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E ; the second vowel and the fifth letter
of the English alphabet. The sound e
(as in bench, or long, as in the French
pbre) in the early stages of all languages,
often passes into i (as in liver, or the Ital-
ian i), into a (as in father), and into o. But
of the languages of modern civilized na-
tions, since their orthography has been set-
tled, the English gives to the letter e the
most different sounds; as that of the Ger-
man short e, for instance, in bet; that of
the German i, as in revere, he, me; that
of the German a, in clerk (pronounced
dark), sergeant (pronounced sargeant; at
least, this mode of pronouncing exists in
England); that of u, as in voter, murder.
We find similar sounds of e in different
dialects of Germany; for instance, in the
dialect of Silesia, where spoken most
broadly, Seele (soul) is pronounced as an
Englishman would pronounce it, whilst
the true German pronunciation of the
word is as if it were written Sa-le. In
Latin, we also find here for /ten, Vergilius
for Virgilius, Deana for Diana; and, in
old Italian, desiderio and disiderio, peggiore
and piggiore. In French, e is pronounced
in three different ways—the e ouvert, e
fermi and e muet—all three in the word
fernute. In German, there are four differ-
ent ways of pronouncing the letter e; 1.
merely as an aspiration, or very short in-
deed, as in hatte or hoffen; 2. short, like
the English e in bet, met, as in recht,
rennen; 3. long, like the English a in
fate, as in redm, predigen; and like the
French e ouvert, or like the German &
or <£, as in Elend, although little distinc-
tion is generally made between the two
latter. Some provinces generally pro-
nounce both like the latter; others pro-
nounce them like the former, or like a in
fate. The letter e may be called an in-
truder into the German language, because
it has taken the place formerly occupied
by full and melodious vowels, and it oc-
curs too often. The Greeks, it is well
known, had two characters—c, or epsilon,
and th or eta, the latter corresponding to
the French e ouvert, if it was not pro-
nounced, as in modern Greek, like the
, VOL. iv. 31

Italian i. E, in the Greek numeration, signified five. Many dictionaries state, that E was used by the ancients for 250, according to the verse—

E quoque ducentos et quinquaginta tenebit;

but this was only in late and barbarous
times. E, as an abbreviation, stands, in
English, for east On ancient medals, it
stands for the names of cities which begin
with this letter; for exercitus, effigies, edic-
tum, or for &■<>$, the year, frcvdcpia, liberty,
&c. The letter E, on modern French
coins, signifies Hue mint of Tours; on Prus-
sian, the mint of Konigsberg; on Austrian,
that of Karlsburg. (see Abbreviations.)
Eagle; a coin. (See Coins.)
Eagle [falco). This -well known bird
belongs to the genus falco, which has
been much subdivided by modern orni-
thologists. In the present article, those
species only will be noticed which belong
to the subgenera of aquila and hali&tus.
The eagle has been elevated, by the
popular voice, to the rank of the no-
blest and most courageous of the rapa-
cious birds. Its natural fierceness is so
great, that it has seldom been employed
for the purposes of the chase, as it can
never be rendered sufficiently tractable to
obey its keeper. The eagle soars to a
greater height than any other bird, from
which circumstance the ancients consid-
ered it as the messenger of Jove," F\d-
vam aquilam Joins nuntiam." Its sense of
sight is exquisite. It lives for a great
length of time, even in the captive state.
Mr. Pennant mentions one in the posses-
sion of a gentleman, which he had kept for
nine years, and the person from whom
he had received it, thirty-two. The prin-
cipal species are, 1. the falco imperialis
(Bechst), or imperial eagle. This species
is the largest known. It is distinguished
by a large white spot on the scapulars,
transverse nostrils, black tail, marked with
gray on its superior portion. The female
is fawn-colored, with brown spots. It is
stouter than the common eagle. It inhab-
its the high mountains of the middle of
Europe; and to this species may be refer-

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red all the accounts of the ancients respecting the strength, courage and magnanimity of these birds. 2. Fcdco ckrysatos (golden eagle). This fine bird measures, from the point of the bill to the extremity of the toes, upwards of three feet, and, from tip to tip, above six, weighing from 12 to 18 pounds. The male is smaller than the female. The bill is of a deep blue color, the cere yellow, the eyes are large, deep sunk, and covered by a projecting brow; the iris is of a fine bright yellow, and sparkles with uncommon lustre. The general color is a deep brown mixed with tawny on the head and neck; the quills are chocolate, with white shafts; the tail is black, spotted with ash color, the legs are yellow, the toes very scaly, and the claws remarkably large. It occurs in various parts of Europe and of North America; in the latter, however, it is rare.

