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ential. They maintained this rank as teachers of the people and patrons of science. From them all the offices of state were filled; they were the physicians, judges, architects, astronomers, astrologers, &c. But they held their knowledge, which they regarded (with justice) as the talisman of their political importance and mighty influence, strictly within the limits of their order- The religion, mythology and philosophy of the Egyptians varied with the different periods of then* political history. Their religion and philosophy were one thing before Moses, another from the time of Moses to that of Herodotus; and thus they continued to deviate from their original character till the times of the Ptolemies and the Romans. Then* whole religion and mythology were founded on astronomy; it was natural that the beneficial influences of the celestial bodies should be followed by adoration. Osiris and Isis (the sun and moon) were the two principal deities, and the Nile was thought to be very nearly related to them. We frequently find Osiris and the Nile treated as one deity. The period of 360 days, computed from the regular inundation of the river at the summer solstice, constituted the religious year. The natural solar year consisted of 365 days and 6 hours. The planets, together with the signs of the zodiac, were revered as deities, and rulers of the days of the week and hours of the day. The ruler of the first hours of the day was the patron of the whole day, and communicated to it his name; the physical character and the agricultural relations of each month were likewise adored as divinities, under the 12 signs of the zodiac. Thus was the-religious year constituted. The want, subsequently discovered, of five days and six hours, gave rise to seven more deities, and the solar year was introduced. These symbolical beings, however, were regarded as actually existent, the authors and governors of time and the world; Osiris and Isis were considered as beings of unlimited power, exercising an immediate influence over the earth and its inhabitants. To each divinity was assigned a particular order of priests, into which females were never admitted. Pilgrimages and sacrifices were a part of the system of religion. The latter were employed for the expiation of sins. The worshipper placed his hand on the head of the victim, loaded it with imprecations, and its last gasp was the seal of his pardon. Till the reign of Amasis, even human victims were offered. BeVol. iv. 36
sides the heavenly bodies, some ki nds of animals, also, were worshipped. These were not regarded as mere symbols, but adored as actual gods, like the Apis and Mnevis; this worship arose from the hieroglyphics of the Egyptians. (See Hieroglyphics.) The most remarkable phenomenon in the philosophy of the Egyptians is the doctrine of the transmigration of souls (see Metempsychosis), which was the immediate offspring of the worship of the stars. Plato has honored the metempsychosis of the Egyptians by adopting it into his system, as a symbol of the moral purification of human nature. The Egyptians, however, did not make so accurate a distinction between the spiritual and corporeal as this philosopher; the idea of the soul, as a pure intelligence, was unknown to them; and it is a very remarkable fact, that the Pythagorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls, as delineated by Aristotle, although different from the Egyptian, is equally devoid of any moral sense.
Political History of Egypt If we go back beyond the period of tradition, to which belong the fabulous Pharaohs (kings), Menes (2000 years before Christ), Osymandyas, Moeris, Sesostris, Rhampsinitus, &c, we find, on the extreme confines of history, the Pharaoh of Joseph, and the migrations which took place in the storms of revolutions, under Cecrops, Moses and Danaus. In the history of foreign states, Shishak is named, 878 before the Christian era, as the Pharaoh of Egypt, and the ally of Jeroboam; the Tnephactus and Bocehoris of Diodorus, and the Asychis of Herodotus, are famous as legislators. The 40 years' subjection of Egypt to the Ethiopians, the internal anarchy of 33 years, the dodecarchy (reign of twelve), which lasted 15 years, preceded the monarchy founded by Psammetichus, one of the dodecarchs. It lasted from 636 to 525 B. C, and exhibits, besides Psammetichus, the famous names of Necho, Psammis, Apries or Hoplira, Amasis and Psammenitus. This period is a bright spot in the history of the civilization of Egypt The kingdom next became subject to Cambyses, and belonged to the Persian empire, till after its conquest by Alexander, 332 B. C. After the division of the Macedonian empire, begins the splendid period of the Ptolemies (see Ptolemies, and the MexandAan Sclwol). Ptolemy Lagus or Soter, Ptolemy Philadelphia (under whom the foundation of the future dominion of the Romans was laid), Ptolemy Euergetes I, Ptolemy Philopater, Ptolemy Epiphanes, Ptolemy Phi
