men of war, and are faced with upright post., on which were executed stone and paved with granite: they are criminals of the very worst class. After 40 feet deep and 105 broad. The man the crucifixion of Jesus, and the extenof war's mole is an interesting structure, sion of the Christian religion, the cross was enclosed by a strong rampart of granite, assumed as the ensign of his followers, built in the sea, under the direction of the The cross was used emblematically belate admiral Greig. Here is a foundery for fore the Christian era. Upon a multitude casting cannon, and a ropewalk for manu- of medals and ancient monuments, are to facturing cables of all sizes, with great be found crosses placed in the hands of magazines of naval stores, Cronstadt is statues of Victory, and of figures of cmdefended towards the sea by two fortifi- perors. It was also placed upon a globe, cations, called Cronschlot, on the Neva, which, ever since the days of Augustus, where this river is 2000 paces wide, has been the sign of the empire "of tin* and towards the land by ramparts and world and the image of victory. Th.* bastions. About 1100 vessels enter and shields, the cuirasses, the helmets, the imleave the port annually. The principal penal cap, were all thus decorated. Th •
Au temps passe du siecle d'or,
cross has also been often stamped upon the reverses of money, as is proved by the old English game of cross and pile. The coins struck at Constantinople, and those of the Franks from the time of Clovis, were also thus marked. Examples of these are given in the dissertation by Ducange, Sur les M6dailles Byzantines, and in the treatise by Le Blanc, Sur les Monnaies de France. The cross is now the universal Christian emblem, being used upon the arms and banners of the soldier, the vestments of the priest, and in the armorial bearings of nobles. The forms of cathedrals, and often the patterns of their pavements, are adapted to the representation of the cross, which is also sculptured and elevated upon tombs and sepulchres. Sculptured crosses of various descriptions, elevated upon handsome pedestals, were formerly erected in cemeteries and market-places, to designate peculiar events; as the queen's crosses at Northampton, Waltham, &c. Very line ones are still to be seen in many parts of Great Britain, and particularly in Ireland. In order to understand the meaning of the sign of the cross among the first Christians, it must be kept in mind, that the cross was in their time an instrument of infamous punishment, like the gallows at present, and that they assumed this sign to show that they gloried in being the followers of Christ, notwithstanding the infamy which had been attempted to be thrown upon him, by the manner of his execution. The custom of making the sign of the cross, in memory of Jesus, may be traced to the 3d century of our era. Constantine the Great had crosses erected in public places, in palaces and churches. This emperor is generally supposed to have been the first who ordered die cross to be used as the sign or emblem under which he would fight and conquer, in remembrance of the miraculous appearance of a cross in the heavens. A certain legend relates that, before his battle with Maxentius, a cross appeared to him, bearing the words Towo) Viku (Under this thou shalt conquer, In hoc signo vinces), in consequence of which he had a standard made bearing this image, and called labarum. It was customary, in his time, to paint a cross at the entrance of a house, to denote that it belonged to a Christian. Subsequently, the churches were, for the greater part, built in the form of this instrument. But it did not become an object of adoration, until the empress Helena (Constantino's mother) found a cross in Palestine, which was believed to be
the one on which Christ suffered, and conveyed a part of it to Constantinople. This is the origin of the festival of the finding of the cross, which the Catholic church celebrates on the third of May. Standards and weapons were now ornamented with it, and the emperor Heraclius thought he had recovered the palladium of his empire, when he gained possession of a piece of the true cross, in 628, which had fallen into the hands of the Persians, in 616. In memory of this event, the festival of the exaltation of the cross was instituted, Heraclius having caused the cross to be erected at Jerusalem, on mount Calvary. This festival is celebrated on the 14th of September. It is remarkable how this holy relic became multiplied. Numberless churches possessed some parts of it, jthe miraculous power of which was said to have been proved by the most astonishing facts; and many persons actually believed that it could be infinitely divided without decreasing. It was in vain that the Iconoclasts, who condemned the worship of images, attempted to overthrow the adoration of the cross. The crucifix was considered as a principal object of worship, in preference to the images of the saints, and, in compliance with the teachings of John of Damascus, was adored, during the 7th century, in all the churches of "the East. That the West also ascribed a mysterious power to this symbol, is evident from the use which was made of it in the trials "by the judgment of God," in the middle ages. There never has existed any sign, which has been so often repeated in works of art as the cross. This may be ascribed, in part, to its form being applicable to many more purposes than those of other emblems; such, for instance, as the crescent The distinguishing cipher of the Jesuits is