3. F fulvus (common or ring-tailed eagle) is said to be the young of this bird. The same nests are made use of by eagles for a succession of years. These nests are, in fact, of great bulk, and of such durable materials as to be almost indestructible. They are built in dry and inaccessible situations, of large twigs, lined with several layers of reeds or brambles; of a flat form, several feet in breadth, and of such strength as to support not only the eagle and her young, but likewise the large quantity of food she provides for them. This is so great, that it is related by Smith, in his history of Kerry, that a peasant procured a comfortable subsistence for his family, during a summer of famine, by robbing the eaglets of the food provided for them by the old birds. In the middle of this aerie, the female deposits two or three eggs, and sits on them about thirty days. The plumage of the eaglets is not as dark as it becomes when they arrive at the adult state; but age, famine and captivity gradually diminish their natural colors, and give them a faded appearance.

4. White-tailed eagle {F. albxcula). This bird, which is only found in the old continent, is inferior in size to the golden eagle. It inhabits far north, and is extremely ferocious; feeds principally upon fish, and usually lays two or three eggs, building its nest upon lofty trees. It is distinguished by its black bill and claws, and white tail. 5. The sea-eagle of Europe {F ossifragus) is the young of this species, whilst the bird on which Wilson has bestowed the same denomination in this country, is the young of the bald eagle. 6. Great eagle of Guiana (F fiarpyia). This bird belongs to the sub-genus Itarpyia

of Cuvier, and is furnished with a terrible beak and claws. Its size is larger than that of the common eagle; its plumage is ash-colored on the head and neck, blackish-brown on the breast and sides, whitish beneath, rayed with brown on the thighs. It has long plumes, which form a black tuft on the back of the head, and can be raised, giving it somewhat the physiognomy of an owl. This bird is said to be so powerful as to have destroyed men by a blow of its beak. Its usual food is the sloth, though it sometimes carries off fawns. There can be no doubt but that this species is the yzquautzli of Hernandes, though this author is guilty of great exaggeration when he says it is as large as a sheep. 7. Bald eagle (F. leucocephalus). The bald eagle is the most distinguished of the North American species, not only from his beauty, but also as the adopted emblem of our country. This bird has been known to naturalists for a long time, and is common to both continents, chiefly frequenting the neighborhood of the sea, and the shores and cliffs of lakes and large rivers. He is found during the whole year in the countries he inhabits, preferring the spots we have mentioned from his great partiality for fish. The following poetic description of one of his modes of obtaining his prey is given by Wilson: "Elevated upon a high, dead limb of some gigantic tree, that commands a wide view of the neighboring shore and ocean, he seems calmly to contemplate the motions of the various feathered tribes that pursue their busy avocations below—the snowwhite gulls, slowly winnowing die air; the busy iringcE, coursing along the sands; trains of ducks, streaming over the surface; silent and watchful cranes, intent and wading; clamorous crows, and all the winged multitudes that subsist by the bounty of this vast liquid magazine of nature. High over all these hovers one, whose action instantly arrests all his attention. He knows him to be the fish-hawk, settling over some devoted victim of the deep. His eye kindles at the sight, and, balancing himself with half-opened wings on the branch, he watches the result. Down, rapid as an arrow from heaven, descends the distant object of his attention, the roar of its wings reaching the ear as it disappears in the deep, making the surges foam around. At this moment, the eager looks of the eagle are all ardor, and, levelling his neck for flight, he sees the fishhawk once more emerging, struggling with his prey, and mounting in the air with screams of exultation. These are a signal