lometor, Euergetes II, Cleopatra Minor (with Ptolemy Soter or Lathyrus, and Ptolemy Alexander I), Ptolemy Alexander II, Berenice, Ptolemy Alexander III, Ptolemy Auletes, Cleopatra Tryphana and Berenice, and Cleopatra with Ptolemy Puer, under the guardianship of Ceesar and Antony, are the names of the rulers of this period, several of whom are famous in the history of science and ait. The suicide of Cleopatra, after the victory of Octavius at Actium, transferred the kingdom into the power of the Romans, and it now became a Roman province. This took place 30 years B. C, and Egypt remained 670 years in the hands of the Romans. The Christian religion, during this period, gained footing in this country, and was accompanied by the same enthusiasm, sectarism and mental gloom, which, in the earlier history of Egypt, had accompanied the pagan mysteries. Anchorites and monks had their origin here. After the division of the great Roman empire, in the time of Theodosius, into the Western and Eastern empires, Egypt became a province of the latter, and sunk deeper and deeper in barbarism and weakness. It was the prey of the Saracens, Amru, their general, under the caliph Omar, taking Alexandria, the capita], by assault. This happened A. D. 640, when Heraclius was the emperor of the East. As a province of the caliphs, it was under the government of the celebrated Abbasides—Harun-al-Raschid and AlMamon—and that of the heroic sultan Saladin. The last dynasty was, however, overthrown by the Mamelukes (1250), and under these formidable despots the last shadow of former greatness and civilization disappeared. Selim, sultan of the Turks, eventually (1516 to 1517) conquered the last Mameluke sultan, Tumanbai, and Egypt became altogether a Turkish province, governed by a pacha. It has since been the theatre of continual internal wars of the Mameluke beys against the Turkish dominion, which has been several times, especially under Ali Bey (1766), nearly extinguished in this country. From 1798 to 1801, Egypt was occupied by the French (see the latter part of the present article). This country has subsequently, more than ever, engaged the attention of the statesman and scholar. We behold a prince, who has divested himself of many prejudices of his nation, and has taken European models for imitation, in order to establish anew the kingdom of the Ptolemies. This prince, Mohammed Ali Pacha (sec Mohammed Ali
Pacha), is, indeed, merely a viceroy; but, excepting the usual tribute, accompanied with presents, and his participation in the war, by sea and land, against the Greeks, in which he was induced to engage (1823) by the gift of Yemen, Cyprus, Candia and the Morea, he has evinced no particular signs of submission towards the Turkish sultan. In fact, he governs the province with unlimited sway. His policy is continually becoming more fully established, but rests on despotism and monopoly. The abilities of the tyrant are the sole support of the system. Mohammed Pacha is particularly attentive to the public security; he takes, therefore, all Franks under his immediate protection, and permits no abuse of the Greeks. When the Morea was conquered by his arms (1825), he caused all the Christian population to be transplanted to the countries on the Nile. He is attempting to introduce a quarantine system, to guard against the plague, and also promotes vaccination. An agent of the pacha, by name Ismael Gibraltar, travelled, some years ago, in Europe, to induce mechanics to remove to Egypt, and contract a commercial treaty with Sweden. The pacha has done much for the commerce and industry, as well as for the civilization of Egypt. He is the greatest merchant of the country, and no others can deal with foreign countries without his consent. The income of the pacha is more than $30,000,000, arising from poll and land taxes, customs of the ports of Cairo, Suez, Damietta, Alexandria, &c.; branches of revenue farmed out, including various fisheries; from the mint, from the sale of the cotton, indigo, silk, sugar, rice, safYron, wool, ivoiy, frankincense, &c, which he monopolizes, purchasing them at a low rate from his subjects, &c. The number of vessels, which arrived at Alexandria in the year 1829, was 909; in 1828, the arrivals were 891; in 1827, they were 605. Of the arrivals in 1829, 361 were Austrian vessels, 1 American from Smyrna, 4 Danish, 44 French, 200 English and Ionian, 8 Dutch, 32 Papal, 1 Russian, 135 Sardinian, 19 Sicilian, 5 Spanish, 13 Swedish, and 26 Tuscan. Most of the voyages were from the Archipelago, or from Turkish ports. Some years since, Ibrahim, the pacha's son, forced the Wahabites (q. v.) to withdraw to their deserts, and his second son, Ismael Paeha, undertook an expedition into Nubia, in order to extend the authority of his father there. Ismael penetrated (1820) from Syene to Dongola, on the left bank of the Nile,
