網頁圖片
PDF
[ocr errors][merged small]

(London, 1824). Seely relates the following remarkable circumstance: that Indian soldiers, in the English army in Egypt, in 1799, exclaimed, while gazing at several of the Egyptian images with astonishment, that Hindoos must have inhabited Egypt! Future ages will perhaps trace the Egyptian civilization to India, as Champollion is at present tracing Grecian civilization to Egypt, (q. v.)

Elsinore, Elsineur, or Helslngoer; a seaport of Denmark, on the E. coast of the island of Zealand, 20 miles N. Copenhagen; Ion. 12° 3^ E.; lat. 56° 2' N.; population, 7000. It is well built, and stands on the west side of the Sound, nearly opposite to Helsinberg, in Sweden, at the narrowest place of the Sound, which is here less than four miles wide. It has no harbor, but an excellent roadstead, generally crowded with vessels going up or down the Baltic, and anchoring here, .either to pay toll or take in stores, the supply of which forms the chief business of the place. The aggregate number of vessels of all nations passing the Sound is nearly 10,000. The toll paid for English, French, Dutch and Swredish vessels is 1 per cent, on the value of their cargoes, and 1J per cent, for vessels of other nations. The annual amount of toll varies from £120,000 to £150,000 sterling. At Elsinore, the fortress of Cronberg, situated on the edge of a promontory, is provided with powerful batteries.

Elysium, Elysian Fields; 1. the name of certain regions, which the ancients supposed to be the residence of the blessed after death. They are described sometimes as delightful meadows, sometimes as islands situated on the western confines of the earth. But t hey gradually receded as this portion of the earth was explored. The happiness, of the blessed consisted in a life of tranquil enjoyment. The images by which the happiness of a residence there is described, were taken partly from Olympus, and partly from descriptions of the golden age. The most beautiful meadows alternated with pleasant groves; a serene and cloudless sky was spread over them, and a soft, celestial light shed a magical brilliancy over every object; the heroes there renewed their favorite sports; they exercised themselves in wrestling and other contests, danced to the sound of the lyre, from which Orpheus drew the most enchanting tones, or wandered through odoriferous laurel-groves, on the smiling banks of the Eridanus, in delightful vales, or in meadows watered by limpid foun

tains, amid the warbling of birds, sometimes alone and sometimes in company; a perpetual spring reigned there; the earth teemed tiiree times a year; and all cares, pains and infirmities were banished from those happy seats. (For the origin of the fable, see Cemetery.) The voluptuous description of the gardens of Armida, in Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, is an imitation of the ancient ideas of the Elysian fields—2. The Parisians have called one of their favorite gardens and principal places of amusement Cliamps-Elisees.

Elzevir, or Elzvier. This family of printers, residing at Amsterdam and Leyden, is celebrated for beautiful editions, principally published from 1595 to 1680. The best known are Louis, Matthew, Isaac (associated with Buonaventura), John and Daniel, at Amsterdam and Leyden. Besides these was Peter Elzevir, at Utrecht, who has done less for the art. Louis was the first printer who made a distinction between the consonant v and the vowel Iu Abraham and Buonaventura prepared the small editions of the classics, in 12mo. and 16mo., which are still valued for their beauty and correctness. Daniel was one of the most active of this family. Although the Elzevirs were surpassed in learning, and in Greek and Hebrew editions, by the Stephenscs (Etiennes, printers and booksellers at Paris), they were unequalled in their choice of works and in the elegance of their typography. Their editions of Virgil, Terence, the New Testament, the Psalter, &c, executed with red letters, are masterpieces of typography, both for correctness and beauty. Several catalogues of their editions have been published: the last is by Daniel (1674,12mo.), in seven parts, much increased by the admission of foreign works. (See Brunei's Notice cle la Collect (VAuteurs, etc. p. les Elzev. in the 4th vol. of the Manuel du Libraire.)