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for our hero, who, launching into the air, instantly gives chase; soon gains on the fish-hawk; each exerts his utmost to mount above the other, displaying, in the rencounter, the most elegant and sublime aerial evolutions. The unincumbered eagle rapidly advances, and is just on the point of reaching his opponent, when, with a sudden scream, probably of despair and honest execration, the latter drops his fish; the eagle, poising himself for a moment, as if to take a more certain aim, descends like a whirlwind, snatches it in his grasp, ere it reaches the water, and bears it silently away to the woods." The bald eagle also destroys quadrupeds, as lambs, pigs, &c.; and there are well authenticated instances of its attempting to carry off children. When this bird has fasted for some time, its appetite is extremely voracious and indiscriminate. Even the most putrid carrion, when nothing better can be had, is acceptable. In hard times, when food is very scarce, the eagle will attack the vulture, make it disgorge the food it has swallowed, and seize this disgusting matter before it can reach the ground. The nest of this species is usually found in a lofty tree, in a swamp or morass. It is large, and, being increased and repaired every season, becomes of great size. It is formed of large sticks, sods, hay, moss, &c. Few birds provide more abundantly for their young than the bald eagle. Fish are daily carried to the nest in such numbers, that they sometimes lie scattered round the tree, and the putrid smell of the nest may be distinguished at the distance of several hundred yards. The eagle is said to live to a great age—60,80, or even 100 years.—In poetry and the fine arts, the eagle plays a very important part. As king of birds, the eagle was the bird of Jove, the carrier of the lightning, and thereby expressive of sole or supreme dominion. In this sense, he is used as the emblem and symbol of nations, princes and armies. He was the hieroglyphic sign of the cities Heliopolis, Emesus, Antioch and Tyre. Among the attributes of royalty, which the Tuscans once sent to the Romans, as a token of amity, was a sceptre with an eagle of ivory; and from that time the eagle remained one of the principal emblems of the republic, and was retained also by the emperors. As the standard of an army, the eagle was first used by the Persians. Among the Romans, they were at first of wood, then of silver, with thunderbolts of gold, and, under Csesar and his success

ors, entirely of gold, without thunderbolts. For a long time, they were carried, as the standards of the legions, on a long pike, and reverenced as their peculiar deities. Napoleon chose the Roman eagle as his banner. It was of metal, gilt, and elevated on a long staff; but the royal army in France no longer retains this standard. The double-headed eagle was first found among the emperors of the East, who thereby expressed their claims to the Eastern and Western empires. It was afterwards adopted by the Western emperors. The German emperor Otho IV had it first on his seal. King Philip afterwards made it the impress on his coins. Austria received this emblem from the inheritance of the East, The eagle was also adopted by the kings of Prussia, Poland, Sicily, Spain, Sardinia, by the emperors of Russia, by many princes, counts and barons of the German empire, and by the U. States of America, Napoleon's eagle was seated, with his wings folded, like that of the Romans. The eagle of the U. States stands with outspread wings, guarding the shield below him, on which are the stripes and stars representing the states of the Union, and the motto E pluribus unum.—The eagle is also the badge of several orders, as The black eagle and die red eagle of Prussia, the white eagle of Poland, &c.

Eaheinomauwe; a large island in the South Pacific ocean, and the most northern of the two constituting New Zealand, extending from lat. 34° 3W to 41° 3CK S. Its form is irregular. From lat. 37° 3CK to 39° 40/ S., the breadth is from 150 to 180 miles; afterwards it decreases gradually to 30 miles, the distance from cape Tierawitte to cape Palliser, its most southern point.

