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For reasons too many to be enumerated here, the idea that the bishop of Rome was the highest spiritual ruler, and the emperor of the holy Roman empire (or of Germany), the highest temporal sovereign, was gradually developed. One reason undoubtedly was, that the German or Teutonic tribes were actually, in the beginning of the middle ages, the ruling people in most countries of Europe; but many other reasons, particularly a strange confusion of the universal empire of Rome with the universal empire of Christendom, and the idea of a universal church, as an organized society, to be supported, of course, by a temporal power, contributed much to give this idea currency. The impartial historian cannot doubt that, in the barbarous period of the middle ages, the authority of the pope was beneficial to Europe, and almost the sole support of civilization; but it would be hard to say what advantage Germany derived from taking part, ex officio, in all the quarrels of Europe, and from that unfortunate desire of possessing temporal authority over Italy, which has been one of the chief causes of her inferiority to some other states of Europe, in respect to the (level opement of her political institutions. As the emperor was considered the highest temporal officer in Christendom, all the other states were regarded as dependent upon him; some of these, therefore, to show their independence, made claim to the imperial dignity, although they did not assume the title; as, for instance, the sovereigns of Castile, France and England. The eastern empire having been finally overthrown by the conquest of Constantinople, in 1453, the imperial dignity in the East became extinct. The sultans, who succeeded the emperors, have never received, in official language, the title of emperor. This title was adopted in Russia by Peter I, in 1721, but the right of the Russian sovereign to its possession was not acknowledged by the German empire until 1747—by France in 1745, and by Spain in 1759. Napoleon adopted the old idea of an empire, as a general union of states under the protection, or at least political preponderance, of one powerful state; the political system of a.balance of power, had proved insufficient to maintain a general peace, and Henry IV's plan of a great European confederacy held out no prospect of permanent tranquillity. Napoleon crowned himself as emperor in 1804. In 1806, the German empire, 1000 years old, became extinct, and the German emperor, Francis II, adopted the title of

Francis I, emperor of Austria. Tho French empire was destroyed in 1814, by the peace of Paris. Great Britain is considered as an empire, the crown is imperial, and the parliament is styled the Imperial Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland; but the king himself has never adopted the imperial title, though this measure was proposed in parliament in 1804. The empire of Mexico, or Anahuac, established by Iturbide, was only momentary in its duration; but the empire of the Brazils, founded in 1822, seems to be firmly established. The sovereigns of Siam, China, Japan, and of Fez and Morocco, are often, though with little propriety, called emperors. At the coronation of the German emperors, princes and kings appeared as servants; the emperor promised to do justice, to be an upright sovereign, to consult the good of his subjects, to protect the church, to defend the empire, to be the guardian of widows and orphans; and not until the assembled people had replied to the question, "Will you submit to this sovereign and prince, and obey him?" with shouts of Yes, Yes{Fiat, fiat, fiat), were the unction and coronation (of which Gothe gives a description in his account of his life) performed. Formerly, it was only the coronation of the sovereign as German king, that took place at Frankfort, in Germany. This was followed by the imposition of the crown of Lombardy, an iron circle, made of a nail reputed to be from the cross of Christ, set in gold; and finally by the coronation as Roman emperor, performed by the pope in Rome. But from the time of Maximilian I, the German emperors were crowned in Germany only. After the fall of the French empire, a large number of persons in Germany, without organization or settled plan, desired die restoration of the German empire. The Germans, from a want of practical knowledge, then lost an opportunity of taking one step towards securing personal liberty, by wasting the time in vague declamation. That party, particularly, who wished for the restoration of the empire, talked of a glory, power and happiness which had never existed; they were actuated by indistinct historical recollections, and phantoms of their own creation, and, not a few, by their aristocratical predilections. A worse model of government, and a more perplexed political system, than the late German empire, cannot be contrived.

Empiric, in medical history (from the Greek word ^fioia, experience; an appel

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lation assumed by a sect of physicians, who contended, that all hypothetical reasoning respecting the operations of the animal economy was useless, and that observation and experience alone were the foundation of the art of medicine. Empiric, in modern medicine, is applied to a person who sells or administers a particular drug, or compound, as a remedy for a given disorder, without any consideration of its different stages, or degrees of violence, in different constitutions, climates or seasons. (For empiric philosophy, see Experimental Philosophy.)