Emanation, Efflux (from the Latin emanare, to issue, to flow out, to emanate). Philosophical systems which, like most of the ancient, do not adopt a spontaneous creation of the universe by a Supreme Being, frequently explain the universe by an eternal emanation from the Supreme Being. This doctrine came from the East. Traces of it are found in the Indian mythology, and in the old Persian or Bactro-Median doctrine of Zoroaster, (q. v.) It had a powerful influence on the ancient Greek philosophy, as may be seen in Pythagoras.—In theology, the doctrine of emanation is the doctrine of the Trinity, which regards the Son and Holy 487

EMANATION—EMBEZZLEMENT.

Ghost, &c, as effluxes from the Deity himself.

Emancipation. (See Catholic Emancipation.)

Emanuel The Great, king of Portugal, ascended the throne in 1495. During his reign were performed the voyages of discovery of Vasco da Gama (1497), of Cabral (1500), of Americus Vespucius (1501 and 1503), and the heroic exploits of Albuquerque, by whose exertions a passage was found to the East Indies (for which the way was prepared by the discovery of the cape of Good Hope, in 1486, by Bartholomew Diaz), the Portuguese dominion in Goa was established, the Brazils, the Moluccas, &c, were discovered. The commerce of Portugal, under Emanuel, was more prosperous than at any former period. The treasures of America flowed into Lisbon, and the reign of Emanuel was justly called "the golden age of Portugal." Pie died Dec. 13, 1521, aged 52, deeply lamented by his subjects, but hated by the Moors, whom he had expelled, and by the Jews, whom he had compelled to submit to baptism. As a monument of his discoveries, Emanuel built the monastery at Belem (q. v.), where he wras buried. He was a friend to the sciences and to learned men. He left Memoirs on the Indies.

Embalming; to embalm, to iill and surround with aromatic and desiecative substances any bodies, particularly corpses, in order to preserve them from corruption. The ancient Egyptians were the inventors of this art. Other people, for example, the Assyrians, Scythians and Persians, followed them, but by no means equalled them in it. The art has degenerated veiy much from the high degree of perfection at which it stood among the ancients; perhaps because the change in religious opinions and customs has made the embalming of die dead less frequent. In modem times, only distinguished individuals are occasionally embalmed; but this process does not prevent corruption. —The intestines are taken out of the body, and the brains out of the head, and the cavities filled up with a mixture of balsamic herbs, myrrh and others of the same kind; the large blood-vessels and other vessels are injected with balsams dissolved in spirits of wine; the body is rubbed hard with spirits of the same kind, &c. (See Mummies.) The ancient Egyptians removed the viscera from the large cavities, and replaced them with aromatic, saline and bituminous substances, and also enveloped the outside of the body in cloths impregnated with similar materials.

These were useful in preventing decomposition and excluding insects, until perfect dryness took place. In later times, bodies have been preserved a long time by embalming, especially wrhen they have remained at a low and uniform temperature, and have been protected from the air. The body of Edward I wras buried in Westminster abbey, in 1307, and in 1770 was found entire. Canute died in 1036; his body was found very fresh in 1776, in Winchester cathedral. The bodies of William the Conqueror and of Matilda his wife were found entire at Caen, in the 16th century. Similar cases are not unfrequent. In many instances, bodies not embalmed have been preserved from decay merely by the exclusion of the air and the lowness of the temperature. Impregnation of the animal body with corrosive sublimate appears to be the most effectual means of preserving it, excepting immersion in spirits. The impregnation is performed by the injection of a strong solution, consisting of about four ounces of bichloride of mercury to a pint of alcohol, into the blood-vessels, and, after the viscera are removed, the body is immersed, for three months, in the same solution, after which it dries easily, and is almost imperishable. Wet preparations,' or those immersed in alcohol or oil of turpentine, last for an indefinite time.

Embargo, in commerce; an arrest on ships or merchandise, by public authority; or a prohibition of state, commonly on foreign ships, in time of war, to prevent their going out of port; sometimes to prevent their coming in; and sometimes both for a limited time.

Embassador. (See Ambassador, and Ministers, Foreign.)

Embayed; the situation of a ship when she is enclosed between two capes or promontories. It is particularly applied when the wind, by blowing strong into any bay or gulf, makes it extremely difficult, and perhaps impracticable, for the vessel thus enclosed to draw off from the shore, so as to weather the capes and gain the offing.

