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satisfactory comparisons of the animals from the two continents have yet been made, and hence the distinguishing characters, if any exist, are still unknown.— The Moose, or Original of the Canadians, is, perhaps, the only deer whose general appearance can be called ungraceful, or whose proportions, at first sight, impress the beholder unfavorably. Its large head terminates in a square muzzle, having the nostrils protruded over the sides of the mouth; the neck, which is furnished with a short, thick mane, is not longer than the head, which, in the males, is rendered still more cumbrous and unwieldy by large palmated horns; under the throat is an excrescence, from which issues a tuft of long hair; the body, which is short and thick, is mounted on tall legs, giving a very ungainly aspect to the animal, which is not diminished when it is in motion, as its gait is a soil of shambling trot, very efficient, however, from the great length of its limbs. The moose inhabits the northern parts of both continents. In America, it has been found as far north as the country has been explored; its southern range, at former periods, extended to the shores of the great lakes, and throughout the New England States. Du Pratz mentions that, in his time, they occurred on the Ohio. At present, however, they are seldom heard of to the south of the state of Maine, where, also, they are becoming scarce. But in Nova Scotia, around the bay of Fundy, and in the Hudson's bay company's possessions, they are found in considerable numbers. Their flesh is more relished by the Indians, and persons resident in the fur countries, than that of any other animal. It bears a greater resemblance, in its flavor, to beef than to venison. The large and gristly extremity of the nose is accounted an epicurean treat. Hearne states that the external fat is soft, like that of a breast of mutton, and, when put into a bladder, is as fine as marrow. In this it differs from all the other species of deer, of which the external fat is hard. The moose attains a large size, particularly the male, which sometimes weighs eleven or twelve hundred pounds. Their skins, when properly dressed, make a soft, thick, pliable leather, which the Indians prepare by scraping them to an equal thickness, and removing the hair: they are then smeared with the brains of the anipial, until they feel soft and spongy; and, lastly, they are suspended over a fire made of rotten wood, until they are well impregnated with the smoke.— Reindeer. These animals inhabit the

arctic islands 'of Spitzbergen, and the northern extremity of the old continent, never having extended, according to Cuvier, to the southward of the Baltic. They have long been domesticated, and their appearance and habits are well described by naturalists. The American reindeer or caribou, are much less perfectly known: they have, however, so strong a resemblance, in form and manners, to the Lapland deer, that they have always been considered to be the same species, without the fact having ever been completely established. The American Indians have never profited by the docility of this animal, to aid them in transporting their families and property, though they annually destroy great numbers for their flesh and hides. There appear to be several varieties of this useful quadruped peculiar to the high northern regions of the American continent, which are ably described by doctor Richardson, one of the companions of captain Franklin in his hazardous attempt to reach the north pole by land. The closeness of the hair of the caribou, and the lightness of its skin when properly dressed, render it the most appropriate article for whiter clothing in the high latitudes. The hoofs of the reindeer are veiy large, and spread greatly, and thus enable it to cross the yielding snows without sinking. During the summer months, this deer feeds upon every species of green herbage; but in winter, his whole food is the lichen or moss, which he instinctively seeks under the snow. It is a singular, but now a well established fact, that the reindeer will eat, with avidity, the lemming or mountain-rat, presenting one of the few instances of a ruminating animal being, in any degree, carnivorous. Reindeer have several times been transported to England and Scotland in large numbers, but they have invariably died, although they were attended by Laplanders, and could procure plenty of their natural food. Whether the failure arose, however, from a want of proper attention to the peculiar habits of the animal, or was the natural result of the tenacity with which the deer tribe adhere to their original geographical position as a law of nature, is a question not easy to be decided.—American Elk. This stately and beautiful animal was, until very recently, confounded with the moose, from its common English name being the same as that applied to the European moose. The size and appearance of the elk arc very imposing; his air denotes confidence ol great, strength, whilst his towering horns 157


