« 上一頁繼續 »
the branch of antiquities with which they are connected.
Dactyliomanct (from tWOAiOi, a ring, and fiavrda, divination); the pretended art of divining by means of rings.
Dactylology, or Dactylonomy (from 6dKTvXos, the finger), is the ait of numbering with the fingers; or, in a wider sense, of expressing one's thoughts in general with the fingers. It is usually taught in institutions for the education of the deaf and dumb.
Daduchus (Latin; &ao$xo$, Greek) ; literally a torch-bearer, but applied as an epithet to many of the ancient divinities, who were always represented as bearing a torch or flambeau. Daduchi were also those persons, who, in certain ceremonies and religious processions, earned the flambeaus or sacred torches. The Daduchic deities are Ceres, when represented as searching for her lost daughter Proserpine; Diana, Luna, Hecate and Sol, when in then* cars, employed in the business of lighting the earth; Venus, Cupid and Hymen, when bearing the torch of love; Rhea or Cybele, and Vesta, in the temples -where the vestals guarded the sacred fire of those goddesses; Vulcan, in whose honor, conjointly with Prometheus and Pallas as Daduchi, the Athenians instituted a festival, which they called Lampadephoria, Aafiza^vpopia (see Lampadephoiia); Bcllona, the Furies, Aurora, Hymen, Peace (on a medal of Vespasian); Com us (in an ancient painting described by Philostratus); Night, Sleep, and Death', or Thanatus,
Djedalus (AaibaXoi). The name of D&dali is given to full-length figures or images, with the feet in an advancing posture. But whence this appellation is derived, is a contested point. Winckelmann, following Palaephatus and Diodorus, says, "Daedalus began to separate the lower part of the Hermes into legs; and the first statues are said to have received from him the name of D^dalV The common opinion is, that Dcedalus first separated the legs of tbe statues in an advancing posture, which explains the saying that his statues moved, since all previous sculptors formed their statues with the arms hanging down, not divided from the body, and the leg's not separated, like the mummy-shaped figures of the Egyptians. According to Pausanias, Daedalus received his name from the statues (the name of which is said to have been derived from (foidaWuv, to work with skill). Bottiger (in his Lectures on Archaeology, Dresden, 1800) supposes that
Dadalus is not a proper name, but the common appellation of all the first architects, metallurgists and sculptors in Grecian antiquity; also, in general, an artist, as d&dalic signifies artificial, skilful. In early periods, every art is confined to the family and friends of the inventor, and the disciples are called sons. Thus the ancients speak of the Daedalian family of artists, including Talos, Perdix, Diopoenos, Scyllis and others. According to the common opinion, Daedalus lived three generations before the Trojan war, was distinguished for his talents in architecture, sculpture and engraving, and the inventor of many instruments; for instance, the axe, the saw, the plummet, the auger; also of glue, and masts and yards for ships. As a sculptor, he wrought mostly in wood, and was the first who made the eyes of his statues open. This he did in Athens, which he was compelled to leave on account of the murder of his disciple Talos, of whose skill he was jealous. He built the famous labyrinth in Crete; executed for Ariadne a group of male and female dancers, of white stone, and for Pasiphae" the notorious wooden cow. Being imprisoned with his son Icarus, he invented instruments for flying. The wings were composed of linen, or, according to Ovid, of feathers, and fastened with wax, which caused the death of Icarus; whence the Icarian sea is said to have received its name. Dasdalus himself reached Sicily, on the southern coast of which a place was called, after him, Dcedalium. A festival called Dcedala (image-festival) was celebrated in Bceotia, mostly at Platasa. We must not confound this Daedalus with a later sculptor, Da?dalus of Sicyon. Many stories" of different artists have, probably, been blended to form the character of Dsedalus.