Ems; a celebrated wratering-place in the duchy of Nassau, on the river Lahn. The environs are beautiful. As early as 1583, it was used as a watering-place. The mineral waters at Ems are warm— from' 70° to 118° Fahr.; they are of the saline class, containing large quantities of carbonic acid gas, and are used with much effect in chronic catarrhs, pulmonary complaints, diseases of the stomach, arising from phlegm and acidity, gout, and some diseases of the urinary vessels. (See Die Heilquellen zu Ems, Coblentz, 1821, by Vogler.) Near Ems is a grotto, similar to the grotto del cane, near Naples, the vapors from which cause asphyxia. About 50,000 bottles of the water of Ems are sent away annually.

Emulsions; a term applied to the imperfect solutions of the fixed vegetable oils in water. They are obtained by rubbing the seeds affording these oils with water, to wjiich a little sugar has been added.

Enameling (from enamel, formed by a junction of the inseparable particle en—borrowed by us from the French, who had taken it from the Latin in— and the old English word amel, taken from the imaU of the French, both signifying the material used in overlaying the variegated works which we call e?iameled); the art of variegating with colore laid upon or into another body; also, a mode of painting, with -vitrified colors, on gold, silver, copper, &c, and of melting these at the fire, or of making curious works in them at a lamp. This art is of so great antiquity, as to render it difficult or impossible to trace it to its origin. It was evidently practised by the Egyptians, from the remains that have been observed on the ornamented envelopes of mummies. From Egypt it passed into Greece, and afterwards into Rome and its provinces, whence it was probably introduced into Great Britain, as various Roman antiquities have been dug up in different parts

of the island, particularly in the Barrows, in which enamels have formed portions of the ornaments. The gold cup given by king John to the corporation of Lynn, in Norfolk, proves that the art was known among the Normans, as the sides of the cup are embellished with various figures, whose garments are partly composed of colored enamels. Enamels are \dtrifiable substances, and are usually arranged into three classes; namely, the transparent, the semi transparent and opaque. The basis of all kinds of enamel is a perfectly transparent and fusible glass, which is rendered either semitransparent or opaque, by the admixture of metallic oxides. The art of coloring glass seems to be of nearly the same antiquity as the invention of making it; which is proved, not only from written documents, but likewise by the variously colored glass corals, with which several of the Egyptian mummies are decorated. White enamels are composed by melting the oxide of tin with glass, and adding a small quantity of manganese, to increase the brilliancy of the color. The addition of the oxide of lead, or antimony, produces a yellow enamel; but a more beautiful yellow may be obtained from the oxide of silver. Reds are formed by an intermixture of the oxides of gold andiron, that composed of the former being the most beautiful and permanent. Greens, violets and blues are formed from the oxides of copper, cobalt and iron; and these, when intermixed in different proportions, afford a great variety of intermediate colors. Sometimes the oxides are mixed before they are united to the vitreous bases. All the colors may be produced by the metallic oxides. The principal quality of good enamel, and that which renders it fit for being applied on baked earthen ware, or on metals, is the facility with which it acquires lustre by a moderate heat, or cherry-red heat, more or less, according to the nature of the enamel, without entering into complete fusion. Enamels applied to earthen ware and metals possess tliis quality. Enamels are executed upon the surface of copper and other metals, by a method similar to painting. Enameling on plates of metal, and painting with vitrified colors on glass, are practised with great success in England.