exhibit weapons capable of doing much injury. The elk, at one period, ranged over the greater part of this continent, and is still occasionally found in the remote and thinly' settled parts of Pennsylvania; but the number is small. Doctor Richardson states that its northern range is about the 56th or 57th parallel of latitude. The elk has been sometimes domesticated to a certain degree; but, at the same time, from its warlike disposition, it is not likely that it could be advantageously substituted for the reindeer.—Common Deer. This well known quadruped is found throughout the country between Canada and the banks of the Orinoco. In various parts of this extensive range, it presents considerable varieties in size and color. Judging by the quantity of skins brought to our markets, we may form some idea of the aggregate number and productiveness of these animals, which, notwithstanding the extensive destruction of them, do not appear to be very rapidly diminishing, except in the immediate vicinities of very thickly peopled districts. The common deer is possessed of keen senses, especially of hearing and smelling: the sight, though good, does not appear to equal in power the senses just named. It is necessary for a hunter to approach a deer against the wind, otherwise he is discovered by the scent. The slightest noise, also, appears to excite its fears more than any other cause ; while, on the contrary, the sight of unaccustomed objects seems rather to arouse curiosity than produce terror. The female commonly has one or two, and sometimes three, fawns at a birth, which are of a light cinnamon color, spotted with white. In the latter part of the summer, they lose the white spots, and in whiter the hair grows longer and grayish: this is succeeded, in the following June, by a coat of a reddish color, which changes, in August, to a darkish blue, which again gradually assumes a gray tint The skin is toughest in the red, thickest in the blue, and thinnest in the gray state. They shed their horns in February.—Black-tailed Deer. This species is peculiar to the country west of the Missouri, and in the neighborhood of the Rocky mountains. The first information of this tine animal was given by Lewis and Clarke, and it was afterwards fully described by Mr. Say. Its cars are. of great length, equalling that of the head; its tail is terminated by a black tuft, whence its common name. From the form of its hoots, which resemble those of the goat, it is enabled to live Vol. iv. 14

among the rocky cliffs of the mountains. It does not run like the common deer, but bounds along, raising ail its feet from the ground at the same time.—Long-tailed Deer. We owe the description of this animal to Mr. Douglass, who states that it is not found on the east side of the Rocky mountains, except in their immediate vicinity, but is the most common deer in the districts about the Columbia river. Its gait is two ambling steps and a bound exceeding twice the length of the steps. In running, the tail is erect, wagging from side to side, and, from its unusual length (13 to 17 inches), is the most remarkable characteristic about the animal. It goes in herds, from November to April and May, when the female secretes herself to bring forth. The young are spotted with white until the middle of the first winter, when they change to the same color as the most aged. Tins deer, however, approaches very near to the common species in all its characters, and may, eventually, prove to be only a variety.—Mexican Deer. Of this species very little is known, except that it inhabits Mexico and the adjoining countries. It may possibly be only a variety of the common deer, as the differences exist principally in the disposition of the antlers, which is an extremely fallacious guide in the discrimination of the different species of doer. The airajjgement of the teeth of the deer is, incisors -°, canine A A or x x molars § £ = totu£32 or 34.'''

1)e Facto (Latin: in fact); u term used in contradistinction to de jure (by right ). Thus, for instance, it is said don Miguel is de facto ruler of Portugal. In some cases, the distinction is clear enough, but very often not. Napoleon's government was called, by the English, dc facto, and that of the .Bourbons dc jure; yet every body knows that Hugh Capet obtained possession of the crown of France by violence. When did his successors begin to rule d*: jure? Charles XIV is called, by many, the ruler of Sweden dc facto, yet he was chosen king by the nation: and who can be more properly a ruler de jure than a king chosen by the nation? This consideration iias led some politicians to assert that there is no government de jure, but only governments de facto, which may be better or worse. On the other hand,"it is asserted that there is but one kind of government dc jure; that is, such as receives its sanction and authority from the people who constitute the state.*

Defamation. (See Slander.)

Defender Of The Faith (Fidt't Defn158


sor); a title belonging to the king of England, as Catholicns to the king of Spain, Christianissimus to the king of France, Apostolicus to the king of Hungary, &c. Leo X bestowed the title of Defender of the Faith on Henry VIII on account of his memorable book against Luther; and the bull conferring it bears date quinto idus Octob. 1521. Clement VII confirmed the title. Chamberlayne says that the title was only renewed by Leo X; as •ipostolicus, for instance, was renewed in The case of Maria Theresa, being, in fact, a very old title. (See Apostolicus.)