Ember Weeks or Days, in the Christian church, are certain seasons of the year set apart for the imploring God's blessing, by prayer and fasting, upon the ordinations performed in the church at such times. The ember weeks were formerly observed in different churches with some variety, but were at last settled as they are now observed, by the council at Placentia, in 1095.

Embezzlement is the appropriation, by a person, to himself, of money or prop

[ocr errors][merged small]

erty put into his hands in trust. An embezzlement is both a theft and breach of trust; yet, by the general law, it is only a ground for an action for the value of the property. But there are many special provisions in relation to particular embezzlements and breaches of trust. By the law of England, a clerk guilty of embezzlement is liable to transportation not exceeding 14 years; and a public servant or agent committing the like offence is declared guilty of a misdemeanor, and punishable at the discretion of the court. Still more severe provisions are made in the case of embezzlement by the officers and clerks of banks. The laws of the U. States contain numerous provisions on this subject The embezzlement of wines or other spirits deposited in the public stores, renders the party liable to the same penalty as for fraudulently landing the same goods with intention to evade the revenue; and special provisions are made respecting embezzlements in the postoffice, the army and navy, and in relation to the U. States bank in particular. It is provided by the act of March 3, 1825, "that if any person employed as president, cashier, clerk or servant in the bank, shall feloniously take, steal and cany away any money, goods, bond, bill, banknote, or other note, check, draft, treasurynote, or other valuable security or effects belonging to, or deposited in, the bank; or shall fraudulently embezzle, secrete or make away with any money, goods, bond, bill, bank-note, or other valuable security or effects, which he shall have received, or which shall come to his possession or custody by virtue of such employment; he shall be deemed guilty of felony, and, on conviction, shall be punished by fine not exceeding $5000, and imprisonment and confinement to hard labor not exceeding ten years." The English law contains provisions in relation to embezzlement by servants and others. Bui the provisions on this subject are not so numerous, either by the English or American laws, as they ought to be, considering that embezzlement involves the guilt of a larceny with the fraud of a breach of trust. This is mostly a subject of state legislation in the U. States, and the Jaws of the states contain some provisions in relation to it. By the general marine law, a mariner forfeits his wages by the embezzlement of any part of the cargo of the ship; and so he also forfeits his share of the prizemoney by embezzling any part of the captured property.

Emblem (Gr. tufiXripa, from cpPaMw, to

cast in, to insert); properly, inlay; inlay ed or mosaic work; something inserted in the body of another; a picture representing one thing to the eye, and another to the understanding; a painted enigma, or a figure representing some well-known historical event, instructing us in some moral truth; a typical designation: thus a balance is an emblem of justice; a crown, an emblem of royalty.

Embonpoint; a moderate and agreeable fulness of figure. (See Corpulency.)

Embossing, or Imbossing, in architecture and sculpture; the forming or fashioning works in relievo, whether cut with a chisel or otherwise.

Embracery; an attempt to corrupt or influence a jury, or any way incline them to be more favorable to the one side than the other, by money, promises, letters, threats or persuasions, whether the jury give a verdict or not, or whether the verdict given be true or false; which is punished by fine and imprisonment.

Embroidery; figured work in gold, or silver, or silk thread, wrought by the needle, upon cloths, stuffs or muslins. In embroidering stuffs, a kind of loom is used, because the more the piece is stretched, the easier is it worked. Muslin is spread upon a pattern, ready designed, and sometimes, before ft is stretched upon the pattern, it is starched to make it more easy to handle. The art of embroidery was invented in the East, probably by the Phrygians. In Moses' time, Aholiab, of the tribe of Dan, was noted for skill in embroidery, and the women of Sidon, before the Trojan war, excelled in the same art. Though the Greeks attributed the invention of the art to Minerva, yet it is certain that it came through the Persians to Greece. The king of Pergamus (Attalus), in the year of Rome 621, invented the mode of embroidering with gold thread. In modern times, the art has been much extended. In 1782, three German ladies, in Hanover, named Wyllich, invented a mode of embroidering with human hair. Beads, &c, also have been used.