Encaustic Painting (encausticus, Lot.; a*avcrrt;oj, Gr.). Painting in encaustic is executed with the operation of fire. Ancient authors often mention this species of painting, which, if it had been described simply by the word encaustic, which signifies executed by fire, might be supposed to have been a species of enamel painting. But the expressions encausto pingere, pictura encaustica, ceris pingere, jncturam inurere, by Pliny and other ancient writers, show that another species of painting is meant We have no ancient pictures of this description, and, therefore, the precise manner adopted by the ancients is not completely developed, though many moderns have closely investigated the subject, and described their processes. This species of painting appears to have been practised in the 4th and 5th centuries* Count Caylus and M. Bachelier, a painter, were the first of modem times who made experiments in this branch of art, about the year 1749. Pliny, in a passage relating to encaustic painting, distinguishes three species: 1. that in which the artists used a style, and painted on ivory or polished wood {cestro in e&ore), for which purpose they drew the outlines on a piece of the aforesaid wood or ivory, previously soaked or imbued with some color ; the point of the style or stigma served for this operation; and the broad end to scrape off the small filaments that arose from the outlines ; and they continued forming outlines with the point till they were finished. 2. The next manner appears to have been one in which the wax, previously impregnated with color, was spread over the surface of the picture with the style, and the colors thus prepared were formed into small cylinders for use. By the side of the painter was a brasier for keeping the styles continually hot, with the points of which they laid on the colors when the outlines were finished, and spread them smooth with the broad end; and thus they proceeded till the picture was finished. 3. The third manner of painting was with a pencil, in wax liquefied by fire. By this method the colors acquired a considerable hardness, and could not be damaged, either by the heat of the sun or the effects, of sea-water. In this manner ships were painted, with emblems and other pictures, and therefore it obtained the name of ship painting. Few, of late years, have rnacle more experiments in this mode of painting than an English lady, Mrs. Hooker, who, for her very successful exertions in this branch of the polite arts, was presented with a gold palette by


* Vicenzo Requeno has treated the subject in a very masterly and scientific manner, in a work called Saggj sul Ristabitimento dell' antic a Arte JS Greci e. Romani Pittori, published at Parma, 1767.

the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. of London. Her account is printed in the 10th volume of the society's Transactions, for 1792, when she was miss Emma Jane Greenland. This subject has also been deeply investigated by the chevalier Lorgna, in a small but valuable tract, called Un Discorso sidla Cera Punica. As the thing chiefly regarded in encaustic painting was the securing of permanence and durability, by the application of fire, the word encaustic has been applied, in a very general sense, to other processes, in which both the material and the mode of applying the heat are entirely different from the ancient materials and modes. The word has been used, not only of wax-painting on vyood, stone and ivory, but also of painting on earthen vessels, of works in metal, where gold and silver were inlaid, melted, or laid on, and of every thing which was gilt or silvered by fire; which was called gold or silver encaustic. The moderns have also used the term for painting on porcelain, and work in enamel; and in the same way it was given to the painting on glass of the middle ages, such as is now seen in the windows of some Gothic churches. It is evident, that all these have nothing to do with the wax-painting of the ancients.

Enchasing. (See CJiasing.)

Enchorial, or Enchoric (from the Greek *V, in, and ^cfya, country.) The Egyptians employed different alphabets in writing—hieroglyphic, hieratic (used by the priests) and enchorial (used for the common purposes of life, and hence called also epistolographic and demotic, (q. v.) Thus, on the Rosetta stone (q. v.), there are three inscriptions, one in the hieroglyphical character, one in what the Greeks called h'xi0Pia ypaPHarai a°d one in Greek characters. Doctor Thomas Young, in his Egyptian Antiquities (London, 1823, page 9), uses the word enchorial, or enchoric, to designate these popular characters, while M. Champollion calls them demotic. (See Demotic, and Hieroglyphics.)

Enclave; a term used in German and French, to denote a place or country which is entirely surrounded by the territories of another power. Thus several petty duchies and principalities are enclaves of Prussia. It is easy to conceive how much confusion and difficulty in the administration and in the imposition of duties must be caused by such a local situation. It has always been a source of disputes, which have been finally settled by treaties.



Enclosure; a fence, wall or hedge, or other means of protection and security, surrounding land. Countries in general lie open, with nothing but banks and ditches to divide the lands of the husbandmen; but in England and the U. States, each farm is divided from others by hedges and fences, and the farms themselves are broken into small enclosures. In France, Germany, Italy, Spain, &c, the lands still remain unenclosed, in large, open fields. Enclosures pleasantly subdivide the labors of the farmer; and, by restraining the exercise of cattle, they occasion them to get fat much sooner.

Encratites; abstinent, or self-denying. (See Gnostics.)