defeated the residue of the Mamelukes, and reduced Dongola to an Egyptian province. At the same time, Mohammed completed the new canal of Alexandria, called by him, in honor of the sultan, Mahmudie canal; a vast undertaking, commenced Jan. 8, 1819, under the superintendence of six European engineers, with about 100,000 laborers; and their number, though more than 7000 men died of contagious diseases, was gradually increased to 290,000, each of whom received about 17 cents, or 10af. sterling, per diem. The canal was completed on the 13th September. It extends from below Saone, on the Nile, to Pompey's pillar, and is 47£ miles long, 90 feet wide, and 18 feet deep. This is the first essay towards the execution of his plan of restoring the ancient commerce of Alexandria with Arabia and the Indies. Within a short time, he has established a line of telegraphs, a printing-press at Boulac near Cairo,* a military school, and a higher institution for education, principally to form dragomans (i. e., interpreters) and other public officers. The teachers consist of French and Italian officers. In 1826, he sent several young Egyptians to France, to receive a European education. Under the government of Mohammed, all the European travellers, whom the love of discovery now draws in greater numbers than ever to those sepulchres and monuments of departed civilization, find protection and support. But it is impossible to remove all the obstacles that suspicion, the hatred of foreigners, and the avarice prevailing among the Bedouin sheiks, throw in the way of the European. Passing over the earlier travels of Brown, an Englishman, and of Horaemann and Burckhardt, Germans (the two first of whom were unable to discover any traces of the temple of Jupiter Amnion), we will mention some of the latest. Among these, the travels of the Italian Belzoni, in 1819, deserve especial notice. The Italian chevalier Frediani (see Frediani) has published a pompous description of the ruins of the temple of Jupiter Ammon, in his letters from Schiwah, dated March 30, 1820; but Gau, a Prussian architect from Cologne (see Gau), contradicts the accounts of Frediani; so also does Drovetti, late consul-general of France in Egypt. These ruins the French Cailliaud asserts he has examined and meas
* Several works have already been issued from this press among others, a £>i~ionario ItaJiano et Arabiano, Bolacco, delta stamp, rcafc, 1822, 2 tomi.
ured. He also discovered the old emerald mines in the mountain Zabarah, and found them in the very state in which they had been left by the engineers of Ptolemy, with all their implement^ from which we can, in some degree, deduce the mode of mining among the ancients. In 1820, Cailliaud accompanied the son of the viceroy on the above-mentioned expedition to Dongola. The travels of Cailliaud to the Oasis of Thebes, and the deserts to the east and west of it, wrere published by Jomard. The travels of Henry Light (a British captain of artillery) to Egypt, Nubia and the Holy Land, are not to be compared with those of Burckhardt, but they are not without interest, as far as respects the pacha of Egypt, Jerusalem, and the Druses. The four months' journey of lieutenant Fitz-Clarence (aid to the marquis of Hastings, governor-general of Incha), from Bombay through India and Egypt to London (1818), are more interesting. We ought to mention the travels of two Englishmen (Waddington and Hanbury), who accompanied the pacha on his expedition from Egypt to Nubia (1820). They pretend to have examined, minutely, Dongola and Darshegga, and to have discovered the ancient Saba, subsequently called Meroc. In 1824, captain N. F. Gordon, of the English navy, undertook to travel up the Nile, to discover the sources of the Behr-el-Abiad. He only reached ViilelMcdinet (a day's journey from Sennaar), where he died. Several Germans, also, have, within a short time, undertaken scientific expeditions to the East and Egypt; e. g., Seetzen (q. v.), Sieber (q. v.), whose book of travels describes Crete, Cairo and Jerusalem; and Ruppel, from Frankfort on the Maine. (See Africa.) With the same view, the Prussian general Menu von Minutoli undertook such a course of travels in August, 1820. Ehrenberg, who accompanied him, has published, in Berlin, his discoveries in natural history. They wrere supported in the enterprise by the Prussian government. The general returned to Germany in September, 1821, and published an interesting work respecting his collections and discoveries. The travels in Egypt, however, which have lately excited most interest, are those of Charnpollion (q. v.), who has already, by various publications, greatly increased our knowledge respecting this country, and from whose work, now publishing, we have reason to expect much additional information. We also hope for interest424
CAMPAIGN OF THE FRENCH IN EGYPT.