Deffand, Marie du; a French lady, distinguished alike for her talents and her intercourse with the literati of the last century. She was born in 1696, of a noble family, and received an education suitable to her rank. Her acquirements were very considerable, but no care seems to have been taken to regulate her temper and disposition, which were marked by a degree of selfishness which was conspicuous throughout her life. In 1718, she was married to J. B. J. du Deffand, marquis de la Lande, colonel of a regiment of dragoons. During the latter part of her long life, she became the centre of a literary coterie, which included some of the greatest geniuses of the age. Among die females remarkable for their wit and talents in the 18th century, madame du Deffand claims a distinguished place, though she left no monument of her abilities except her epistolary correspondence, which has been highly praised by her friend D'Alembert, as affording a model of style in that species of composition. She died in 1780, having reached the age of 84, during the last 30 years of which she had been afflicted with blindness. In 1810 was published Correspondance inedite de Madame du Deffand avec d\dlembai, Montesquieu, le President Henault> la Duchcsse du Maine; Mesdames de Choiseul., de Stael; le Marquis d\/lrgens, h Chevalier d^Aydie, &c, 3 vols. 8vo. Her letters to the celebrated Horace Walpole have likewise been printed.

Defile; a narrow way, admitting only a few persons abreast. The term is often erroneously confined to mountain passes. As they delay the march of troops, and expose them to the fire of the enemy, they must be avoided if possible, particularly by artillery and wagons. A defile is defended in different ways. When it is formed by heights (particularly if they are covered with wood), it is advisable to occupy the • ntranee, and station the troops en masse behind: when this is not the case, the best

way will be to render the passage as impracticable as possible, and to make a stand behind the outlet of the defile, so that the enemies advancing from it may be checked by an effectual fire, and prevented from developing themselves. A position before the defile, for the purpose of defending it, is only to be thought of when the passage of another division is to -be covered. This method may be more or less varied in the defence of bridges. In passing a defile in sight of the enemy, after the usual precautions of patrols, &c., the van-guard must first march rapidly through, and take a position before the outlet, so as to cover the developement of the succeeding masses, the preventing of which will be the object of the enemy. To defile is, therefore, to pass through a narrow passage. To march before any one with a narrow front, that is, en col-onne or by files, is also called defiling.

Definition (from the Latin defmitio) of a thing signifies, in lexicography, a concise account of its essential and characteristic points. A definition should embrace all the essential properties of die object intended to be defined, and not admit any which do not belong to it, which is often extremely difficult, on account of the shades and gradations by which different things are blended. A strictly accurate definition can be given of only a few objects. The most simple things are the least capable of definition, from the difficulty of finding terms more simple and intelligible than the one to be defined. Of course, every large dictionary abounds with definitions which explain nothing, since the thing defined cannot be made clearer by any definition. A good definition must give the mark of the genus (nota generalis seu genus) and of the species (noia speeialis seu differentia specif ca); for instance, a barn is a building (nota generalis) for the purpose of preserving corn, &c. (nota s-pecicdis). A definition may be analytic or synthetic.

Deflagration, and Deflagrator. (See Galvanism.)

Deflection Of The Rays Of Light is a property which doctor Hooke observed in 1674—5. He says he found it different from both reflection and refraction, and that it took place towards the surface of the opacous body perpendicularly. This is the same property which Newton calls inf ection. It is called, by others, diffraction,

Defoe, Daniel, a writer of great ingenuity and fertility, was born at London in 1663. His father's name was simply Foe. He received his education at an academy at Newington Green, and he is not supposed to have attained to much classical acquirement. He commenced author at the age of 21, by a Treatise against the Turks, joined the insurrection of the duke of Monmouth, and had the good fortune to escape to London, where he engaged, first as a horse-factor, and then as a maker of bricks at Tilbury fort. His commercial speculations, however, failing, he became insolvent; and it is to his credit, that, having cleared his debts by a composition, he subsequently paid most of them in full, when his circumstances were amended. In 1697, he wrote an Essay on Projects. In 1701, appeared his satire, the Trueborn Englishman, the object of which was to show the folly of the popular objection to king William, as a foreigner, by a people who were themselves a mixture of so many races. In 1702, when the high church party seemed disposed to carry matters strongly against the Dissenters, he published the Shortest Way with the Dissenters, being an ironical recommendation of persecution, so gravely covered that many persons were deceived by it. It was, however, voted a seditious libel by the house of commons; and, the author avowing himself, to secure his printer and publisher, he was prosecuted to conviction, and sentenced to fine, imprisonment, and the pillory. He underwent the latter punishment with great equanimity, and was so far from being ashamed of it, that he wrote a Hymn to the Pillory, alluding to this circumstance. In February, 1703, while in Newgate, lie commenced the Review, which is supposed to have given Steele the hint for his Tatler. He was at length liberated from Newgate by the interposition of Harley, and the queen herself sent money to his wife and family. In 1706, he published his largest poem, entided Jure Divino, a satire on the doctrine of divine right. When the accession of the house of Hanover became an interesting topic, he wrote in its favor; but so obtuse was the public to Ins irony, that he was imprisoned for his productions as libels in favor of the. pretender. The accession of George I produced him no further patronage, and he began another line of composition. In 1715, he published the Family Instructor, a work inculcating moral and religious duties in a lively maimer, by narration and dialogue. To this work his well-known Religious Courtship, published in 1722, formed a third volume. In 1719, appeared the most popular of all his