Embryo; the first rudiments of the animal in the womb, before the several members are distinctly formed, after which it is called the fatus. (q. v.) The time necessary to produce this is different in different species. The human embryo is visible in three weeks: at the end of four, a pulsation is perceptible, which is known to be the beating of the heart. It is now about the size of an ant or fly, and retains its transparency, which,

[blocks in formation]

however, gradually diminishes, and, at the end of two months, disappears: the eyes, nose, mouth, ears, and all the members, are distinguishable: it is as large as a bee. In three months, every thing becomes more distinct; the sex becomes evident, and the foetus grows until it is ushered into the world as a child.

Emden; a city at the mouth of the river Ems, in the principality of East Friesland, the first commercial city of Hanover, with 11,000 inhabitants, a Latin school, a learned society, &c. It is a free port. It has much trade in herrings. It is expected that its commerce will be much benefited by the junction of the Ems and the Rhine.

Emerald is a well-known gem of pure green color, somewhat harder than quartz. Its natural form is either rounded or that of a short six-sided prism. By the ancients the emerald was in great request, particularly for engraving upon. They are said to have procured it from Ethiopia and Egypt. The most intensely colored and valuable emeralds that we are acquainted with are brought from Peru. They are found in clefts and veins of granite, and other primitive rocks, and oftentimes grouped with the crystals of quartz, felspar and mica. The emerald is one of the softest of the precious stones, and is almost exclusively indebted for its value to its charming color. In value it is rated next to the ruby, and, when of good color, is set without foil, and upon a black ground, like brilliant diamonds. Emeralds of inferior lustre are generally set upon a green gold foil. These gems are considered to appear to greatest advantage when table-cut and surrounded by brilliants, the lustre of which forms an agreeable contrast with the quiet hue of the emerald. They are sometimes formed into pear-shaped ear-drops; but the most valuable stones are generally set in rings. A favorite mode of setting emeralds, among the opulent inhabitants of South America, is to make them up into clusters of artificial flowers on gold stems. The largest emerald that has been mentioned, is one said to have been possessed by the inhabitants of the Valley of Manta, in Peru, at the time when the Spaniards first arrived there. It is recorded to have been as big as an ostrich's egg, and to have been worshipped by the Peruvians, under the name ot the goddess or mother of emeralds. They brought smaller ones as offerings to it, which the priests distinguished by the appellation of daughters. Many fine emeralds are stated to have

formerly been bequeathed to different monasteries on the continent; but the greatest part of them are said to have been sold by the monks, and to have had their place supplied with colored glass imitations. These stones are seldom seen of large size, and at the same time entirely free from flaws. The emerald, if heated to a certain degree, assumes a blue color, but it recovers its own proper tint when cold. When the heat is carried much beyond this, it melts into an opaque, colored mass. The Oriental emerald is a variety of the ruby, of a green colorr and is an extremely rare gem. (See Beryl.)

Emerson, William, an eminent English mathematician, was born at Hurworth, near Darlington, in the year 1701. Having derived from his parents a moderate competence, he devoted himself to a life of studious retirement. From the strength of his mind and the closeness of his application, he acquired a deep knowledge of mathematics and physics, upon all parts of which he wrote sound treatises, although with few pretensions to originality of invention, and in a rough and unpolished style. He died hi 1782, hi his 81st year.

Emery, John, an actor of eminence, was bom at Sunderland, in the palatinate of Durham, December 22, 1777, and educated at Ecclesfield in Yorkshire, where he acquired that knowledge of the provincial dialect which afterwards contributed so much to his celebrity. In the unsophisticated rustic or the stupid dolt^ he was excellent; while in some parts, written purposely for him, such as Tyke in the School of Reform, and Giles in the Miller's Maid,, his acting was truly terrific and appalling. The portraying of rough nature, fine simplicity, and strong passion, was his forte; and in the latter,, especially, he ever excited the approbation of the best critics. In private lite, he was much esteemed; he died in January, 1822.

Emery, a very hard mineral, of blackish or bluish-gray color, is chiefly found in shapeless masses, and mixed with other minerals. It contains about 80 parts in 100 of alumine, and a small portion of iron, is usually opaque, and about four times as heavy as water. The best emery is brouglit from the Levant, and chiefly from Naxos, and other islands of the Grecian archipelago. It is also found in some parts of Spain, and is obtained from a few of the iron mines in Great Britain. In hardness, it is nearly equal to adamantine spar, and this property has rendered it an object of great request in various arts.