Daenpels, Ilennann William, a Dutch general, born in 17(5*2, at Hattem, in Guel(lerland, took an important part in the troubles which began in Holland, in 1787, on the side of the patriots, and, with many of his countrymen of the same party, was compelled to take refuge in France, where he engaged in commercial speculations, in Dunkirk. In 1793, he was appointed colonel in the new legion of volunteers, Franc ctranger, and was of great service to Dumouricz, in his expedition against Holland. He rendered still greater services to Pichegru, in the campaign of 1794, which made the French commander master of all Holland. Daendels now became lieutenant-general in the service of the Batavian republic, and took an important
part in the change of the government. When Louis Bonaparte ascended the throne, he loaded him with honors, and appointed him governor-general of Batavia. After the union of Holland with France, Napoleon recalled him. Daendels arrived in Europe in the summer of 1812. He employed his leisure time in publishing a Compte rendu of his government in Java (4 vols., folio), in which he throws much light on the statistics arid general condition of that country. He was afterwards appointed, by the king of the Netherlands, to organize the restored colonies on the coast of Africa. Here he displayed his usual energy; he promoted peace between the neighboring Negro states, encouraged the establishment of new plantations on the West India plan, and checked the slave-trade, until the time of his death.
Daffodil. (See Narcissus.)
Dagh; a Persian word, signifying mountain—Daghistan, land of mountains.
Dagobert I (called the Great on account of his military successes), king of the Franks, of the Merovingian race, in 628 succeeded his father, Clothaire II, who had reunited the divided members of the French empire. He waged war with success against the Sclavonians, Saxons, Gascons and Bretons; but he stained the splendor of his victories by cruelty, violence and licentiousness. After lie had conquered the Saxons, it is said that he caused all those whose stature exceeded the length of his sword to be put to death. He deserves praise for his improvement of the laws of the Franks. He died at Epinay, 638, at the age of 32 years, and was buried in St. Denis, which he had founded six years before.
D'aguesseau. (See Aguesseau.)
Dahl, John Christian, landscape painter, since 1820 member of the academy of Dresden, born Feb. 24, 1788, at Bergen, in Norway, was first destined for theology; but, having neither the inclination nor the means to pursue that study, he was bound apprentice to a painter in his native town. He soon distinguished himself by his sea-views, and enjoys, at present, the reputation of one of the first, if not the first, of living painters in this department. Some of his paintings are truly grand. He lives at present in Dresden.
Dahlia; the name of a genus of plants belonging to the natural order composite or compound flowers. The D.pinnata, within a few years, has become common in the gardens of the Northern and Middle States, where it is cultivated as an ornament, and
is very conspicuous in the latter part of the season. The root is perennial, composed of fascicles of tubers, which are oblong and tapering at each end, and about 6 inches in length. The stem is straight, branching, thick, and reaches the height of 7 feet and upwards. The leaves are opposite, connate, and simply or doubly pinnated. The flowers are solitary, at the extremity of long, simple branches, deep purple, with a yellow centre: by cultivation, however, they have been doubled, and made to assume a variety of colors. The roots are a wholesome article of food, much eaten by the Mexicans, though the taste is not very agreeable. It is reproduced from the seed, or by the division of the roots, which is the most approved mode. It requires frequent watering. In autumn, the roots should be taken out of the ground, covered with dry sand, and kept out of the reach of frost during the winter. All the species are natives of Mexico.
Dahomey; a kingdom in the interior of Western Africa, behind the Slave Coast. The country is very little known to Europeans. The parts which have been visited are very beautiful and fertile, and rise, for about 150 miles, with a gradual slope, but without any great elevation. The soil is a deep, rich clay, yielding maize, miller and Guinea corn in abundance. The inhabitants are warlike and ferocious. The government is an absolute despotism. The ferocity which prevails among this nation almost surpasses belief. Human skulls form the favorite ornament in the construction of the palaces and temples. The king's sleeping-chamber has the floor paved with the skulls, and the roof ornamented with the jaw-bones, of chiefs whom he has overcome in battle.
Da Ire, or Dairo. (See Japan.)
Dairy (from (ley, an old English word for milk)', a building appropriated to the purpose of preserving and managing milk, skimming cream, making butter, cheese, &c, with sometimes the addition of pleasure rooms for partaking the luxuries of the daily, as syllabubs, cream with fruit, iced creams, &c.