I&S, which signifies In hac cruet solus, or Jesus, in Greek letters, and abbreviated. Crosses have been the badge of numberless orders, military and civil. To make the sign of the cross, is thought by many people, in Catholic countries, a defence against evil spirits, evil influences, &c. The Greeks make this sign constantly, hardly taking a glass of raky without signing the cross over it. Catholic bishops, archbishops, abbots and abbesses wear a small golden cross. The Catholic benediction is generally performed by making the sign of the cross over the object. There are different kinds of crosses, as the common cross, f, St. Andrew's cross, X, &c. (See die article Adoratum.) Two sorts of crosses are used for the forms of churches, the Greek and the Latin. The Greek cross has its arms at right angles, and all of equal length; whereas the Latin cross lias one of its limbs much longer than the other three. Bramante originally designed St Peter's for a Latin cros3; Michael Angelo reduced it to the proportions of the Greek cross; but Carlo Maderno again elongated it to the original dimensions of Bramante. The cathedral of St. Paul's, London, is a Latin cross, with its base spread by a sort of second transept, which increases the breadth of the western front
O'osSj in baptism. In the administration of the ordinance of baptism, the practice of making the sign of the cross on the forehead of the person baptized, was adopted at an early period, though not enjoined by any express command, or sanctioned by any known example in scripture. The use of the cross, indeed, was very frequent in the primitive ages of Christianity. Such was the respect paid to it, that it formed, in one mode or another, a distinguishing part of the civil and religious ceremonies of those times. The first Christian writer who mentions it in connexion with baptism, is Tertullian, who wrote after the middle of the 2d century. This writer says (De Cov. Mil. c. 2), that "at every setting out, or entry upon business, whenever we come in or go out from any place, when we dress for a journey, when we go into a bath, when we go to meat, when the candles are brought in, when we lie down or sit down, and whatever business we have, we make on our foreheads the sign of the cross;" and, speaking of baptism, in Ins treatise De Cam. Resur., he says, "the flesh is signed that the soul may be fortified."
Cross-bearer (porte-croix, cruciger), in the Roman Catholic church, the chaplain of an archbishop, or a primate, who bears a cross before him on solemn occasions. The pope has the cross borne before liim every where; a patriarch any where out of Rome; and primates, metropolitans, and those who have a right to the pallium, throughout their respective jurisdictions. Gregory XI forbade all patriarchs and prelates to have it borne in the presence of cardinals. A prelate bears a single cross, a patriarch a double cross, and the pope a triple one on his arms.
Cross-bar Shot are shots with iron bars crossing through them, sometimes standing out G or 8 inches at both sides. They are used at sea for injuring the ene
my's rigging, and in sieges, for destroying the palisades in the covert-way, ditches, &c.
Cross-bow, or Arbalist; formerly a very common weapon for shooting, but not long used in wrar after the invention of fire-arms. It is a strong wTooden or steel bow, fixed to a stock, stretched by the spanner, and shot off by the trigger fixed to the stock. All kinds of weapons, in which the bowr was fastened to the stock, were called cross-bows, some of which were attached to carnages, and drawn by horses. There wras a small kind, from which were shot little balls. To the larger sort were attached instruments for bending the bow. There are some societies still existing in Germany, who exercise with the cross-bow; for instance, in Aix-la-Chapelle. (See Archery.)
Cross Examination; the examination of a witness called by one party, by the opposite party or his counsel.
Cross Fire, in the art of war, is when the lines of fire, from two or more parts of a work, cross one another. It is frequently made use of to prevent an enemy's passing through a defile. The flanks, as wrell as the faces of two adjoining bastions, afford the means of cross fire, as do also the faces of two adjoining redoubts.