performances—the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, the favorable reception of wiiich was immediate and universal. It is unnecessary to dwell upon a work which every body haread, and which has been translated into all the languages of Europe; but it may W proper to mention, that the imputation of his founding it upon the papers of Alexander Selkirk, the Scottish mariner, lefr on the island of Juan Fernandez, appears to be altogether untrue. The success of Defoe in this performance induced him t^ write a number of other lives and adventures in character; as Moll Flanders, Captain Singleton, Roxalana, Duncan Campbell, and the Adventures of a Cavalier. In 1722, he published a Journal of th Plague in 1665, in the person of a citizen supposed to have been a witness of ir. The natural manner in which it is written deceived the celebrated doctor Mead, who thought it genuine. In 1724, he published the Great Law of Subordination, and, in 1726, his Political History- of the Devii, to which he afterwards added, in the same style of reasoning, wit and ridicule, a System of Magic. He is als<> author of a Tour through the Island of Great Britain, the Complete English Tradesman, a Plan of English Commerce, and various other productions. He died in April, 1731. A work ha^ been lately published, called Memoirs of the Life and Times of Daniel Defoe, by Walter Wilson, three volumes, London, 1830.

Defterpar, in the Turkish empire: the minister of the finances, and hightreasurer of the empire. He is different from the kasnadar-baseki, the treasurer of the sultan's private purse.

Degerando. (See Gerando.)

Degradation. The ecclesiastical censure, by which a clergyman is divested of Ins holy orders, is termed degradation. The ceremony consists chiefly in stripping off his clerical vestments. Geliot, in hi* Indice armoricl, describes the degradation of Franget, a Gascon captain, for surrendering Fontarabia under Francis I. The accusation of treason was pronounced before 20 or 30 cavaliers. The culprit wa> armed at all points, and his shield, reversed, was suspended on a stake before him. By his side, twelve priests chanted the vigils of the dead. At the pause after each psalm, the officers stripped the knight of a piece of his armor, till he was quite bare. His shield was then broken into three pieces, and the king at arms poured a basin of hot water on his head. The criminal 160


was afterwards let down from the scaffold, by ropes under bis arms, and, being placed on a bier, covered with grave-clothes, and preceded by a priest chanting a mass for the dead, was delivered to the civil judge and the executioner. His life, however, eventually was spared, since life, under such circumstances, was considered more bitter than death.

Degree, in algebra, a term applied to equations, to distinguish the highest power of the unknown quantity. Thus, if the index of that powrer be 3 or 4, the equation is respectively of the 3d or 4th degree.

Degree, in geometry or trigonometry, is the 360th part of the circumference of any circle; every circle being considered as divided into 360 parts, called degrees, which are marked by a small ° near the top of the figure; thus, 45° is 45 degrees. The degree is subdivided into 60 smaller parts, called minutes; the minute into 60 others, called seconds; the second into 60 thirds, Sec. Thus 45° 12' 20" is 45 degrees, 12 minutes, 20 seconds. The magnitude or quantity of angles is estimated in degrees; for, because of the uniform curvature of a circle in all its parts, equal angles at the centre are subtended by equal

arcs, and by similar arcs in peripherics of different diameters; and an angle is said to be of so many degrees as are contained in the arc of any circle comprehended between the legs of the angle, and having the angular point for its centre. Thus we say " an angle of 90°," or "of 45° 247' It is also usual to say, "such a star is elevated so many degrees above the horizon," or "declines so many degrees from the equator;" or "such a town is situated in so many degrees of latitude or longitude." A sign of the ecliptic or zodiac contains 30 degrees.

Degree of Latitude is the space or distance, on the meridian, through which an observer must move to vary his latitude by one degree, or to increase or diminish the distance of a star from the zenith by one degree; and which, on the supposition of the perfect sphericity of the earth, is the 360th part of the meridian. The length of a degree of a meridian, or other great circle, on the surface of the earth, is variously determined by different, observers, and the methods made use of are also various; and, therefore, without, entering into the history of all attempts of this kind, we shall present our readers with die following

Table of the different Lengths of a Degree, as measured in various Paris of the Earthy the Time of its Measurement, Die Latitude of its middle Point, fyc.

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