ing results from the expedition which the grand-duke of Tuscany sent to Egypt, and which has recently returned, enriched with many treasures of art and science. (For a general account of what the late discoveries have taught of the ancient history of Egypt, and for a popular account of Egyptian antiquities, we must refer the reader to the marquis Spineto's Lectures on the Elements of Hieroglyphics and Egyptian Antiquities (London, 1829). For information respecting the Egyptian language, we refer to A compendious Grammar of the Egyptian Language, as contained in tlie Coptic and Sahiaic Dialects, with Observations on tlie Bashmuric, together with Alphabets and Numerals in tl\e Hieroglyphic and Enchorial Characters, by Henry Tattam; with an Appendix, consisting of tlie Rudiments of a Dictionary of the ancient Egyptian Language, in the Enchorial Character, by Thomas Young (London, 1830); also an Account of Egyptian Antiquities, by Doctor Tfu Young (London, 1823); the Two Letters of Cliwnpollion the Younger to the Duke Blacas D'Aulps (Paris, 1826)) his works mentioned under the article Champollion, and his new work, which, according to the latest information, will soon he published, and give the results of his indefatigable researches, during his stay in Egypt. See the articles Hieroglyphics (in which the reader will find an account, also, of Egyptian mythology), Mummies, Pyramids, Nile, Esneh, Denderah, Rosetta Stone, &c.; also the note at the end of Constitution. Respecting the present state of the Egyptian institutions, which are founded, in part, on the ancient division into castes, L. Reynier, who served in Egypt under Bonaparte, has published an instructive statistical work, which does not, however, treat of the ancient history of the country—De VEconomic publique et rurale des Egyptiens et des CaHfiaginois (.Paris, 1823). For information concerning the modern history and administration of Egypt, see Felix Mengin's Histoire de FEgypte sous le Gouvemement de Mohammed My; Paris, 1823,2 vols., with engravings and maps.)
Landing and Campaign of the French in Egypt. By the two campaigns of 1796 and 1797, general Bonaparte had compelled the continental powers of Europe to make peace with France—a result ardently desired by the French, to allow their country time to recover from the deep wounds which she had suffered during the convulsions of the revolution, and from the worthless administrations that had preceded it. The next object
was to force England, also, to a peace, as she inflexibly opposed the general wish of Europe, and J3onaparte was appointed commander in chief of an army destined for the invasion of England. In February, 1798, he visited in person the coasts of the Channel, and all Europe was expecting the commencement of the expedition, when, in May of the same year, the general appeared as commander in chief at Toulon, where an expedition had been fitting out, of the destination of which the public knew nothing—a circumstance highly remarkable, as so many persons, military and civil, were acquainted with it. It was the expedition to Egypt. It also appears, from a letter written by general Bonaparte to the minister Talleyrand, dated Passeriano, 27th Fructidor, year V (September 13,1797), that one of the main objects of this great undertaking was to put the French in possession of part of the East India trade, then entirely in the hands of England, by the conquest of Egypt—a plan by no means chimerical. It was intended to establish French colonies on the Nile, and thus to recompense the republic for the loss of St. Domingo, and of the sugar islands, and to open a channel for the French manufactures into Africa, Arabia and Syria, where they might be exchanged for commodities wanted m France. Napoleon's views were, in fact, similar to those which, it is said, have now led the French to undertake the conquest and colonization of Algiers—an object which seems to be generally applauded. It seems, also, to have been intended to make Egypt a military position, from which a French army could march into India, raise the Mahrattas against the English, and injure the power of the latter there. On this point, we refer the reader to the count St Leu's (Louis Bonaparte's) Rtponse a Sir Walter Scott, Paris, 1829, page 33. The directoiy probably encouraged the enterprise with the further object of getting rid of a general whose victories and rapidly increasing popularity it feared. It has, indeed, been said, that it was,, at first, decidedly opposed to the plan; but this is very improbable. March 5, Bonaparte received the decree of the directory, relative to the expedition against Egypt.* He had full * Leibnitz endeavored to turn Louis XIV's attention to the conquest of Egypt, in order to deliver Germany and Holland from his attacks. Under Louis XV, this project was again discussed, at the lime when all the French possessions in America were in danger j and it was again renewed, when the alliance of Joseph II and Cathariue II threatened the partition of Prussia.