Crotch, William, in his infancy a musical prodigy, was bom at Norwich, Eng., July 5, 1775. His father, a carpenter, had made a little organ for his amusement, and, one evening, when a friend was playing on the instrument, and singing at the same time, the child became so excited, that the parents were anxious to account for the cause: their surprise was extreme, when they remarked the delight with which the child touched the keys, wdien his mother carried him to the organ. The following morning, his father placed liim at the instrument, when he repeated several passages from airs which he had heard performed. After this, the boy was permitted to play on the organ, whenever he was inclined. He learnt different airs with facility, and often intermixed passages of his own composition, which were always harmonious, as he had a natural aversion to discords. This prodigy of two years old was frequently called on to amuse the public by his extraordinary talent. In November, 1778, his mother took him to Cambridge, and, in December, to London, where the boy excited universal astonishment by his performance on the organ. In 17/9, he played before the court of St. James with great applause,
his infantine, playful manner prepossessing every one in his favor. Whatever he had once heard he could repeat, and often with variations. In every other respect, Crotch was a perfect child, animated, petulant, sometimes obstinate, and of a weak frame. He now received regular instruction, first at Cambridge, then in the college of St. Mary, at Oxford. Here he was chosen organist, in his 18th year, and likewise studied drawing and painting, in which he made rapid progress. After he had been appointed doctor and professor in Oxford, he proceeded to London, where he delivered lectures on music in the Royal and Surry institution, and gave lessons on the piano during 20 years. He now lives at Fulham, near London, and has not appeared in public for several years. He is a well informed and modest man. His musical publications consist of arrangements of compositions for the piano-forte from the first masters, and an interesting collection of characteristic pieces for the different musical styles of composition, entitled Specimens of various Styles of Music (3 vols., folio). Only one work of his has created a sensation amongst the musical connoisseurs in England—his oratorio called Palestine. It is evident that Crotch has more capacity for acquiring than inventing.
Crotona, also Croto, in ancient geography; a Greek republic in Magna Graecia, or South Italy. Livy gives the circumference of the city of Crotona at 12,000 paces. This city was famous for producing the strongest athletes.. Milo, e. g., was born here. Under the Romans, Crotona was infamous for luxury and dissoluteness. The ruins of this place are still to be seen above Capo della Colonna.
Croton Oil is expressed from the seeds of an East Indian plant, the croton tiglium, and is one of the most valuable ot the late additions to the materia medica. It is so strongly purgative, that one drop is a full dose, and half a drop will sometimes produce a powerful effect. It is also found to produce the same effect when rubbed upon the tongue, or even upon the skin. It is so active, that it should never be used but. under the direction of an experienced physician. In the hands of such, it is of great value, as its small bulk and insipid taste render it serviceable in cases in which no common medicine can be used, and its great power makes it operate when other medicines fail. It has been given to the extent of 8 or 10 drops, in a bad case of «7ews, which
it cured, without producing any bad symptoms. It should, however, be used with great caution.
Croup; a disease that mostly attacks infants, who are suddenly seized widi a difficulty of breathing and a crouping noise; it is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the windpipe, inducing the secretion of a very tenacious, coagulable lymph, which lines the air passages and impedes respiration. The croup does not appear to be contagious, whatever some physicians may think to the contrary; but it sometimes prevails epidemically. It seems, however, peculiar to some families; and a child, having once been attacked, is very liable to a return. It is confined to young children, and lias never been known to attack a person arrived at the age of puberty. The application of cold seems to be the general cause which produces this disorder, and therefore it occurs more frequently in the whiter and spring than in the other seasons. It has been said, that it is most prevalent near the sea-coast; but it is frequently met with in inland situations, and particularly those which are marshy. Some days previous to an attack of tin? disease, the child appeal's drowsy, inactive and fretful; the eyes are somewhat suffused and heavy; and there is a cough, which, from the first, has a peculiarly shrill sound; this, in the course of two days, becomes more violent and troublesome, and likewise more shrill. Every fit of coughing agitates the patient veiy much; the face is flushed and swelled, die eyes are protuberant, a general tremor takes place, and there is a kind of convulsive endeavor to renew respiration at the close of each fit. As the disease advances, a constant difficulty of breathing prevails, and the head is thrown back in the agony of attempting to escape suffocation. There is not only an unusual sound produced by the cough (something between the yelping and barldngof a dog), but respiration is performed with a hissing noise, as if the windpipe was closed up by some slight, spongy substance. The cough is generally dry; but if any thing is spit up, it has either a purulent appearance, or seems to consist of films resembling portions of a membrane. Wheregreat nausea and frequent retchings prevail, coagidated matter of the same nature is brought up. With these symptoms, there is much thirst, and an uneasy sense of heat over die whole body, a continual inclination to change from place to place, great restlessness, and frequency of the