Daisy; the name of a plant which is very familiar, and a great favorite in Europe (bcllis perennis, L.). It is one of the earliest in spring, and its elegant flowers, appearing at intervals in the green sward, have been compared to pearls. During cloudy weather, and at night, they close. It continues flowering during the whole season, and is not used for food by any animal. It belongs to the natural order
composite. The leaves are all radical, spathulate, obtuse, more or less dentate, slightly hairy, and spread upon the ground. Its naked stem is a few inches high, and terminated by a white flower, having a tinge of red, and a yellow centre. In the U. States, it is only seen cultivated in gardens. One species of btllis [B. irdegrifolia, Mx.) inhabits the U. States, but is a rare plant, and only found in the Southwestern States, in Tennessee and Arkansas.
Dal; a Swedish word, signifying, like the German Thal, valley, as in Dahcarlia.
Dalai Lama. (See Lama.)
Dalberg, family of the barons of; also Dalbu Rg. i Is there no Dalberg present?' the imperial herald was formerly obliged to demand, at every coronation of the German emperors; and the Dalberg present bent his knee before the new sovereign, and received the accolade as the first knight of the empire. So illustrious were the ancestors of the present Dalbergs, the ancient chamberlains of Worms! The family obtained the rank of barons of the empire in the 17th century. Many Dalbergs have distinguished themselves as patrons of German literature.
Dalberg, Charles Theodore Anthony Maria, of the noble family of Dalberg, barons of the German empire, was chamberlain of Worms, elector of Mentz, archchancellor, and subsequently prince-primate of the confederation of the Rhine, and grand-duke of Frankfort; finally archbishop of Ratisbon and bishop of Worms and Constance; bom Feb. 8, 1744, at Hernsheim, near Worms. In 1772, he became privy-counsellor and governor at Erfurt. During many years' residence in that place, he was distinguished for industry, regularity and punctuality in the discharge of his duties. An incorruptible love of justice, and inflexible firmness in maintaining what he considered just and politic, animated him. He encouraged science and the arts by his patronage of learned men and artists, and wrote several learned treatises and ingenious works. In 1802, after the death of the elector of Mentz, he was made elector and archchancellor of the German empire. By the new political changes in Germany in 1803, he came into possession of Ratisbon, Aschalfenburg and Wetzlar. In 18C(>, he was made prince-primate of the confederation of the Rhine. At Ratisbon, he erected the first monument to the famous Kepler. In 1810, he resigned the principality of Ratisbon to Bavaria, and obtained, as compensation, a considerable part
of the principalities of Fulda and Hanau, and was made grand-duke. In 1813, he voluntarily resigned all his possessions as a sovereign prince, and returned to private life, retaining only his ecclesiastical dignity of archbishop. He retired to Ratisbon. He was a member of the French national institute. His works are mostly philosophical. Among them are the Reflections on the Universe (5th edition, 1805), the Principles of ^Esthetics (Erlangen, 1791), and Pericles, or the Influence of the Liberal Arts on Public Happiness (Erfurt, 1806). He wrote several of his works in French. He is also the author of several legal treatises. Although he was fond of theoretical speculations, yet he devoted his attention more particularly to practical studies, such as the philosophy of the arts, mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, mineralogy, scientific agriculture, &c. Dalberg died Feb. 10, 1817.
Dalberg, Emmerich Joseph, duke of; peer of France, nephew of the prince-primate, and son of the well-known author Wolfgang Ileribert, baron of Dalberg; bom May 31, 1773, at Mentz. He began his career in public life under the eyes of his uncle, at Erfurt, and was also for a time in the diplomatic service of Bavaria, until he was appointed, in 1803, envoy of die margrave of Baden at Paris. lie formed an intimacy with the prince of Benevcnto (see Talleyrand-Peiigord), who married him, in 1807, to mile, de Brignolles, of a distinguished Genoese family. During the campaign of 1809, he received the portfolio of foreign affairs in Baden, without resigning his office of ambassador in Paris. After the peace, he returned to France, where he became a citizen of France, and was subsequently created duke and counsellor of state. After the marriage of Napoleon with the archduchess Maria Louisa, on which occasion Dalberg is said to have opened the preliminary negotiations with prince Schwarzenberg, he received a donation of 4,000,000 francs on the principality of Baireuth, of which France had the disposal by the treaty of Vienna, and the king of Bavaria paid him almost the whole sum. When the prince of Bencvento fell into disgrace, Dalberg retired with his patron. In April, 1814, Talleyrand, at the head of the provisional government, made the duke one of the five members of that government, who promoted the restoration of the Bourbons. Dalberg was present at the congress of Vienna, as French minister plenipotentiary, and signed, 1815, the declaration
against his former master and benefactor. Napoleon, on this account, included him, after his return, among the twelve whom he banished, and whose estates were confiscated. After the second restoration of the royal government, Dalberg recovered his property, was appointed minister of state and peer, received an embassy to the court of Turin, and lives now in Paris.