Encyclopaedia, or Cyclopedia. This word, formed from the Greek, but not a native compound of that language (which

USeS instead, tyKVKXios xaifoia, r.aiScia kv K'ck\m,

also lynvKXia paBwaTa), originally denoted the whole circle of the various branches of knowledge which were comprehended by the ancients in a liberal education (the artes liber ales of the Romans; see Arts). At a later period, the word wTas applied to every systematic view, either of the whole extent of human knowledge (universal encyclopaedia), or of particular departments of it (particular or partial encyclopaedia). The want, of such general surveys was early felt; and, as knowledge increased, they became still more desirable, partly for the purpose of having a systematic arrangement of the sciences, in their mutual relations, partly for the readier finding of particular subjects; and, for these two reasons, such works were sometimes philosophically, sometimes alphabetically arranged. The spirit of compiling, which prevailed in the Alexandrian school, soon led to attempts remotely allied to this, and Varro and Pliny the elder, among the Romans, composed works of a similar kind (the former in the lost works, entitled Rerum humanarum et divinarum Anliquitates, and Disciplinarum Libri IX, the latter in his Historia naturalis). To these may be added the later collections of Stobaeus, and Suidas, and especially of Marcianus Capella. These, however, were only preparatory labors. The honor of undertaking encyclopaedias on a regular plan, belongs to the middle ages, which, with iron industry, produced not only a large number of cyclopaedias of particular sciences, called Summce, or Specula (e. g. the Summa Theologia of Thomas Aquinas), but also a Universal Encyclopaedia, such 'as had never been seen before. The in

defatigable Dominican, Vincent of Beauvais (Bellovacensis), about the middle of the 13th century, exhibited the whole sum of the knowledge of the middle ages, in a work of considerable size (Speculum historiale, naturale, doctrinale, to which an anonymous author added, some years later, a Speculum morale, in a similar form), in extracts from the works of the writers of the time;—a real treasure to the inquirer into the literary history of the middle ages, and not without value in itself in many respects (e. g. for the light wiiich it throws on profane criticism). The latest edition wTas published at Douay, in 4 vols. fol. In the 17th century, the works, by no means without value, of Matthius Martinius, professor and rector in the gymnasium at Bremen (Idea methodicxz et brevis Encxjclopatdiai sive adumbratio U7iiversitatis, Herborn, 1606), and of John Henry Alstead (Encyclopedia vii Tomis dutincta, Herborn, 16*20, 2 vols fol.) were followed by those of the illustrious Bacon. In these works, not, indeed, very voluminous, but rich in deep and acute thinking (his .Yovum Organwm Scientiarum, first published, London, 1620, fol.; and De Augmcniis Scimtiarinn, Euglish, London, 1605, 4to., Latin, London, 1(338, fol), he laid the foundation of a cyclopaedia full of the most profound inquiries, and the boldest anticipations, which his own age was not capable of understanding. Since his time, a multitude of encyclopaedias have appeared, but none of them have the purely scientific design of Bacon, and all relate either to the instruction of the young and uninformed (Chevigny, Lat Science des Personnes de la Cour, de PEpee, et de la Robe, 5th ed. by H. P. de Limiers, Amsterdam, 1717, 4 vols.; J. E. Wagenseil, Pera Librorum juvenilium, Altorf, 1695, 5 vols.), or are intended as books of reference for the learned. Among the greatest works of earlier date would have been reckoned the Galeria de Minerva of Cornelli, had it been completed according to the original plan. It was to have appeared in 45 folio volumes, of which only 7 were published (Venice, 1696). See Keyssler's Travels, vol. i. 1136. More successful, at least in being brought to a completion, was the Grosse vollstandige Universallexicmi alter Jflssenschctflen und Kitnste (Grand Universal Lexicon of all the Arts and Sciences), commonly called Zedkr^s, from the person who conducted it (Halle and Leipsie, 1732—50, 64 vols.; Supplement, 1751—1754,4 vols, fol.); but it has, on the whole, little merit, and is successful only in