[ocr errors][merged small]

It is employed by lapidaries in the cutting and polishing of precious stones; by opticians, in smoothing the surface of the finer kinds of glass, preparatory to their being polished; by cutlers and other manufacturers of iron and steel instruments; by masons, in the polishing of marble; and, in their respective businesses, by locksmiths, glaziers, and numerous other artisans. For all these purposes, it is pulverized in large iron mortars, or in steel mills; and the powder, which is rough and sharp, is carefully washed, and sorted into five or six different degrees of fineness, according to the description of work in which it is to be employed. (See Corundum.)

Emetic {emeticus; from t^w, to vomit); that which is capable of exciting vomiting, independently of any effect arising from the mere quantity of matter introduced into the stomach, or of any nauseous taste or flavor. The susceptibility of vomiting is very different in different individuals, and is often considerably varied by disease. Emetics are employed in many diseases. When any morbid affection depends upon, or is connected with overdistention of the stomach, or the presence of acrid, indigestible matters, vomiting gives speedy relief. Hence its utility in impaired appetite, acidity in the stomach, in intoxication, and where poisons have been swallowed. In the different varieties of febrile affections, much advantage is derived from exciting vomiting, especially in the very commencement of the disease. In high inflammatory fever, it is considered as dangerous, and in the advanced stage of typhus, it is prejudicial. Emetics, given in such doses as only to excite nausea, have been found useful in restraining haemorrhage. Different species of dropsy have been cured by vomiting, from its having excited absorption. To the same effect, perhaps, is owing the dispersion of various swellings, which has occasionally resulted from this operation. The operation of vomiting is dangerous or hurtful in the following cases: where there is determination of the blood to the head, especially in plethoric habits; in visceral inflammation; in the advanced stage of pregnancy; in hernia and prolapsus uteri; and wherever there exists extreme general debility. The frequent use of emetics weakens the tone of the stomach. An emetic should always be administered in the fluid form. Its operation may be promoted by drinking any tepid diluent or bitter infusion.

Emetine is a peculiar vegetable princi

ple, obtained from the ipecacuan root, of whose emetic properties it is conceived to be the sole cause. It is obtained by digesting the root first in ether anp! then in alcohol. The alcoholic infusion is evaporated to dryness; and to the residuum, redissolved in water, acetate of lead is added, which produces a precipitate. The precipitate is washed, diffused in water, and decomposed by a current of sulphureted hydrogen gas. Sulphuret of lead falls to the bottom, and the emetine remains in solution. By evaporating the supernatant fluid, this substance is obtained pure. It forms transparent, brownish-red scales: it is destitute of smell, but has a bitter, acrid taste. At a heat somewhat above that of boiling water, it is resolved into carbonic acid, oil and vinegar. In a dose of half a grain, it acts as a powerful emetic, followed by sleep: six grains produce violent vomiting, stupor and death.

Emeu, or New Holland Cassowary. (See Cassowary.)'

Emigration. Removal from one country to another, for the purpose of permanent residence. Every man born free, or who had obtained his freedom, formerly had the right of emigrating. But as capital and power were lost to a state by the removal of its inhabitants, it was considered, that emigration ought to be forbidden, and the people only allowed to remove from one place to another within the limits of the state. Experience, however, proved that such prohibitions were fruitless, and the only way to guard against emigrations was by the fullest protection of property; by granting freedom of conscience, and the undisturbed exercise of religion; and by not banishing subjects from their country on account of their religious opinions, as was once done (e. g., in France and Saltzburg); by allowing them, under the protection of judicious laws, with the assurance of freedom in trade and commerce, the undisturbed enjoyment of the fruits of their industry; by not exposing them to the oppression of magistrates; and by delivering them from the fear of unreasonable or arbitrary taxes. When we consider how much resolution is required to abandon forever the home to which man is bound by the strongest ties of recollection, language and habit, to seek an uncertain fortune in a land of strangers, there is no reason to believe, that large masses will ever emigrate without the most urgent motives. Wherever emigration is common, it is not an evil itself, but only the consequence and symptom of an evil arising from the dissatisfac

« 上一頁繼續 »