Ear (auris). The ear is the organ of hearing. It is situated at the side of the head, and is divided into external and internal ear. The auricula, or pinna, commonly called the car, constitutes the external part. It is of a greater or less size, according to the individual. The pinna is formed of a fibrous cartilage, elastic and pliant: the skin which covers it is thin and dry. There are also seen, upon the different projections of the cartilaginous ear, certain muscular fibres, to which the name of muscles has been given. The pinna, receiving many vessels and nerves, is very sensible, and easily becomes red. It is fixed to the head by the cellular tissue, and by muscles, which are called, according to their position, anterior, superior and posterior. These muscles are 364


much developed in many animals: in man, they may be considered as simple vestiges. The meatus auditorius, or auditory passage, extends from the concha to the membrane of the tympanum; its length, variable according to age, is from 10 to 12 lines in the adult; it is narrower in the middle than at the ends; it presents a slight curve above and in front. Its external orifice is commonly covered with hairs, like the entrance to the other cavities. The middle ear comprehends the cavity of the tympanum, the little bones which are contained in this cavity, the mastoid cells, the Eustachian tube, &c. The tympanum is a cavity which separates the external from the internal ear. Its form is that of a portion of a cylinder, but a httle irregular. The external side presents the membrana tympani. This membrane is directed obliquely downward and inward: it is bent, very slender and transparent, covered on the outside by a continuation of the skin ; on the inside, by the narrow membrane which covers the tympanum. Its tissue is dry, brittle, and has nothing analogous in the animal economy; there are neither fibres, vessels nor nerves found in it. The cavity of the tympanum, and all the canals which end there, are covered with a veiy slender mucous membrane: this cavity, which is always full of air, contains, besides, four small bones (the malleus, incus, os orbiculare, and stapes), which form a chain from the membrana tympani to the fenestra ovaMs, where the base of the stapes is fixed. There are some little muscles for the purpose of moving this osseous chain, of stretching and slackening the membranes to which it is attached: thus the internal muscle of the malleus draws it forward, bends the chain in this direction, and stretches the membranes; the anterior muscle produces the contrary effect: it is also supposed that the small muscle which is placed in the pyramid, and which is attached to the neck of the stapes, may give a slight tension to the chain, in drawing it towards itself. The internal ear, or labyrinth, is composed of the cochlea, of the semicircular canals, and of the vestibule. The cocMea is a bonycavity, in form of a spiral, from which it has taken its name. This cavity is divided into two others, which are distinguished into external and internal. The partition which separates them is a plate set edgeways, and which, in its whole length, is partly bony and partly membranous. The semicircular canals are three cylindrical cavities, bent in a semi

circular form, two of which are disposed horizontally, and the others vertically. These canals terminate by their extremities in the vestibule. They contain bodies of a gray color, the extremities of which are terminated by swellings. The vestibule is the central cavity, the point of union of all the others. It communicates with the tympanum, the cochlea, the semicircular canals, and the internal meatus auditorius, by a great number of little openings. The cavities of the internal ear are entirely hollowed out of the hardest part of the temporal bone: they are covered with an extremely thin membrane, and are full of a very thin and limpid fluid: they contain, besides,, the acoustic nerve. The internal ear and middle ear are traversed by several nervous threads, the presence of which is, perhaps, useful to hearing.

Ear-trumpets -7 instruments used by persons partially deaf, to strengthen the sensation of sound. They are of various forms, and are intended to compensate for the want of the external ear, or to augment its power when the internal organs perform their functions but imperfectly. The purpose of the external ear, both in men and beasts, is to collect, by its funnel form, all the rays of sound (if we may be allowed the expression), and conduct them to the internal organs, the seat of the sense of hearing. All the artificial instruments, then, ought to resemble, in form,, the natural ear. In ancient times, they were made like a trumpet, of moderate size, and usually provided with handles, by which they might be held up to the ear. They were so fitted that the smaller aperture entered the ear, and the wider was directed to the quarter from which the sound was to proceed. But these instruments were soon found inconvenient, both on account of their size and the necessity of continually holding them to the ear. Another objection was, that they did not sufficiently conceal the defect they were designed to remedy, and therefore they were soon thrown aside. New instruments were made without these defects. One resembles a small silver funnel, with a long winding channel in its interior, which terminates at the beginnings of the auditoiy passage. On the broad, bent rim there are holes, with ribbons passing through them, to fix the machine to the external ear. A second form consists of a lackered tin tube, with numerous, windings, having the narrow end communicating with the auditoiy passage, and the exterior, wider end made fast to the 365


external ear. In the same way, two of these instruments might be connected by an elastic hoop, and fitted, at the same time, to both ears. A tliird instrument consists of a sort of hollow tin case, curving so as to fit the head, having a broad aperture in the middle of the front surface, and terminated by two tubes bent inwards. This hoop is so fixed under the hair, that the aperture in the middle is exactly over the upper part of the forehead, and the lateral tubes communicate with the right and left auditory passages. The great advantage of this last instrument is, that it receives directly sounds which come from before.