pulse. In an advanced stage of the disease, respiration becomes more stridulous, and is performed with still greater difficulty, being repeated at longer periods, and with greater exertions, until, at last, it ceases entirely. The croup frequently proves fatal by suffocation, induced either by spasm affecting the glottis, or by a quantity of matter blocking up the air passages; but when it terminates in health, it is by a resolution of the inflammation, by a ceasing of the spasms, and by a free expectoration of the matter exuding from the trachea, or of the crusts formed there. The disease has. in a few instances, terminated fatally within 24 hours after its attack; but it more usually happens, that where it proves fatal, it runs on to the 4th or 5th day. Where considerable portions of the membranous films, formed on the surface of the trachea, are thrown up, life is sometimes protracted for a day or two longer than would otherwise have happened. Dissections of children, who have died of the croup, have mostly shown a preternatural membrane, lining the whole internal surface of the upper part of the trachea, which may always be easily separated from the proper membrane. There is likewise usually found a good deal of mucus, with a mixture of pus, in the windpipe and its ramifications. The treatment of this disease must be conducted on the strictly antiphlogistic plan. It will commonly be proper, where the patient is not very young, to begin by taking blood from the arm or the jugular vein; several leeches should be applied along the fore pail of the neck. It will then be right to give a nauseating emetic, ipecacuanha with tartarized antimony, or with squill, in divided doses; this may be followed up by cathartics, diaphoretics, digitalis, &c. Large blisters ought to be applied near the affected part, and a discharge kept up by savin cerate, or other stimulant dressing. Mercury, carried speedily to salivation, has in several instances arrested the progress of the disease, when it appeared proceeding to a fatal termination. As the inflammation is declining, it is very important that free expectoration should take place. This may be promoted by nauseating medicines, by inhaling steam, and by stimulating gargles, for which the decoction of seneka is particularly recommended. Where there is much wheezing, an occasional emetic may relieve the patient considerably, and, under symptoms of threatening suffocation, the operation of bronchotomy has sometimes saved life. Should fits of spasmodic difficulty of
breathing occur in the latter periods of the disease, opium, joined with diaphoretics, would be most likely to do good. Napoleon, on the occasion of the death of his nephew, the prince of Holland, of this disease, offered a premium of 12,000 francs for the best treatise on the croup. Of 83 essays, wrhich were presented to the committee of 12 members assembled for the examination at Paris, in 1811, two wrere acknowledged as the best, one by Iurine, in Geneva, and the other by Aibers, of Bremen, between whom the prize was divided.
Crousaz, John Peter de, a celebrated mathematician and philosopher, was born at Lausanne, in 1660. He early distinguished himself by Ms progress in mathematics and philosophy, under able professors at Geneva and Lausanne, applying himself particularly to the writings of Descartes. In 1682, he went to the university of Leyden, and thence proceeded to Paris, where he became acquainted with the celebrated father Malebranche, who, with other celebrated men, vainly endeavored to convert him to the Catholic religion. On retmning to his native country, he was ordained minister, appointed honorary professor, and remained pastor of the church at Lausanne. In 1699, he was made professor of Greek and of philosophy in the academy of Lausanne, appointed rector in 1706, and again in 1722. In 1724, he was chosen mathematical and philosophical professor at the university at Groningen. In 1732, he was nominated counsellor of embassies to the king of Sweden, and, hi 1737, elected professor of philosophy and mathematics at Lausanne. His works are distinguished for learning, liberality and acuteness. The principal are, A System of Reflections that may contribute to the Illustration and Extension of Knowledge, or a newT Essa}T on Logic (in 6 vols., 12mo., 1741); Summa Logica (1724) ; a Treatise on Education; Examen du Pyrrhonisme ancim et modtrne; GcomUrie des Lignes et des Surfaces rectiligmes et circidab'es; Examen de FEssai de M. Pope; Commentaire sur la Traduction de VEssai de M. Pope, de VAbhe du Resnel; Traite du Beau; a Treatise on die Human Understanding.
Crow (corvus, L.); a genus of birds remarkable for their gregarious and predatory habits, distinguished by the following characters: The "bill is straight, convex and compressed, being covered at its base by incumbent, bristly feathers; the upper inaudible is curved at tip, the lower is a little shorter, carinated on both sides, and