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some particular branches, as, for instance, in genealogy. Of the English works of this kind, which deserve notice, are 1. Chambers' (q. v.) Cyclopedia, or a Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences— a work which has passed through several editions. 2. Encyclopedia Britannica. Of this there have been 6 editions, the last of which, completed in 1823, contains many improvements; another is now (1830) in the course of publication. The first edition came' out in 1788, in 10 vols. 4to.; the 4th in 1810, and the 5th in 1815, as well as the 6th, are in 20 vols. To the 4th and 5th editions is added a Supplement in 6 vols., edited by Napier. 3. Rees' Cyclopedia, 39 vols. 4to. in 79 parts, with 6 supplementary parts, and numerous engravings, London, 1§02—20, Philadelphia, 41 vols. 4to., 6 vols, of plates. In the technical department, particularly, this is the most complete work of the kind which we have. 4. Edinburgh Encyclopedia, 1810 et seq., not yet complete; Philadelphia, vol. 17, part 1, appeared in 1829, and comes down to STE. This work, devoted particularly to natural science and technology, is conducted by Dr. Brewster, in Edinburgh. 5. Encyclopaedia Londinensis, published by John Wilkes, begun 1796. 6. Encyclop cbdia EdinensiSy begun in 1816, edited by J. Millar, 6 vols. 4to. 7. Encyclopedia Metropolitana, London, 4to., begun in 1815, to consist of 25 vols. 4to. 8. Methodical Cyclopedia, by Mitchell, London, 1823, 12mo., yet unfinished. 9. Nicholson's British Encyclopedia, in 12 vols. 1809 et seq. 10. Gregory's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, 3 vols. 4to., first American, from second English edition, Philadelphia and Charleston, 1815. Besides these larger works, a multitude of smaller cyclopedias have been published by Watson, Willich, Enfield, Kendal and others.—The Italians have G. P. Pivati's Dizionario scientijico e curioso, sacro-profano, Venice, 1746—51, 10 vols. fol. Of the French cyclopedias, the most famous is the great Dictionnaire Encyclopedique, by Diderot and D'Alembert, (see next article), frequently called, par excellence, Tine Encyclopedia, This was followed by the more extensive one of Felice. Still more comprehensive is the Encyclopedic methodique, ou par Ordre de Matieres, which has been publishing at Paris since 1782, and is now extended to 148 4to. vols, text, and 52 vols, copperplates. Several works of this kind have also been published in Germany. Krunitz's Encyclopedia is the most celebra

ted, of which 146 vols, had been published in 1827, as far as the article Schiffahrt. There is an abridgment, also, of this work, in many vols. The Deutsche Encyclopddie oder allgem. Wbrterhuch aller Kunste und TVissenschaften, begun by Koster, in 1778, and continued by J. F. Roos, to the 23d volume, 1804, remains unfinished (A to KY, with a volume of engravings, folio). At present, there is a new great German encyclopedia publishing by Richter, a bookseller in Leipsic, which has been edited by Ersch (q. v., lately deceased) and Gruber, professors at Halle, of which 15 vols. 4to. have already appeared. Among the latest encyclopedian journals are Jullien's Revue Encyclopedique, and Ferussac's Bulletin universel des Sciences et de PIndustrie, the latter of which is published monthly, arranged in 8 sections. (For an account of the German Conversations-Lexicon, see our Preface.)

The rapid advancement of the sciences and arts, and the proportionally rapid communication between all civilized nations, have made a general acquaintance with many different branches of knowledge more desirable, and often more necessary, than ever before. This is one of the chief causes which have produced in our time so many encyclopedias of various kinds, some veiy learned, and others more adapted for the general reader; some embracing all the sciences and arts, others only single branches; of the latter sort are Loudon's Encyclopedias of Gardening, of Agriculture, &c. To the same class belong the numerous dictionaries intended to impart information in certain branches of knowledge, useful or entertaining, from the learned Phjsikalisch.es Worterhuch of Gehler, to the lively Diciionnaire des Giroueltes, or Diclionnmrc des Bons-mots. Among the encyclopedian works particularly intended for general readers, are the Library of Useful Knowledge, published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge—a society well deserving its name, and whose activity has been called forth chiefly by the exertions of Mr. Brougham; the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, published also by the same society (of which, according to the report of the society, in 1830, not less than 19,000 copies had been sold); an Almanac (of which, in 1830, 41,000 copies were sold), and the useful Companion to the British Almanac (of which, in 1830, 17,000 copies were sold); doctor Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, the Family Library, &c. A similar work to the Li

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