CAMPAIGN OF THE FRENCH IN EGYPT.
power to conduct the business as he saw fit. The ministers in all the departments, were ordered to give him whatever assistance he should require; and he had full powers to act according to his discretion in Egypt, to return whenever he saw fit, and to appoint his successor. Napoleon now collected all the information necessary for his own direction; engaged some of the most distinguished savants and artists of France to accompany him, drew up questions and problems to be resolved in Egypt, and informed himself accurately respecting the commercial connexions which it was proposed to establish. In fact, he seems to have always viewed this expedition in the double light of a military and a scientific enterprise. The beginning of his proclamation, before landing in Egypt, is remarkable: "Bonaparte, member of the national institute of France, and generar in chief of the army of Egypt." His brother Joseph (count de Survilliers) still possesses the papers of general Bonaparte relating to these preparations; and we hope that such important and interesting documents will not be forever withheld from the public, as they must give a great insight into Napoleon's views. The number of these papers is very great. Bonaparte w^as to leave Paris in April, for the purpose of embarking; but despatches from Rastadt, and from the French ambassador at Vienna, Bernadotte, made a new rupture with Austria probable. Bonaparte, however, left Paris May 3, and went on board of the Orient the 19th. The fleet set sail the same day, commanded by admiral Brucys* Bonaparte's proclamation issued before sailing, and several others, either prove how much he himself was animated by the military fame of ancient Rome, or that he thought it the strongest stimulus to the French soldiers. Reports had been carefully spread to divert the attention of the English to other points ; and the admiral, lord St. Vincent, sent rear-admiral Nelson, with only three vessels of the line, four frigates and one corvette, to watch the gulf of Lyons, and to prevent the French from leaving it. But Nelson arrived too late. He also suffered severely from a gale, so that the
* The fleet consisted of 10 74's, with 1 ship of 120 and 2 of 30 guns, 2 Venetian vessels of grins, 11- frig-ales. 72 corvettes, ecc., and 400 transports, from Toulon, Genoa, Ajaceio, Civita Vecchia,—one of the greatest naval armaments that ever sailed, containing 40,000 soldiers., and 10.000 sailors. The, fleet which sailed for Algiers in April, 1830, consisted of 11 ships of the line. 12 frigates of 60, and as many of 50 guns, with corvettes, &c. 5 in the whole. 97 men-of-war.
French fleet was not molested. Bonaparte had an assurance from the directory, that the minister of foreign affairs should go to Constantinople, still retaining his office, for the purpose of negotiating with the Porte, and preventing it from interfering in favor of the Mamelukes. Talleyrand, however, never went This omission, and the defeat at Aboukir, proved fatal to the expedition. About 2000 savants, artists, physicians, surgeons, mechanics and laborers of all descriptions, accompanied the army. The flower of the troops was that Italian army, whose valor had effected the peace of CampoFormio. The principal officers were Berthier (who was averse to going to Egypt, because in love with the marchioness Visconti), Desaix, Regnier, Menou, Kleber, Dumas, Caffarelli, Murat, Junot, Marmont, Belliard, Davoust, Lannes, Duroc, Louis Bonaparte, Eugene Beauharnois, and others. June 9, the armament appeared before Malta. Bonaparte solicited of baron von Hompesch, the grand master, permission to procure a supply of fresh water from the island. His refusal afforded a pretext for the conquest of the island, which had been long contemplated. The next morning, the French had landed on all points, and at evening, notwithstanding a brisk cannonade, were masters of the island, which was surrendered at midnight, with all its fortresses. The victors left a garrison of 4000 men, and, on the 10th, sailed for Alexandria. July L the minarets of Alexandria were seen, and Bonaparte issued an order on board the fleet, in which he exhorted his army to endure with patience the difficulties before them, to respect the religion of Mohammed, and the customs of the Egyptians, not to plunder, to imitate the Roman legions in protecting all religions. Nelson had been here a short time before in search of the French. The apprehension that he might soon return induced the general to hasten the disembarkation of the troops. This was accomplished, without interruption, July 2, at Marabout, an anchorage to the east of Alexandria, notwithstanding the wind and waves were unfavorable. The French army marched, without cannons or horses, towards Alexandria. Bonaparte was himself on foot. Some Arabs attacked the French; general Kleber w^as severely wounded. On the 5th, Alexandria wa*s taken, and immediately fortified. Rosetta was taken at the same time, by general Marmont, and, July 6, the whole fleet was moored in the roads before Aboukir.