Dale, Richard, an American naval commander, was "born in Virginia, Nov. 6, 1756. At 12 years of age, he was sent to sea, and, in 1775, he took the conmiand of a merchant vessel. In 1776, he entered, as a midshipman, on board of the American brig of war Lexington, commanded by captain John Barry. In her he cruised on the British coast the following year, and was taken by a British cutter. After a confinement of more than a year in Mill prison, he effected his escape into France, where he joined, in the character of master's mate, the celebrated Paul Jones, then commanding the American ship Bon Homme Richard. Jones soon raised Dale to the rank of his first lieutenant, in which character he signalized himself in the sanguinary and desperate engagement between the Bon Homme Richard and the English frigate Serapis. He was the first man who reached the deck of the latter when she was boarded and taken. In 1781, he returned to America, and, in June of that year, was appointed to the Trumbull frigate, commanded by captain James Nicholson, and soon afterwards captured. From 1790 to 1794, he served as captain in the East India trade. At the end of this period, the government of the U. States made him a captain in the navy. In 1801, he took the command of the American squadron of observation, which sailed, in June of that year, from Hampton roads to the Mediterranean. His broad pendant was hoisted on board the frigate President. Efficient protection was given by Dale to the American trade and other interests in the Mediterranean. In April, 1802, he reached Hampton roads again. He passed the remainder of his life in Philadelphia, in the enjoyment of a competent estate, and of the esteem of all Lis fellow-citizens. He died Feb. 24, 1826. Captain Dale was a thorough, brave and intelligent seaman. He was several times severely wounded in battle. The adventures of his early years were of the most romantic and perilous cast. No man could lay claim to a more honorable and honest character.
Dajlecarlia; a province of Sweden, (See Sweden.)
Dalin, Olof or Olaus of; the father of modern Swedish literature, in the 18th century. He exerted much influence by his periodical paper, The Swedish" Argus (1733—34), and still more by his spirited poems, particularly Satires (1729), an excellent poem on the liberty of Sweden (1742), many songs, epigrams and fables. The best edition of his poetical works appeared at Stockholm, 1782—83, in 2 vols. He acquired equal reputation by his able history of Sweden (Stockholm 1777, 3 vols. 4to., translated into German by Benzelstierna and Dalmert, Greifswalde, 4 vols., 4to.), on which account he was appointed historiographer of the kingdom (1756). He also participated in the foundation of the academy of belles-lettres by Ulrica Eleonora (1753). He was lwrn in the district of Winberga in Halland (1708), and died chancellor of the court of Sweden, in 1763.