Earl; a degree of the English nobility, between marquis and viscount. (For the origin of the title and the dignity, see Alderman.) In Latin, the earls are called comites, corresponding to the count or Graf of the European continent. (See Count.) It is now become a mere title, the official authority which the earls formerly possessed in the counties having devolved entirely on the sheriffs (in Latin, vice-comites). In official instruments, they are called, by the king, trusty and well beloved cousins—an appellation as ancient as the reign of Henry IV, who, being, either by his wife, mother or sisters, actually related or allied to every earl in the kingdom, artfully acknowledged this connexion in all his letters and other public acts. An earl's coronet is composed of eight pearls, raised upon points, with small leaves between, above the rim. There are, at present, 105 earls in England, 5 in Scotland, and 19 in Ireland. As the earls, for some time after the Norman conquest, were called countSj their wives are still called countesses.

Earl Marshal Of England; a great officer, who had, anciently, several courts under his jurisdiction, as the court of chivalry and the court of honor. Under him is also the herald's office, or college of arms. He has some preeminence in the court of Marshalsea, where he may sit in judgment against those who offend within the verge of the king's court

Earlort, Richard, a mezzotinto engraver, was born in London, and was the son of the vestry-clerk of the parish of St. Sepulchre. His taste for design is said to have been excited by the inspection of the ornaments on the state-coach of the lordmayor, which had been painted by Cipriani. About 1765, he was employed by alderman Boy dell to make drawings from the celebrated collection of pictures at Houghton, most of which he afterwards admirably engraved in mezzotinto. In

this branch of art he had been his own instructer, and he introduced into the practice of it improvements and instruments not previously used. The fruit and flower-pieces executed by Earlom, after Van Huysum, established his fame. In history, he distinguished himself by his engraving of Agrippina, from the grand picture by West He also engraved some Oriental scenes, from paintings by Zoffani, and published two volumes of plates from the IAber Veritatis or sketch book of Claude. He died Oct 9,1822, aged 79.

Earnest; a part of the price paid in advance, to bind parties to the performance of a verbal agreement The party is then obliged to abide by his bargain, and is not discharged upon forfeiting his earnest, but may be sued for the whole money stipulated, and damages. No contract for the sale of goods not to be delivered immediately, to the value of £10 or more, is valid, unless a written contract is made by the parties, or those lawfully authorized by them, or earnest is given.

Earth; the name of the planet which we inhabit We may view it in regard to its physical, mathematical and political condition. (See Geography.) First, as to the form of the earth: to an observer whose view is not obstructed, it presents itself as a circular plain, on the circumference of which the heavens appear to rest. Accordingly, in remote antiquity, the earth was regarded as a flat, circular body, floating on the water. Rut the great distances which men were able to travel soon refuted this limited idea as an optical illusion; and, even in antiquity, the spherical form of the earth began to be suspected. On this supposition alone can all the phenomena relating to it be explained. A sphere of so great a magnitude as our earth, surrounded by a stratum of air, or the visible firmament, must present to the eye of an observer, on a plain, the appearance just described. But how could the earth appear, from every possible position, as a surface bounded by the firmament, if it were not a sphere encircled by it? How else could the horizon grow wider and wider, the higher the position we choose? How else can the fact be explained, that we see the tops of towers and of mountains, at a distance, before the bases become visible? But besides these proofs of the sphericity of the earth, there are many others, such as its circular shadow on the moon during an eclipse, the gradual appearance and disappearance of the sun, the inequality of day and night, the changes in the posi

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