Dallas, Alexander James, was born, June 1, 1759, in the island of Jamaica. When quite young, he was sent to school at Edinburgh, and afterwards at Westminster. His father was an eminent and wealthy physician in the island of Jamaica. In 1781, after the death of his father, he left England for Jamaica. It was found that the whole of Mr. Dallas's property was left at the disposal of his widow, who married again, and no part of it ever came to the rest of the family. The subject of this article left Jamaica in April, 1783, and arrived at New York June 7, and at Philadelphia a week after. June 17, he took the oath of allegiance to the state of Pennsylvania. In July, 1785, he was admitted to practise in the supreme court of Pennsylvania, and, in the course of four or five years, became a practitioner in the courts of the U. States. During this period, his practice not being extensive, he prepared his Reports for the press, and occupied himself in various literary undertakings. He wrote much in the magazines of the day. Of the Columbian Magazine he was at one time editor. His essays will bear a comparison with those of his contemporaries; and this is no small praise, for Franklin, Rush and Hopkinson were of the number. Jan. 19, 1791, he was appointed secretary of Pennsylvania by governor Mifflin. In December, 171)3, his commission was renewed. Not long after, he was appointed paymaster-general of the forces that marched to the west, and he accompanied the expedition to Pittsburg. In Decern105
ber, 1796, the office of secretary was again confided to him. While he held this office, he published an edition of the laws of the commonwealth, with notes. Upon the election of Mr. Jefferson, in 1801, he was appointed attorney of the U. States for the eastern district of Pennsylvania, and he continued in this office until his removal to Washington. October 6, he was appointed secretary of the treasury of the U. States. The circumstances under which he entered this difficult situation, the boldness with which he assumed its responsibilities, his energy of character, and the general confidence and approbation with which his career was accompanied, belong to the history of the times. March 13, 1815, he undertook the additional trust of secretary of war, and performed with success the delicate task of reducing the army of the U. States. In November, 1816, peace being restored, the finances arranged, the embarrassment of the circulating medium daily diminishing, and soon to disappear under the influence of the national bank, which it had so long been his effort to establish, Mr. Dallas resigned his honorable station, and returned to the practice of the law in Philadelphia. His business was considerable, and his talents as an advocate were employed, not only at home, but from almost every < juarter of the Union. In the midst of his brilliant prospects, exposure to cold, and great professional exertions in a very important cause, brought on an attack of the gout in his stomach, at Trenton, of which he died, Jan. 16, 1817.
Dallas, Robert Charles, born in Jamaica, studied law in the Inner Temple. When he came of age, lie married, and went to Jamaica, where he had received a lucrative appointment, but was obliged to leave the island on account of the ill health of his wife. He went to France, then to America, with a view to settle there, but, Iming disappointed, returned, and devoted himself to literature. His productions, including translations, are numerous. His novels have been collected and published in 7 volumes, 12mo. Lord Byron, as appears from Moore's life of the poet, was in the habit of consulting him, and made him a present of the copyright of Childe Harold and some other of his early works, which afforded him much pecuniary advantage.
Dalmatia; an Austrian kingdom, including four circles—Zara, Spalatro and Macarsca, Ragusa, Catta.ro—lying on the Adriatic sea, bounded by Croatia, Bosnia and Albania, and having several islands
belonging to it. Since 1814, with the exception of the Turkish part, it has been entirely subject to the emperor of Austria, and contains 5800 square miles, 320,000 inhabitants, in 22 towns, 33 boroughs and 914 villages. Dalmatia, formerly an important kingdom, was, aftermany unsuccessful attempts, subjected by the Romans under Augustus. After the decline of the Western Empire, it was first under the dominion of the Goths, then under that of the Eastern emperors. In the first half of the 7th century, it was conquered by the Sclavonians, who erected it into a kingdom, which lasted till 1030, when it was, in part, united with Hungary, under king St. Ladislaus; another part placed itself under the protection of the then powerful republic of Venice, for security against the attacks of the Turks, who, however, afterwards, took a part from the Venetians. By the peace of Campo-Formio (Oct. 17, 1797), the Venetian part of Dalmatia, as well as Venice itself, was made over to Austria; but, by the treaty of Presburg, in 1805, Austria ceded it to the French emperor, who first united it with the kingdom of Italy, and in 1810, with Illyria, although he caused it to be governed by a generalprovveditore.—The causes of the smali population of this fertile but poorly cultivated country, are the excessive use of spirituous liquors, the noxious exhalations of the marshes in various districts, the frequent emigrations, and the habit of private revenge, which extends even to the third and fourth generations. It contains impenetrable forests, and regions covered with marshes. The Dalmatians are a handsome race, bold seamen, and good soldiers if they are well commanded. The former military powTer of Venice rested entirely upon this province. The Dalmatiaus, in general, are accused, and probably not unjustly, of deceitfulness and rapacity: the desire of independence is almost universal. A peculiar feature of their character is, that many of them prefer the heroic death (as they term it) by the spear, to a natural and peaceful death in the midst of their family. They speak a Sclavonic dialect The Morlachians, who dwell in the interior of the country, and among the mountains, and in the Turkish government of Ilerseck, constitute but a part of the nation. They are excellent soldiers, but have a strong inclination for robbery and drinking; yet they are hospitable, benevolent and faithful in their promises. Averse to every kind of restraint, they live in a sort of natural con